• Title, Summary, Keyword: n-dimensional volume

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Dosimetric comparison of IMRT versus 3DCRT for post-mastectomy chest wall irradiation

  • Rastogi, Kartick;Sharma, Shantanu;Gupta, Shivani;Agarwal, Nikesh;Bhaskar, Sandeep;Jain, Sandeep
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To compare the dose distribution of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) to left chest wall. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seven patients were randomised for PMRT in 3DCRT group (n = 64) and IMRT group (n = 43). All patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) parameters-$D_{near-max}$ ($D_2$), $D_{near-min}$ ($D_{98}$), $D_{mean}$, $V_{95}$, and $V_{107}$-homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI) were compared. The mean doses of lung and heart, percentage volume of ipsilateral lung receiving 5 Gy ($V_5$), 20 Gy ($V_{20}$), and 55 Gy ($V_{55}$) and that of heart receiving 5 Gy ($V_5$), 25 Gy ($V_{25}$), and 45 Gy ($V_{45}$) were extracted from dose-volume histograms and compared. Results: PTV parameters were comparable between the two groups. CI was significantly improved with IMRT (1.127 vs. 1.254, p < 0.001) but HI was similar (0.094 vs. 0.096, p = 0.83) compared to 3DCRT. IMRT in comparison to 3DCRT significantly reduced the high-dose volumes of lung ($V_{20}$, 22.09% vs. 30.16%; $V_{55}$, 5.16% vs. 10.27%; p < 0.001) and heart ($V_{25}$, 4.59% vs. 9.19%; $V_{45}$, 1.85% vs. 7.09%; p < 0.001); mean dose of lung and heart (11.39 vs. 14.22 Gy and 4.57 vs. 8.96 Gy, respectively; p < 0.001) but not the low-dose volume ($V_5$ lung, 61.48% vs. 51.05%; $V_5$ heart, 31.02% vs. 23.27%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: For left sided breast cancer, IMRT significantly improves the conformity of plan and reduce the mean dose and high-dose volumes of ipsilateral lung and heart compared to 3DCRT, but 3DCRT is superior in terms of low-dose volume.

Benefit of volumetric-modulated arc therapy over three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for stage I-II extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach: a dosimetric comparison

  • Chung, Joo-Hyun;Na, Kyoungsu;Kim, Il Han
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.332-340
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To retrospectively analyze dosimetric parameters of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) delivered to extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach (gastric MALT lymphoma) to find out advantages of VMAT and conditions for definite benefits of VMAT. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with stage I-II gastric MALT lymphoma received VMAT (n = 14) or 3D-CRT (n = 36) between December 2005 and April 2018. Twenty-seven patients were categorized according to whether the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps kidney(s). Dosimetric parameters were analyzed by dose-volume histogram. Results: Radiation dose to the liver was definitely lower with VMAT in terms of mean dose (p = 0.026) and V15 (p = 0.008). The V15 of the left kidney was lower with VMAT (p = 0.065). For those with PTV overlapping kidney(s), the left kidney V15 was significantly lower with VMAT. Furthermore, the closer the distance between the PTV and kidneys, the less the left kidney V15 with VMAT (p = 0.037). Delineation of kidney(s) by integrating all respiratory phases had no additional benefit. Conclusions: VMAT significantly increased monitor units, reduced treatment time and radiation dose to the liver and kidneys. The benefit of VMAT was definite in reducing the left kidney V15, especially in geometrically challenging conditions of overlap or close separation between PTV and kidney(s).

Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing Temperature on Performances of Nanoscale FinFETs

  • Sengupta, M.;Chattopadhyay, S.;Maiti, C.K.
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 2009
  • In the present work three dimensional process and device simulations were employed to study the performance variations with RTA. It is observed that with the increase in RTA temperature, the arsenic dopants from the source /drain region diffuse laterally under the spacer region and simultaneously acceptors (Boron) are redistributed from the central axis region of the fin towards the Si/SiO2 interface. As a consequence both drive current and peak cut-off frequency of an n-FinFET are observed to improve with RTA temperatures. Volume inversion and hence the flow of carries through the central axis region of the fin due to reduced scattering was found behind the performance improvements with increasing RTA temperature.

