• Title, Summary, Keyword: mortality

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Recent Decrease in Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rate is Affected by Birth Cohort in Korea

  • Jee, Yonho;Oh, Chang-Mo;Shin, Aesun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3951-3955
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer mortality has started to decrease in several developed countries in Asia. The current study aimed to present the long-term trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Korea using joinpoint analysis and age-period-cohort modeling. Materials and Methods: The number of colorectal cancer deaths and the population for each 5-year age group were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013 for adults 30 years and older. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to determine changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates, and age-period-cohort analysis was performed to describe trends in colorectal cancer mortality using the intrinsic estimator method. Results: In men, the age-standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer increased from 1984 to 2003, and the mortality rates stabilized thereafter, whereas the mortality rate of colorectal cancer in women has decreased since 2004. The age-specific mortality rate of colorectal cancer increased in both men and women over time, whereas decreases in the age-specific mortality rate in younger cohorts were observed. In the age-period-cohort analysis, old age and recent period were associated with higher mortality for both men and women. The birth cohort born after 1919 showed reduced colorectal cancer mortality in both men and women. Conclusions: Our study showed a recent decreasing trend in colorectal cancer mortality in women and a stable trend in men after 2003-2004. These changes in colorectal cancer mortality may be attributed to birth cohort effects.

Analysis of cause-of-death mortality and actuarial implications

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Sung;Nguyen, Vu Hai
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.557-573
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    • 2019
  • Mortality study is an essential component of actuarial risk management for life insurance policies, annuities, and pension plans. Life expectancy has drastically increased over the last several decades; consequently, longevity risk associated with annuity products and pension systems has emerged as a crucial issue. Among the various aspects of mortality study, a consideration of the cause-of-death mortality can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of mortality/longevity risk. In this case study, the cause-of-mortality data in Korea and the US were analyzed along with a multinomial logistic regression model that was constructed to quantify the impact of mortality reduction in a specific cause on actuarial values. The results of analyses imply that mortality improvement due to a specific cause should be carefully monitored and reflected in mortality/longevity risk management. It was also confirmed that multinomial logistic regression model is a useful tool for analyzing cause-of-death mortality for actuarial applications.

An Analysis of Air Pollution Effect in Urban Area Related to Asian Dust on All-cause and Cause-specific Mortality in Seoul, Korea, 2000-2006 (도시 대기오염의 위해 평가에 있어서 황사효과 분석 -서울시 총사망 및 원인별 사망률에 미치는 영향-)

  • Son, Ji-Young;Cho, Yong-Sung;Kim, Yoon-Shin;Lee, Jong-Tae;Kim, Yeon-Jung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this study were to compare the relative risk of all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality associated with Asian dust events, and especially to investigate the effects on the susceptible population such as the elderly and children, which were based on the data in Seoul from 2000 to 2006. Both of the study periods with/without Asian dust days, respiratory-cause mortality was the highest, followed by cardiovascular-cause mortality and all-cause mortality in sequence among mortality related to air pollution for all-aged group. As to susceptible group, the relative risk of mortality is the highest for +65 yrs group among all-cause mortality. According to comparison of mortality with/without Asian dust days, the relative risk of all-cause mortality is larger in the model with Asian dust days than the one in the model without Asian dust days among all age group (except for under 15 yrs group) and all air pollutants. The relative risk of cause-specific mortality (except for ozone in under 15 yrs group in case of respiratory-cause mortality, and ozone in all age group and over 65 yrs group in case of cardiovascular-cause mortality) per IQR increase of each pollutant is larger in the model without Asian dust days.

Causes of Child Mortality (1 to 4 Years of Age) From 1983 to 2012 in the Republic of Korea: National Vital Data

  • Choe, Seung Ah;Cho, Sung-Il
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Child mortality remains a critical problem even in developed countries due to low fertility. To plan effective interventions, investigation into the trends and causes of child mortality is necessary. Therefore, we analyzed these trends and causes of child deaths over the last 30 years in Korea. Methods: Causes of death data were obtained from a nationwide vital registration managed by the Korean Statistical Information Service. The mortality rate among all children aged between one and four years and the causes of deaths were reviewed. Data from 1983-2012 and 1993-2012 were analyzed separately because the proportion of unspecified causes of death during 1983-1992 varied substantially from that during 1993-2012. Results: The child (1-4 years) mortality rates substantially decreased during the past three decades. The trend analysis revealed that all the five major causes of death (infectious, neoplastic, neurologic, congenital, and external origins) have decreased significantly. However, the sex ratio of child mortality (boys to girls) slightly increased during the last 30 years. External causes of death remain the most frequent origin of child mortality, and the proportion of mortality due to child assault has significantly increased (from 1.02 in 1983 to 1.38 in 2012). Conclusions: In Korea, the major causes and rate of child mortality have changed and the sex ratio of child mortality has slightly increased since the early 1980s. Child mortality, especially due to preventable causes, requires public health intervention.

An Estimation of an Old Age Mortality Rate Using CK Model and Relational Model

  • Jung, Kyunam;Kim, Donguk
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.859-868
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    • 2012
  • Due to a rapidly aging society, the future Korea mortality rate is important for planning national financial strategies and social security policies. Old age mortality statistics are very limited in their ability to project a future mortality rate; therefore, it is essential to accurately estimate the old age mortality rate. In this paper, we show that the CK model with a Relational model as a base model provides accurate estimates of old age mortality rates.

