• Title, Summary, Keyword: moth

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Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Oriental Fruit Moth (Grapholita molesta Busck) and the Peach Fruit Moth (Carposina sasakii Matsumura) in Korea

  • Lee, Seung-Yeol;Choi, Kwang-Shik;Choi, Kyung-Hee;Yoon, Tae-Myung;Jung, Hee-Young
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2013
  • The oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck) and the peach fruit moth (Carposina sasakii Matsumura) are the most severe insect pests affecting apple orchards in Korea. To prevent an outbreak of these two species and to control these agricultural insect pests, it is important to identify them accurately. However, it is hard to classify them when they were in the larval stage since they tunnel into the apple fruit. In this study, surface structures of the two species of larvae were observed using stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. Distinct differences between the two species of larvae were found. The prothorax spiracles of oriental fruit moth larvae were approximately twice as large as those of peach fruit moth larvae. The arrangements of subventral setae, located around the proleg, were different between oriental fruit moth and peach fruit moth larvae. Furthermore, subdorsal setae of oriental fruit moth were located next to the spiracle on the 8th abdominal segment, while that of peach fruit moth was located above the spiracle. The identification of the two species of larvae observed in this study was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Surface structural differences are intrinsic characteristics for each species of larvae and can easily be identified using stereo microscope. These specificities will be helpful where a large number of field-collected larvae need to be identified routinely in pest control research.

Mating Behaviour in Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.)

  • Saheb N. M. Biram;Singh Tribhuwan;Kalappa H. K.;Saratchandra B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2005
  • Mating is an essential behavioural social event in the life cycle of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) for the perpetuation of population. A number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and events of significant importance are involved in successful mating and egg deposition by an adult silk moth which besides biochemical, physiological and environmental factors also includes attraction of reproductively competent male and female moth for mating, duration and frequency of mating, age of moth at the time of mating, reuse of male moth in the production of eggs etc. An attempt has been made in this review article to elucidate briefly the behaviour of male towards female moth after eclosion, impact of duration and frequency of mating on egg deposition and oviposition, reuse of mated male moth in the production of quality and quantity eggs etc. in the silk-worm, B. mori and its significance in silkworm seed production.

Sol-gel법 및 Direct Patterning을 통해 Moth-eye 구조가 패터닝된 AZO 박막의 제작

  • Kim, Jin-Seung;Byeon, Gyeong-Jae;Park, Hyeong-Won;Jo, Jung-Yeon;Lee, -Heon
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.62.1-62.1
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    • 2011
  • 현재 상용화된 LED 또는 태양전지 등의 투명전극(TCO, transparent couducting oxide)재료로 높은 전기전도도와 광투과도를 갖는 ITO (Indium Tin Oxide)가 많이 채택되고 있다. 그러나 이에 사용되는 Indium의 단가가 높다는 문제점이 있어 이를 대체하기 위한 물질의 연구가 많이 이루어지고 있다. 특히 Aluminum을 doping한 ZnO (AZO)는 우수한 전기적, 광학적 특성 등으로 인해 ITO를 대체할 차세대 TCO 물질로 각광받고 있다. 본 연구에서는 sol-gel법을 및 direct patterning법을 이용하여 moth-eye 패턴을 포함하는 AZO 박막을 제작하였다. AZO sol을 제작하기 위하여 2-methoxyethanol, zinc acetate dihydrate 및 doping source로 aluminum nitrate nonahydrate를 사용하였다. 또한 광추출 향상 효과를 갖는 moth-eye 구조의 master stamp를 Polydimethyl siloxane(PDMS)를 이용하여 역상 moth-eye 구조의 mold를 복제하였으며, 이 복제된 mold와 제작된 AZO sol을 이용한 direct patterning법을 통해 나노급 moth-eye 구조를 갖는 AZO 투명전극층을 형성하였다. 제작된 moth-eye 구조를 갖는 AZO 투명전극층의 전기적 특성 평가를 위해, 4-point probe 측정 및 Hall measurement를 시행하였으며, 광학적 특성을 확인하기 위하여 UV-Visable spectrometer를 이용하여 투과도를 측정하였다. 본 연구를 통해 현재 상용화된 광전자 소자에 사용되고 있는 ITO 투명전극을 대체할 차세대 투명전극으로써 AZO 박막의 가능성을 확인하였다.

