• Title, Summary, Keyword: nanomedicine

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Nanomedicine: An Emerging Modality Based on Nanotechnology for Therapy and Diagnosis (진단 및 치료용 나노의약품)

  • Gurusamy, Saravanakumar;Park, Jae Hyung;Kim, Kwangmeyung;Kwon, Ick Chan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 2007
  • Nanomedicine is a young and rapidly emerging field, which integrates clinical medicine with nanotechnology. Although the commercial nanomedicine is still in a fairly embryonic state, the recent advances in the nanotechnology-based therapeutics and diagnosis has changed the landscape of medicine. Bibliometric analysis shows a surge in research activity over the past decade. In this review, we have discussed some of the promising materials and their applications to this nascent field, such as carbon nanomaterials, polymeric drug delivery systems, and diagnostic imaging agents.

Nanotechnology in Cancer Therapy: Overview and Applications

  • Choi, Eun-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2011
  • Nanotechnology for cancer therapy is playing a pivotal role in dramatically improving current approaches to cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy while reducing toxic side effects associated with previous cancer therapy. A widespread understanding of these new technologies will lead to develop the more refined design of optimized nanoparticles with improved selectivity, efficacy and safety in the clinical practice of oncology. This review provides an integrated overview of applications and advances of nanotechnology in cancer therapy, based on molecular diagnostics, treatment, monitoring, target drug delivery, approved nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutic agents, and current clinical trials in the development of nanomedicine and ultimately personalized medicine.

Nanomedicine: Drug Delivery Systems and Nanoparticle Targeting (나노의학: 나노물질을 이용한 약물전달시스템과 나노입자의 표적화)

  • Youn, Hye-Won;Kang, Keon-Wook;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2008
  • Applications of nanotechnology in the medical field have provided the fundamentals of tremendous improvement in precise diagnosis and customized therapy. Recent advances in nanomedicine have led to establish a new concept of theragnosis, which utilizes nanomedicines as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool at the same time. The development of high affinity nanoparticles with large surface area and functional groups multiplies diagnostic and therapeutic capacities. Considering the specific conditions related to the disease of individual patient, customized therapy requires the identification of disease target at the cellular and molecular level for reducing side effects and enhancing therapeutic efficiency. Well-designed nanoparticles can minimize unnecessary exposure of cytotoxic drugs and maximize targeted localization of administrated drugs. This review will focus on major pharmaceutical nanomaterials and nanoparticles as key components of designing and surface engineering for targeted theragnostic drug development.

Phage Assembly Using APTES-Conjugation of Major Coat p8 Protein for Possible Scaffolds

  • Kim, Young Jun;Korkmaz, Nuriye;Nam, Chang Hoon
    • Interdisciplinary Bio Central
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.9.1-9.7
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    • 2012
  • Filamentous phages have been in the limelight as a new type of nanomaterial. In this study, genetically and chemically modified fd phage was used to generate a biomimetic phage self-assembly product. Positively charged fd phage (p8-SSG) was engineered by conjugating 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to hydroxyl groups of two serine amino acid residues introduced at the N-terminus of major coat protein, p8. In particular, formation of a phage network was controlled by changing mixed ratios between wild type fd phage and APTES conjugated fd-SSG phage. Assembled phages showed unique bundle and network like structures. The bacteriophage based self-assembly approach illustrated in this study might contribute to the design of three dimensional microporous structures. In this work, we demonstrated that the positively charged APTES conjugated fd-SSG phages can assemble into microstructures when they are exposed to negatively charged wild-type fd phages through electrostatic interaction. In summary, since we can control the phage self-assembly process in order to obtain bundle or network like structures and since they can be functionalized by means of chemical or genetic modifications, bacteriophages are good candidates for use as bio-compatible scaffolds. Such new type of phage-based artificial 3D architectures can be applied in tuning of cellular structures and functions for tissue engineering studies.

Molecular and Morphological Evidence of Hepatotoxicity after Silver Nanoparticle Exposure: A Systematic Review, In Silico, and Ultrastructure Investigation

  • Sooklert, Kanidta;Wongjarupong, Asarn;Cherdchom, Sarocha;Wongjarupong, Nicha;Jindatip, Depicha;Phungnoi, Yupa;Rojanathanes, Rojrit;Sereemaspun, Amornpun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.257-270
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    • 2019
  • Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in a variety of applications in innovative development; consequently, people are more exposed to this particle. Growing concern about toxicity from AgNP exposure has attracted greater attention, while questions about nanosilver-responsive genes and consequences for human health remain unanswered. By considering early detection and prevention of nanotoxicology at the genetic level, this study aimed to identify 1) changes in gene expression levels that could be potential indicators for AgNP toxicity and 2) morphological phenotypes correlating to toxicity of HepG2 cells. To detect possible nanosilver-responsive genes in xenogenic targeted organs, a comprehensive systematic literature review of changes in gene expression in HepG2 cells after AgNP exposure and in silico method, connection up- and down-regulation expression analysis of microarrays (CU-DREAM), were performed. In addition, cells were extracted and processed for transmission electron microscopy to examine ultrastructural alterations. From the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Series database, we selected genes that were up- and down-regulated in AgNPs, but not up- and down-regulated in silver ion exposed cells, as nanosilver-responsive genes. HepG2 cells in the AgNP-treated group showed distinct ultrastructural alterations. Our results suggested potential representative gene data after AgNPs exposure provide insight into assessment and prediction of toxicity from nanosilver exposure.

Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Study of Docetaxel and Nanoxel, a Docetaxel-Loaded Micellar Formulation Using Cultured and Blood Cells

  • Do, Van Quan;Park, Kwang-Hoon;Park, Jung-Min;Lee, Moo-Yeol
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2019
  • Nanoxel-$PM^{TM}$ (Nanoxel) is a docetaxel-loaded methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PDLLA). This newly developed and marketed nanoformulation exhibits an improved pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety. Although the safety of Nanoxel to docetaxel as well as its bioequivalence must be clinically confirmed, all biological activities have not been examined in in vitro or in vivo studies. Here, the toxicity in a cultured cell system and the effects on blood cells were tested with Nanoxel and docetaxel. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Nanoxel was found to be comparable to or slightly lower than that of docetaxel depending on the concentrations tested or the cell types. Neither docetaxel nor Nanoxel induced erythrocytes hemolysis and produced reactive oxygen species up to $100{\mu}M$. However, Nanoxel was able to enhance the aggregatory response of platelets to collagen, whereas docetaxel attenuated such aggregation in a range of $50-100{\mu}M$, while thrombin-induced aggregation was not affected by either of them. Docetaxel or Nanoxel did not alter basal level of $Ca^{2+}$ and 5-hydroxytryptamine-evoked $Ca^{2+}$ transient in vascular smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that the mPEG-PDLLA micellar formulation alters the toxicological properties of docetaxel, and that extra cautions are needed when evaluating the safety of nanomedicine.

Targeted Nanomedicine that Interacts with Host Biology

  • Ju, Jin-Myeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.81-81
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    • 2017
  • Nanotechnology is of great importance to molecular biology and medicine because life processes are maintained by the action of a series of molecular nanomachines in the cell machinery. Recent advances in nanoscale materials that possess emergent physical properties and molecular organization hold great promise to impact human health in the diagnostic and therapeutic arenas. In order to be effective, nanomaterials need to navigate the host biology and traffic to relevant biological structures, such as diseased or pathogenic cells. Moreover, nanoparticles intended for human administration must be designed to interact with, and ideally leverage, a living host environment. Inspired by nature, we use peptides to transfer biological trafficking properties to synthetic nanoparticles to achieve targeted delivery of payloads. In this talk, development of nanoscale materials will be presented with a particular focus on applications to three outstanding health problems: bacterial infection, cancer detection, and traumatic brain injury. A biodegradable nanoparticle carrying a peptide toxin trafficked to the bacterial surface has antimicrobial activity in a pneumonia model. Trafficking of a tumor-homing nanoprobes sensitively detects cancer via a high-contrast time-gated imaging system. A neuron-targeted nanoparticle carrying siRNA traffics to neuronal populations and silences genes in a model of traumatic brain injury. Unique combinations of material properties that can be achieved with nanomaterials provide new opportunities in translational nanomedicine. This framework for constructing nanomaterials that leverage bio-inspired molecules to traffic diagnostic and therapeutic payloads can contribute on better understanding of living systems to solve problems in human health.

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Surface Mass Imaging Technique for Nano-Surface Analysis

  • Lee, Tae Geol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.113-114
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    • 2013
  • Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging is a powerful technique for producing chemical images of small biomolecules (ex. metabolites, lipids, peptides) "as received" because of its high molecular specificity, high surface sensitivity, and submicron spatial resolution. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging is an essential technique for producing chemical images of large biomolecules (ex. genes and proteins). For this talk, we will show that label-free mass imaging technique can be a platform technology for biomedical studies such as early detection/diagnostics, accurate histologic diagnosis, prediction of clinical outcome, stem cell therapy, biosensors, nanomedicine and drug screening [1-7].

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Nanotechnology Meet Immunology: Nanomaterials for Enhanced Immunity

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.92.2-92.2
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    • 2013
  • The design and chemical synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials have been providing potential applications in biomedical fields such as molecular imaging and drug delivery. Recently, bio-derived and/or synthetic nanostructured materials capable of modulating the immune system have been also issues of interest in immunology-related nanomedicine fields. In this talk, the recent research results on the development of nanostructured materials for enhanced immunity would be presented. I will introduce the chemical strategy for the combination of nanostructured materials and bioactive compounds to improve both anti-cancer immunity and vaccine delivery efficiency.

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