• Title, Summary, Keyword: mutagens

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Studies on X-Y Chromosome Dissociation Induced by Environmental Mutagens in Mouse (환경성 돌연변이원에 의한 Mouse의 X-Y 염색체 조기분리에 관한 연구)

  • 윤경희;이원호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.599-605
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this work was to examine whether X-Y chromosome dissociation in the primary spermatocytes of mice could be used as an in vivo short-term assaying system that detect environmental mutagens. Four alkylating agents(EMS, MMS, MMC and MNNG) which were known as strong mutagens were administered to BALB/c male mice 3-4 months old. In the control group, the mean frequencies of previously dissociated X and Y chromosomes and autosomes were 7.17% and 2.12%, respectively. Compared to the control group, mutagen-treated groups have no significant differences in dissociation rate of autosomes, while these poops were about 1.2-2.5 times higher in the frequencies of X-Y dissociation. Generally, X-Y dissociation frequency increased consistently with the concentration of mutagens whereas the tendency of autosome dissociation frequency was variable among several mutagens. These results suggest that X-Y dissociation in the primary spermatocytes of mice is applicable as an vivo short-term assaying system for environmental mutagens. There were significantly distinct increase in dissociation of X-Y chromosome in both the hybrid and parents but the X-Y previous dissociation of hybrid appeared higher frequency than BALB /c and wild mice. These results indicate that the factor related to binding X-Y chromosome is specific to strains.

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Antimutagenic Effects of Water Extracts of Persimmon Leaf Tea, Green Tea and Oolong Tea on Reversion and Survival of Selected Salmonella Tester Strains (Salmonella typhimurium Strain TA98, 100에서 감잎차, 녹차, 우롱차 추출물의 돌연변이 억제 효과)

  • 강명희;송현순;이현걸
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.599-606
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    • 1999
  • Water extracts of persimmon leaf tea(PLTE), green tea(GTE) and oolong tea(OTE), at the con centration used for human consumption, were examined for inhibitory effects on the mutagenicity of major classes of dietary and environmental mutagens including indirect acting mutagens, B[ ]P (benzo[ ]pyrene), IQ(2 amino 3 methylimidazo[4,5 f]quinoline), 2 AA(2 aminoanthracene) in the presence of S9 mix and direct acting mutagen, 4 NQO(4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide) without S9 mix, using the modified Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. PLTE, GTE and OTE showed very potent and concentration dependent antimutagenic effects against indirect acting mutagens B[ ]P and IQ. At the maximum concentration(16,200 g/plate) of each tea extract, number of colonies decreased in a dose dependent manner up to 82~100%. Similar inhibition of PLTE, GTE and OTE were seen at higher concentration in the mutagenicity of the 2 AA following an initial increase in the activity at lower concentration. However, the mutagenicity of the direct acting mutagen 4 NQO were not suppressed at lower concentration of the three tea extracts, and higher concentration of the tea extracts enhanced mutagenic activity of the mutagen. There were no differences in the mode of antimutagenesis between PLTE, GTE, and OTE, in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains against the same mutagen. In conclusion, the water extracts of persimmon leaf tea, green tea and oolong tea possess marked antimutagenic potential against a variety of important dietary and environmental indirect acting mutagens, but the activity was not observed against the direct acting mutagens. These results suggest that the mode of inhibitory action may not have resulted from direct interaction between tea extracts and the mutagens, but rather from indirect metabolic inactivation of mutagens by tea extracts.