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Estimation of Populations of Moth Using Object Segmentation and an SVM Classifier (객체 분할과 SVM 분류기를 이용한 해충 개체 수 추정)

  • Hong, Young-Ki;Kim, Tae-Woo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.705-710
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes an estimation method of populations of Grapholita molestas using object segmentation and an SVM classifier in the moth images. Object segmentation and moth classification were performed on images of Grapholita molestas moth acquired on a pheromone trap equipped in an orchard. Object segmentation consisted of pre-processing, thresholding, morphological filtering, and object labeling process. The classification of Grapholita molestas in the moth images consisted of the training and classification of an SVM classifier and estimation of the moth populations. The object segmentation simplifies the moth classification process by segmenting the individual objects before passing an input image to the SVM classifier. The image blocks were extracted around the center point and principle axis of the segmented objects, and fed into the SVM classifier. In the experiments, the proposed method performed an estimation of the moth populations for 10 moth images and achieved an average estimation precision rate of 97%. Therefore, it showed an effective monitoring method of populations of Grapholita molestas in the orchard. In addition, the mean processing time of the proposed method and sliding window technique were 2.4 seconds and 5.7 seconds, respectively. Therefore, the proposed method has a 2.4 times faster processing time than the latter technique.

Fabrication of Moth-Eye Pattern on a Lens Using Nano Imprint Lithography and PVA Template (나노임프린트 리소그래피와 유연 PVA 템플릿을 이용한 렌즈 표면 moth-eye 패턴 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, B.J.;Hong, S.H.;Kwak, S.U.;Lee, H.
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.59-62
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    • 2009
  • Antireflection pattern, moth-eye structure, was fabricated on lens using Ultra Violet nanoimprint lithography and flexible template. Ni template with conical shaped structure was used as a master template to molding. The flexible poly vinyl alcohol template was fabricated by molding. This poly vinyl alcohol template was used as an imprint template of imprint at lens. Using Ultra Violet nanoimprint lithography and poly vinyl alcohol template, polymer based moth-eye structure was formed on lens and its transmittance was increased up to 94% from 92% at 550 nm wavelength.

Differences in Moth Diversity in Two Types of Forest Patches in an Agricultural Landscape in Southern Korea - Effects of Habitat Heterogeneity -

  • Choi, Sei-Woong;Park, Marana;Kim, Hui
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2009
  • This research focused on the effects of fragmentation on moth diversity in an agricultural land-scape by comparing moth species richness and abundance between hillocks and young secondary forests. We examined five sites from the southwestern part of South Korea: three sites from hillock forest and two from secondary forest. We collected moths bi-weekly from April to October for a 2-year period (2006-2007) with a UV light trap that usually attracts moths within 30 meters. Tree species richness and abundance in $20m{\times}20m$ plots at each moth sampling site showed a substantial difference in tree diversity between the two types of forest habitats. The total abundance and richness of moth species were higher in secondary forests (541 species with 4,998 individuals) than in hillock forests (423 species with 3,913 individuals), irrespective of the distance among the sites. An ordination analysis with NMDS showed that habitat is the most important factor of grouping sites. The food preferences of the dominant moth species i,n each habitat were closely related to the habitat type.

Selection of Chemicals for Separation of Copulated Moth of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (약제에 의한 가잠교미아의 할애효과에 대하여)

  • 박광의;마영일;황석조
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 1984
  • To save the labour reguired for separation of copulated moth during egg Production, some of the chemicals available at the market were on screen test for easy separation of copulated moth of silkworm. The obtained results are summarized as following. 1. In a separation ratio of copulated moth along with a treating time, TCTFE(Trichloro-trifluoroethane) completely separated the copulated moth in 10 minutes. The combinations of TCTFE plus Acetone (87.5 : 12.5 V/V) and TCTFE plus Acetic acid (50 : 50 V/V) take 25minutes for the complete separation of copulated moth. Use of Acetic acid solution only makes 100% separation of copulated moth in one hour and foully minutes and non$.$treatment shows only 47.5% of separation in three and half hours. On the other hand. There is no statistical significance between TCTFE Plus Acetone and control in the egg productivity. 2. The combination of TCTFE Plus Acetone (87.5 : 12.5 V/V) does not infuluence the egg productivity of the moth, showing 443 grains for an average number of egg per moth out of which 417 grains are for the number of fertilized eggs while control shows 452 grains for an avarage number of egg/moth and 428 grains for the number of fertilized eggs. However a sing1e use of TCTFE and Acetic acid shows less egg productivity and number of ferilized eggs per moth, respectively as compared to those of the control. In particular, a single use of acetic acid makes an increase of number of non-egg prodncible moth and it seems to be brought due to a chemical damage. 3. In a rearing test of the egg laid by the chemical treated moth, there are no differences among the treatments in all of the useful characters of the larvae; larval duration, survival rate, cocoon yield, single cocoon weight, single cocoon shell weight and cocoon shell ratio. In these regards, it is recognized that TCTFE can be practically used for the separation of copulated moth and the combination of TCTFE and Acetone promote its efiectiveness on the separation of copulated moth.