Thermomechanical deformation in porous generalized thermoelastic body with variable material properties

  • Kumar, Rajneesh;Devi, Savita
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.285-300
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    • 2010
  • The two-dimensional deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic thermoelastic half-space with voids with variable modulus of elasticity and thermal conductivity subjected to thermomechanical boundary conditions has been investigated. The formulation is applied to the coupled theory(CT) as well as generalized theories: Lord and Shulman theory with one relaxation time(LS), Green and Lindsay theory with two relaxation times(GL) Chandrasekharaiah and Tzou theory with dual phase lag(C-T) of thermoelasticity. The Laplace and Fourier transforms techniques are used to solve the problem. As an application, concentrated/uniformly distributed mechanical or thermal sources have been considered to illustrate the utility of the approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical inversion technique to obtain the components of displacement, stress, changes in volume fraction field and temperature distribution in the physical domain. The effect of dependence of modulus of elasticity on the components of stress, changes in volume fraction field and temperature distribution are illustrated graphically for a specific model. Different special cases are also deduced.

The Application of Khachiyan's Algorithm for Linear Programming: State of the Art (선형계획법에 대한 Khachiyan 방법의 응용연구)

  • 강석호;박하영
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 1981
  • L.G. Khachiyan's algorithm for solving a system of strict (or open) linear inequalities with integral coefficients is described. This algorithm is based on the construction of a sequence of ellipsoids in R$^n$ of decreasing n-dimensional volume and contain-ing feasible region. The running time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of bits of computer core memory required to store the coefficients. It can be applied to solve linear programming problems in polynomially bounded time by the duality theorem of the linear programming problem. But it is difficult to use in solving practical problems. Because it requires the computation of a square roots, besides other arithmatic operations, it is impossible to do these computations exactly with absolute precision.

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Stereo Matching Algorithm Based on Fast Guided Image Filtering for 3-Dimensional Video Service (3차원 비디오 서비스를 위한 고속 유도 영상 필터링 기반 스테레오 매칭 알고리즘)

  • Hong, Gwang-Soo;Kim, Byung-Gyu
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.523-529
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    • 2016
  • Stereo matching algorithm is an essential part in computer vision and photography. Accuracy and computational complexity are challenges of stereo matching algorithm. Much research has been devoted to stereo matching based on cost volume filtering of matching costs. Local stereo matching based guided image filtering (GIF) has a computational complexity of O(N), but is still not enough to provide real-time 3-dimensional (3-D) video services. The proposed algorithm concentrates reduction of computational complexity using the concept of fast guided image filter, which increase the speed up to $O(N/\small{s}^2)$ with a sub-sampling ratio $\small{s}$. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm achieves effective local stereo matching as well as a fast execution time for 3-D video service.

Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Preoperative Prediction of Prosthetic Valve Size (이면성 심초음파도로 구한 대동맥판륜부 크기와 실제 치환된 판막크기와의 비교연구)

  • 정태은
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.979-983
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    • 1988
  • Calcium channel blockers may prevent myocardial injury during cardioplegia and reperfusion. This study was done to evaluate the effects of diltiazem cardioplegia on myocardial protection during ischemic arrest and recovery of myocardial function after reperfusion. Four formulations of crystalloid cardioplegic solutions, GIK solution[group I, n=12], diltiazem[lug/ml GIK] in GIK solution[group II, n=7], ],diltiazem[2ug/ml GIK] in GIK solution[group III, n=6] and diltiazem[4ug/ml GIK] in GIK solution[group IV, n=6] were compared in isolated working rat heart subjected to a long period [2 hours] of hypothermic arrest with multi-dose infusion. Diltiazem cardioplegia[group II, III and IV]was found to be superior in nearly all aspects. Diltiazem cardioplegia showed faster recovery of regular rhythm and lower incidence of ventricular fibrillation than group I did. In comparing mechanical function in all experimental hearts, the mean postischemic recoveries of aortic flow, cardiac output, peak aortic pressure, stroke volume and stroke work[expressed as a percentage of its preischemic control] were significantly greater in group II, III and IV[diltiazem cardioplegia] than in group I. The infused amount of cardioplegic solution was more increased by the addition of diltiazem to GI K solution. [p < 0.01] Creatine kinase leakage tended to be lower in hearts receiving diltiazem cardioplegia, especially in group III and IV[p<0.05] than in those receiving GIK solution only[group I]. Diltiazem cardioplegia results in the increased flow of cardioplegic solution and the decreased ischemic injury of myocardium during ischemic arrest and the improved recovery of myocardial function after reperfusion, and a dose-response relation must be established before clinical use.