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Effects of Gamma-ray and Chemical Mutagens on the Germination and Seedling Growth in Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (감마선 및 화학적 돌연변이원 처리가 스테비아 (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.)의 종자 발아 및 초기 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Tai-Young;Kim, Ee-Youb;Kim, Young-Ho;Choi, Gin-Su;Hyun, Kyung-Sup;Seong, Yoon-Hee;Jo, Han-Jig;Kim, Dong Sub;Kang, Si-Yong;Ko, Jeong-Ae
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to develop the improved useful mutants for yield or composition of stevia plants using the gamma ray or chemical mutagens treatments. The seeds of stevia 'Suwon No. 11' were irradiated up to 400 Gy of gamma ray. Chemical mutagens were treated on the seeds of the 'Suwon No. 11' using 0.07% colchicine, 10 mM sodium azide, or 10 mM NMU for various durations. The germination rate, and shoot and root growth of seedling were estimated at 30 days after gamma ray irradiation or chemical mutagen treatment, and the plant height, the number of branches, and leaf length and width were examined at 3 months after mutagenesis treatments. In the case of gamma ray treatments, the germination rate and early-stage growth were decreased as the increase of radiation dose, and the 50% lethal dose was found to be 200 Gy. the plant height was decreased as the increase of radiation dose, while the number of branches per plant and leaf length were increased. Leaf shape was modified to the relatively longer one compared to the control, which was identified more apparently at the treatments of higher than 150 Gy. In the treatment of chemical mutagens, the rate of germination and survival were decreased as the increase of incubation time. The 50% lethal dose for germination rate were identified as the conditions of the 15 hours incubation in 0.07% colchicine, the 4 hrs in 10 mM sodium azide, and the 2 hrs in 10 mM NMU, in the three chemical mutagens treatments. Chemical mutagens had no influence on shoot growth, while root growth was increased, especially as the incubation time was extended. The highest root growth occurred in the NMU treatment at 6 hrs incubation time. The plant height was decreased as the increase of incubation time in the chemical mutagens treatments. Among the chemical mutagens, NMU was the most effective to induce the mutants with long-shaped or the least lobed leaves.

A Screening System for Environmental Mutagens by Means of Specific Locus Mutation of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori (누에의 특정좌위 돌연변이를 이용하는 변이원 검색계의 피검누에계통 선정 및 변이원 감수성)

  • 김삼은;안미영;원형주;김종길;최지영
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2000
  • A mutagenicity testing system using a specific locus mutation of Bombyx mori was introduced from National Institute of Genetics in Japan. In the system, mutagenicity could be detected by the egg color manifested by the pe and/or re genes, which is a kind of recessive visible mutation of the insect. The efficiency to detect mutagenicity of the system was examined and improved. To promote the sensitivity of the system to mutagens, eight varieties of Bombyx mori were tested for their sensitivity to two mutagens, EMS and MMC. Two varieties of the silkworm, N12 and C5, were finally selected as the most sensitive ones. The most sensitive development stage of the silkworm to mutagens was mid and late pupal stages for female and male, respectively. The system will be applied to test unknown mutagens after some more detail examination about its sensitivity.

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Application of X-Y Dissociation of Mice as the in vivo Assaying System for Environmental Mutagens (Mouse 제 1정모세포에서의 X-Y 염색체 조기 분리;in vivo 환경성 변이원 검출계로서의 응용 가능성)

  • 최영현;권용원;최병태;조운복;이원호
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 1995
  • The present experiment was carried out to investigate whether X and Y chromosome dissociation in the primary spermatocytes of mice can be used as an in vivo assaying system that detect environmental mutagens. For this purpose, alkylating agents (EMS, MMS and MMC), which are strong mutagens, were administered to ICR male mice 12-15 weeks old. The mean frequencies of previously dissociated X-Y chromosomes and autosomes of the control group were 7.34-7.45% and 0.92-1.04%, respectively. The frequencies of X-Y dissociation in the mutagen-treated groups with 10.0 mM EMS and 5.0 mM MMS were about 3.3-4.6 times higher than that in the control group, but there were no significant differences in dissociation of autosomes in both the control and the mutagen-treated groups. These results suggest that X-Y dissociation in the primary spermatocytes of mice can be used as an in vivo short-term assaying system for environmental mutagens.

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Preparation and validation of Chitosan-phthalocyanine complex - absorber of mutagens and carcinogens -

  • Rhee, Hee-Kyung;Jeon, Hee-Kyung;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.175-175
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    • 2003
  • Phthalocyanine, a water soluble porphyrin derivative and dye, is known to inhibit the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of compounds having polycyclic structures, e.g. heterocyclic amines. There is evidence that this adsorbent effect shows by a complex formation between the porphyrin-like structure of phthalocyanine and the planar molecular surfaces of theses compounds. That phthalocyanine can form an insoluble material when mixed with chitosan, a polyglucosamine, and that the solid chitosan-phthalocyanine, named Eco-Blue, thus prepared can efficiently adsorb polycyclic mutagenic compounds. The adsorption was experimented by UV/VIS spectrometry. The adsorbent effects of mutagens and carcinogens was identified by Gas chromatography (GC) and Ames Test. The adsorbed polycyclic mutagens were elutable with buffer, but only to small extents. Chitosan-phthalocyanine may be expected to be useful as an adsorbent against polycyclic mutagens and carcinogens.