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Object Segmentation for Detection of Moths in the Pheromone Trap Images (페로몬 트랩 영상에서 해충 검출을 위한 객체 분할)

  • Kim, Tae-Woo;Cho, Tae-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2017
  • The object segmentation approach has the merit of reducing the processing cost required to detect moths of interest, because it applies a moth detection algorithm to the segmented objects after segmenting the objects individually in the moth image. In this paper, an object segmentation method for moth detection in pheromone trap images is proposed. Our method consists of preprocessing, thresholding, morphological filtering, and object labeling processes. Thresholding in the process is a critical step significantly influencing the performance of object segmentation. The proposed method can threshold very elaborately by reflecting the local properties of the moth images. We performed thresholding using global and local versions of Ostu's method and, used the proposed method for the moth images of Carposina sasakii acquired on a pheromone trap placed in an orchard. It was demonstrated that the proposed method could reflect the properties of light and background on the moth images. Also, we performed object segmentation and moth classification for Carposina sasakii images, where the latter process used an SVM classifier with training and classification steps. In the experiments, the proposed method performed the detection of Carposina sasakii for 10 moth images and achieved an average detection rate of 95% of them. Therefore, it was shown that the proposed technique is an effective monitoring method of Carposina sasakii in an orchard.

Root Rot of Moth Orchid Caused by Fusarium spp.

  • Kim, Wan-Gyu;Lee, Byung-Dae;Kim, Woo-Sik;Cho, Weon-Dae
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.225-227
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    • 2002
  • Moth orchid plants with yellowing blight and root rot symptoms were collected, and a total of 54 isolates of Fusarium spp. was obtained from roots and leaf bases of the diseased plants. The isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Out of the 54 isolates of Fusarium spp., 42 isolates were identified as F. solani, 5 isolates as F. oxysporum, and 7 as F. proliferatum. Isolates of the three Fusarium spp. were tested for pathogenicity to moth orchid plants by artificial inoculation. All the Fusarium spp. induced root rot of the host plants. The symptoms progressed up to the basal part of the leaves, which later caused yellowing blight. The symptoms induced on the plants by artificial inoculation with the Fusarium spp. isolates were similar to those observed in greenhouses. The present study reveals that F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, and F. solani cause root rot of moth orchid, and that F. solani is the main pathogen of the disease.

Diversity of Moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) on Bogildo Island, Wando-gun, Jeonnam, Korea

  • Park, Marana;An, Jeong-Seop;Lee, Jin;Lim, Jin-Taek;Choi, Sei-Woong
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2009
  • We investigated the moth diversity on an island of southern sea of Korea. We collected moths at three sites on the island of Bogildo, Wando-gun, Jeonnam using a 22-watt ultraviolet light trap from May to October, 2008, and identified a total of 272 species and 948 individuals in 13 families. Species of Noctuidae was the most abundant, with 107 species and 318 individuals, followed by Geometridae (62 species and 147 individuals) and Pyralidae (53 species and 269 individuals). The graph of the estimated species richness in Chao 1 (432.25$\pm$37.39) did not reach an asymptote, which suggests that more moth species could be identified on the island through further sampling. An arctiid moth, Miltochrista striata, was the most abundant species captured in this study. Monthly changes in moth species richness and abundance formed M-shaped curves, with peaks in early summer (June) and late summer (August). Cluster analysis of seven sites on three islands (Aphaedo Island, Sinan-gun, Oenarodo Island, Goheung-gun and Bogildo Island) divided the sites into two groups. Distances among sites and habitat types may play an important role in determining the similarities of moth faunas among sites.