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THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY CONSISTENCY ON THE TRABECULAR BONE ARCHITECTURE IN GROWING MOUSE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE : A STUDY USING MICRO-CONFUTED TOMOGRAPHY (성장 중인 쥐에서 음식물의 경도가 하악 과두의 해면골에 미치는 영향 : 미세전산화 단층촬영을 이용한 연구)

  • Youn, Seok-Hee;Lee, Sang-Dae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Hahn, Se-Hyun;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.228-235
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    • 2004
  • The development and proliferation of the mandibular condyle can be altered by changes in the biomechanical environment of the temporomandibular joint. The biomechanical loads were varied by feeding diets of different consistencies. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether changes of masticatory forces by feeding a soft diet can alter the trabecular bone morphology of the growing mouse mandibular condyle, by means of micro-computed tomography. Thirty-six female, 21 days old, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups. Mice in the hard-diet control group were fed standard hard rodent pellets for 8 weeks. The soft-diet group mice were given soft ground diets for 8 weeks and their lower incisors were shortened by cutting with a wire cutter twice a week to reduce incision. After 8 weeks all animals were killed after they were weighed. Following sacrifice, the right mandibular condyle was removed. High spatial resolution tomography was done with a Skyscan Micro-CT 1072. Cross-sections were scanned and three-dimensional images were reconstructed from 2D sections. Morphometric and nonmetric parameters such as bone volume(BV), bone surface(BS), total volume(TV), bone volume fraction(BV/TV), surface to volume ratio(BS/BV), trabecular thickness(Tb. Th.), structure model index(SMI) and degree of anisotropy(DA) were directly determined by means of the software package at the micro-CT system. From directly determined indices the trabecular number(Tb. N.) and trabecular separation(Tb. Sp.) were calculated according to parallel plate model of Parfitt et al.. After micro-tomographic imaging, the samples were decalcified, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned for histological observation. The results were as follow: 1. The bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness(Tb. Th.) and trabecular number(Tb. N.) were significantly decreased in the soft-diet group compared with that of the control group (p<0.05). 2. The trabecular separation(Tb. Sp.) was significantly increased in the soft-diet group(p<0.05). 3. There was no significant differences in the surface to volume ratio(BS/BV), structure model index(SMI) and degree of anisotropy(DA) between the soft-diet group and hard-diet control group (p>0.05). 4. Histological sections showed that the thickness of the proliferative layer and total cartilage thickness were significantly reduced in the soft-diet group.

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NEW QUANTITATIVE MEASURING TECHNIQUE FOR MICROLEAKAGE OF THE RESTORED TOOTH THROUGH 3D RECONSTRUCTION (3차원 재구성법을 이용한 수복물의 정량적 미세누출도 측정)

  • Ha, Sang-Yoon;Shin, Dong-Hoon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.413-422
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    • 2004
  • Established microleakage tests have their own disadvantages. In this study, 3D reconstruction method was tried to overcome these disadvantages. Four types of microleakage tests were used and relationships among them were estimated: penetrated dye volume: marginal adaptability: degree of dye penetration and relative penetrated length to cavity wall. Twenty-four Class V cavities were bulk filled with composite (Esthet X) following surface treatments: N group (no treatment): E group (etching only): T group (etching + Prime & Bond NT). 50% silver nitrate was used as a dye solution after thermocycling ($5^{\circ}C{\;}&{\;}55^{\circ}C$, 1.000 times). Teeth were serially ground with a thickness of 0.2 mm. Volume of dye penetration was estimated from a three-dimensionally reconstructed image with a software (3D-DOCTOR). Percentage of margin without gap was estimated from SEM and degree of dye penetration and the relative length of dye penetration to overall cavity wall were also estimated. ANOVA and Scheffe test for dye volume, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test for marginal quality, Spearman's rho test for checking of relationships among methods were used. The results were as follows: 1. Dye penetration could be seen from several directions, furthermore, its volumetric estimation was possible. 2. Reverse relationship was found between dye volume and marginal quality (r = -0.881/ p = 0.004). 3. Very low relationship was seen between dye volume and two-dimensional tests (degree of dye penetration and relative length). However, 2D evaluation methods showed high relationship (p = 0.002-0.054) each other. 4. Three times vertical section could be recommended as a 2D test.

Octree model based fast three-dimensional object recognition (Octree 모델에 근거한 고속 3차원 물체 인식)

  • 이영재;박영태
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics C
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    • v.34C no.9
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    • pp.84-101
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    • 1997
  • Inferring and recognizing 3D objects form a 2D occuluded image has been an important research area of computer vision. The octree model, a hierarchical volume description of 3D objects, may be utilized to generate projected images from arbitrary viewing directions, thereby providing an efficient means of the data base for 3D object recognition. We present a fast algorithm of finding the 4 pairs of feature points to estimate the viewing direction. The method is based on matching the object contour to the reference occuluded shapes of 49 viewing directions. The initially best matched viewing direction is calibrated by searching for the 4 pairs of feature points between the input image and the image projected along the estimated viewing direction. Then the input shape is recognized by matching to the projectd shape. The computational complexity of the proposed method is shown to be O(n$^{2}$) in the worst case, and that of the simple combinatorial method is O(m$^{4}$.n$^{4}$) where m and n denote the number of feature points of the 3D model object and the 2D object respectively.

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