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Environmental Mutagens-Detection, and Modulation of Their Activities

  • Hayatsu, Hikoya
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1988
  • The use of blue cotton for detecting polycyclic aromatic mutagens in environmental samples (foods, human excretions, river water, etc) is reviewed. Since the invention of blue cotton has its origin in studies of mutagen modulators, these studies are also briefly reviewed.

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Toxicogenomic Study to Identify Potential New Mechanistic Markers on Direct-Acting Mutagens in Human Hepatocytes (THLE-3)

  • Kim, Youn-Jung;Song, Mi-Kyung;Song, Mee;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2007
  • Exposure to DNA-damaging agents can elicit a variety of stress-related responses that may alter the expression of genes associated with numerous biological pathways. We used 19 k whole human genome chip to detect gene expression profiles and potential signature genes in human normal hepatocytes (THLE-3) by treatment of five direct acting mutagens, furylfuramide (AF-2), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) and 2-nitrofluorene (2NF) of the $IC_{20}$ concentration for 3 h. Fifty one up-regulated common genes and 45 down-regulated common genes above 1.5-fold by five direct-acting mutagens were identified by clustering analysis. Many of these changed genes have some association with apoptosis, control of cell cycle, regulation of transcription and signal transduction. Genes related to these functions, as TP73L, E2F5, MST016, SOX5, MAFB, LIF, SII3, TFIIS, EMR1, CYTL1, CX3CR1 and RHOH are up-regulated. Down-regulated genes are ALOX15B, xs155, IFITM1, BATF, VAV2, CD79A, DCDC2, TNFSF8 and KOX8. We suggest that gene expression profiling on mutagens by toxicogenomic analysis affords promising opportunities to reveal potential new mechanistic markers of genotoxicity.

An Influence of Pretreatment Conditions on Mutagen Binding of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans JG22 against MNNG and 2-NF

  • Lim, Sung-Mee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2013
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans JG22 isolated from pepper leaf jangajji on the mutagenic activity of N-methyl, N'-nitro, N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 2-nitrofluene (2-NF) and to evaluate the effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the antimutagenic activity of the strain. The viable cells of JG22 strain displayed a significantly high (p <0.05) antimutagenic activity against both mutagens tested. The antimutagenic effect of JG22 strain seems to be positively correlated with the amounts of the cells in the incubation time. This strain produced the antimutagenic activity of the maximum levels after preincubation for 30 min. The binding of this strain against the mutagenic compounds might be mainly present in the cell wall fraction rather than the cytosol fraction. Pretreatment with proteolytic enzymes and simulated gastric and intestinal juices and at different pH values had no significant effect on two mutagens removal by the viable cells. However, the binding activity of the mutagen by the strain seems to be affected by heating, enzymes including $\alpha$-amylase and lysozyme, divalent ions, and sodium metaperiodate. Thus, carbohydrates consisting of the cell walls may be important elements responsible for the binding of MNNG and 2-NF by this strain. In conclusion, the binding of the mutagens to cells of JG 22 strain may play a vital role in suppressing the process of mutagenesis induced by mutagens.

Modulation of the Bacterial Mutagenicity for food-borne Mutagens by Hexane Fraction from Saururus chinesis (Lour.) Bail (삼백초 Hexane 분획물의 Heterocyclic Amine 돌연변이성 조정효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Ho;Park, Cheol-U;Park, Gyeong-A;Lee, Yeong-Chun;Kim, Mu-Nam;Ha, Yeong-Rae
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 1998
  • Antimutagenic activity of Saururus chinesis (Lour.) Bail was investigated for food-borne mutagens using S. typhimurium TA98. Methanol extract from Saururus Chinesis (Lour.) Bail was fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol fractions, followed by determination of antimutagenic activity for food-borne mutagenic heterogenic amines (HCA). The hexane fraction exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity for 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyroid[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-2-A); however its fraction rather enhanced the bacterial mutagenicity of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinozaline (4,8-diMeIQx) and 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxline (7,8-diMeIQx). Active principle in the fraction was found to be two major compounds (${\gamma}$-crene B and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrane) and 6 minor compounds (${\delta}$-caryophyllene, ${\gamma}$-elemene, ${\beta}$-cabebene, ${\delta}$-cadinene, ${\delta}$-selinene, and patchoulene). Modulation effect for the mutagenic activity of the food-borne mutagenic HCA by the fraction might be derived from a cumulative effect of each individual compounds. Hence, this hexane fraction might be use to reduce the production of mutagenic HCA during cooking process of protein-rich foods.

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