Esophageal Cancer Mortality during 2004-2009 in Yanting County, China

  • Song, Qing-Kun;Li, Jun;Jiang, Hai-Dong;He, Yu-Ming;Zhou, Xiao-Qiao;Huang, Cheng-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5003-5006
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Yanting County is a high risk area for esophageal cancer (EC) in China. The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality and mortality change of EC from 2004 to 2009 in Yanting County. Methods: EC mortality data from 2004 to 2009 obtained from the Cancer Registry in Yanting were analyzed. Annual percentage changes (APC) were calculated to assess the trends in EC mortality. Age-standardized mortality was calculated based on world standard population of 2000. Results: The average EC mortality was 54.7/$10^5$ in males and 31.6/$10^5$ in females over the 6 years. A decline in EC mortality with time was observed in both genders, with a rate of -8.70% per year (95% CI: -13.23%~-3.93%) in females and -4.11% per year (95%CI: -11.16%~3.50%) in males. Conclusion: EC mortality decreased over the six years in both genders, although it remained high in the Yanting area. There is still a need to carry out studies of risk factors for improved cancer prevention and further reduction in the disease burden.

Comparison of Health Indicators according to Official Development Assistance(ODA) in Asia (아시아지역에서 공적개발원조(ODA)에 따른 보건지표 비교)

  • Oh, Chang-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : This study presents comparison results of the correlations between ODA grants and health indicators among 23 countries in Asia. Methods : Data from 2005~2013 were collected through the World Development Indicator (WDI) provided by the World Bank (WB). The health-related variables used in this study included the maternal mortality ratio, infant mortality rate under five, infant mortality rate, incidence of tuberculosis, and prevalence of AIDS. Results : Based on the results, there were positive correlations between ODA grants and health indicators, which means that the overall ODA grants would drop when the health indicators improved. As for differences in the health indicators by income groups among the countries, there were differences in the maternal mortality ratio, infant mortality rate under five, infant mortality rate, and overall ODA grants. The maternal mortality ratio, infant mortality rate under five, and infant mortality rate were lower in the order of upper middle, lower middle, and poorest income countries. Conclusions : The findings raise a need for the integrated and horizontal development of Goals 4, 5 and 6 of MDGs in the ODA projects of health sector in the future.

Diabetes Mellitus and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Study

  • Li, Sen;Wang, Jiaxin;Zhang, Biao;Li, Xinyi;Liu, Yuan
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.319-341
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    • 2019
  • Background: To investigate whether diabetes contributes to mortality for major types of diseases. Methods: Six National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data cycles (1999 to 2000, 2001 to 2002, 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008, and 2009 to 2010) and their linked mortality files were used. A population of 15,513 participants was included according to the availability of diabetes and mortality status. Results: Participants with diabetes tended to have higher all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular disease, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models showed that both diagnosed diabetes category (yes or no) and diabetes status (diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes) were associated with all-cause mortality and with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. No associations were found for cancer-, accidents-, or Alzheimer's disease-related mortality. Conclusion: The current study's findings provide epidemiological evidence that diagnosed diabetes at the baseline is associated with increased mortality risk due to cardiovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease, but not with cancer or Alzheimer's disease.

Association between Alcohol Drinking and Cardiovascular disease Mortality and All-cause Mortality - Kangwha Cohort Study - (음주와 순환기계질환 사망 및 전체사망과의 관련성)

  • Yi, Sang-Wook;Yoo, Sang-Hyun;Sull, Jae-Woong;Ohrr, Hee-Choul
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.120-126
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : This study sought to examine relationships between alcohol drinking and cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality. Methods : From March 1985 through December 1999, 2,696 males and 3,595 females aged 55 or over as of 1985 were followed up for their mortality until 31 December 1999. We calculated the mortality risk ratios by level of alcohol consumption. Among the drinker, the level of alcohol consumption was calculated by the frequency of alcohol comsumption and the type of alcohol. Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for confounding factors. Results : Among males, compared to abstainer, heavy drinker had significantly higher mortality in all cause(Risk ratio=1.35), cardiovascular disease(Risk ratio=1.52) and cerebrovascular disease(Risk ratio =1.66). Although not significant, moderate drinker had lower ischemic heart disease mortality(Risk ratio =0.38). Among females, there was no statistically significant association between alcohol comsumption and mortality. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that alcohol drinking has harmful effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cerebrovascular disease mortality among males, especially in heavy drinker among males. Minimal evidence on protective effect for cardiovascular disease mortality in low or moderate drinker is observed.

Quality of Diet and Nutritional Intake and Mortality Risk among South Korean Adults Based on 12-year Follow-up Data (식사 질과 영양섭취상태가 사망위험에 미치는 영향에 관한 12년 추적연구)

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.354-365
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Studies that reported the association between diet quality/nutritional intake status and mortality have rarely used long-term follow-up data in Asian countries, including Korea. This study investigated the association between the risk of mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) and the diet quality/nutritional intake status using follow-up 12-year mortality data from a nationally representative sample of South Koreans. Methods: 8,941 individuals who participated in 1998 and 2001 Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were linked to mortality data from death certificates. Of those individuals, 1,083 (12.1%) had died as of December, 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relative risks of mortality according to the level of diet quality and intakes of major nutrients. Indicators for diet quality index and nutritional intake status were assessed using MAR (mean adequacy ratio) and energy and protein intake level compared with the 2010 Korean DRI. Results: Higher diet quality/nutritional intake status were associated with lower mortality; the mortality risk (95% confidence interval) from all-cause of lowest MAR group vs highest was 1.66 (1.27 to 2.18) among ${\geq}30$ year old, and 1.98 (1.36 to 2.86) among 30~64 year old individuals. Those with below 75% of energy and protein intake of Korean DRI had higher mortality risks of all-cause mortality compared to the reference group. Diet quality/nutritional intake status was inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Conclusions: Poor Diet quality/nutritional intake status were associated with a higher risk of mortality from all-cause and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer among South Korean adults.