• Title, Summary, Keyword: molecular typing

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Design of Lactic Acid Bacteria Aiming at Probiotic Culture and Molecular Typing for Phyogenetic Identification (Probiotics용 유산균의 Design과 Molecular Typing에 의한 동정법)

  • Yoon, Sung-Sik
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2000
  • Over decades of work, the probiotic research has grown rapidly with a number of new cultures, which is claimed a variety of benefit. However, many of the specific effects attributed to the ingestion of probiotics remain convoluted and scientifically unsubstantiated. Accordingly, the scientific community faces a greater challenge and must objectively seek cause and effect relationships for many potential and currently investigated probiotic species. Rational selection and design of probiotics remains an important challenge and will require a solid information about the physiology and genetics of candidate strains relevant to their intestinal roles, functional activities, and interaction of with other resident micro flora. As far as beneficial culture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is concerned, simple, cost-effective, and exact identification of candidate strains is of foremost importance among others. Until recently, the relatedness of bacterial isolates has been determined sorely by testing for one or several phenotyphic markers, using methods such as serotyping, phage-typing, biotyping, and so forth. However, there are problems in the use of many of these phenotype-based methods. In contrast, some of newer molecular typing methods involving the analysis of DNA offer many advantages over traditional techniques. These DNA-based methods have the greater discriminatory power than that of phenotypic procedures. This review focuses on the importance and the basis of molecular typing methods along with some considerations on de-sign and selection of probiotic culture for human consumption.

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Molecular prophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis

  • Ko, Dae-Sung;Seong, Won-Jin;Kim, Danil;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Nam-Hyung;Lee, Chung-Young;Kim, Jae-Hong;Kwon, Hyuk-Joon
    • Journal of Veterinary Science
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.771-781
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    • 2018
  • Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing bovine mastitis and foodborne diseases associated with dairy products. To determine the genetic relationships between human and bovine or bovine isolates of S. aureus, various molecular methods have been used. Previously we developed an rpoB sequence typing (RSTing) method for molecular differentiation of S. aureus isolates and identification of RpoB-related antibiotic resistance. In this study, we performed spa typing and RSTing with 84 isolates from mastitic cows (22 farms, 72 cows, and 84 udders) and developed a molecular prophage typing (mPPTing) method for molecular epidemiological analysis of bovine mastitis. To compare the results, human isolates from patients (n = 14) and GenBank (n = 166) were used for real and in silico RSTing and mPPTing, respectively. Based on the results, RST10-2 and RST4-1 were the most common rpoB sequence types (RSTs) in cows and humans, respectively, and most isolates from cows and humans clearly differed. Antibiotic resistance-related RSTs were not detected in the cow isolates. A single dominant prophage type and gradual evolution through prophage acquisition were apparent in most of the tested farms. Thus, RSTing and mPPTing are informative, simple, and economic methods for molecular epidemiological analysis of S. aureus infections.

Molecular Typing in Public Health Laboratories: From an Academic Indulgence to an Infection Control Imperative

  • Allerberger, Franz
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2012
  • Using three Austrian case studies, the variegated applications of molecular typing in today's public health laboratories are discussed to help illustrate preventive management strategies relying on DNA subtyping. DNA macrorestriction analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis has become the gold standard for subtyping of food borne pathogens like listeria, salmonella, campylobacter and Bacillus cereus. Using a Salmonella Mbandaka outbreak from the year 2010 as example, it is shown how the comparison of patterns from human isolates, food isolates, animal isolates and feed isolates can allow to identify and confirm a source of disease. An epidemiological connection between the simultaneous occurrence of tuberculosis in cattle and deer with cases of human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium caprae in 2010 was excluded using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable-number tandem repeats subtyping. Also in 2010, multilocus sequence typing with nonselective housekeeping genes, the so-called sequence based typing protocol, was used to elucidate connections between an environmental source (a hospital drinking water system) and a case of legionellosis. During the last decades, molecular typing has evolved to become a routine tool in the daily work of public health laboratories. The challenge is now no longer to simply type microorganisms, but to type them in a way that allows for data exchange between public health laboratories all over the world.

Molecular typing of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infection

  • Yun, Ki Wook;Kim, Do Soo;Kim, Wonyong;Lim, In Seok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: We investigated the molecular types of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) by using conventional phylogrouping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and fimH genotyping. Methods: Samples of patients younger than 18 years of age were collected from the Chung-Ang University Hospital over 2 years. Conventional phylogenetic grouping for UPEC strains was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial strain sequence types (STs) were classified on the basis of the results of partial sequencing of seven housekeeping genes. In addition, we analyzed nucleotide variations in a 424-base pair fragment of fimH, a major virulence factor in UPEC. Results: Sixty-four UPEC isolates were analyzed in this study. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that group B2 was the most common type (n=54, 84%). We identified 16 distinctive STs using MLST. The most common STs were ST95 (35.9%), ST73 (15.6%), ST131 (12.5%), ST69 (7.8%), and ST14 (6.3%). Fourteen fimH allele types were identified, of which 11 had been previously reported, and the remaining three were identified in this study. f1 (n=28, 45.2%) was found to be the most common allele type, followed by f6 and f9 (n=7, 11.3% each). Comparative analysis of the results from the three different molecular typing techniques revealed that both MLST and fimH typing generated more discriminatory UPEC types than did PCR-based phylogrouping. Conclusion: We characterized UPEC molecular types isolated from Korean children by MLST and fimH genotyping. fimH genotyping might serve as a useful molecular test for large epidemiologic studies of UPEC isolates.

Molecular Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA

  • Byoung-Seon Yang
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 2003
  • Pseudomonas aerugionsa is a commonly isolated nosocomial pathogen. DNA fingerprinting of P. aerugionsa is examined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In this study, P. aeruginosa were isolated from environmental and clinical specimens and the molecular typing of the microorganisms was investigated by RAPD. Thirty strains of P. aeruginosa were selected from the strains isolated formerly and submitted for type identification to the University Hospital. 15 strains of P. aeruginosa were received from Chungnam University Hospital and 14 strains from Gyeongsang University Hospital. DNA of P. aeruginosa was extracted by Qiagen genomic DNA kit. PCR mixtures were set up and incubated, Reactions mixtures were made to be optimal for P. aeruginosa. RAPD typing analysis was carried out by the multivariate statistical program (MVSP) V3.0. RAPD type I was the most common pattern and included 23 strains. Most of strains from Gyeongsang University Hospital belonged to RAPD type lb and 15 strains from Chungnam University Hospital to RAPD type I or II. RAPD typing of P. aeruginosa isolated from the environmental and clinical specimens was very simple and reproducible.

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Molecular Typing of Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 분석에 의한 Acinetobacter Baumannii 균주의 유전형 분류)

  • Oh, Jae-Young;Cho, Jae-Wee;Park, Jong-Chun;Lee, Je-Chul
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2000
  • Acinetobacter baumannii strains are emerging pathogens of the nosocomial infection with an increasing frequency in recent years. The therapeutic difficulty due to the wide spread of multiple resistant strains was major problem in A. baumannii infection. It seems likely that high frequency of A. baumannii infection will be increasing epidemiological importance in the future. However, the current limited understanding of the epidemiology of A. baumannii infections is caused by lack of a rapid and practical method for the molecular characterization of A. baumannii strains. This study was undertaken to determine molecular types and genetic similarity among A. baumannii strains isolated from four hospitals by RAPD analysis. Eighty-five strains, including 40 from Chunnam University Hospital, 27 from Dankook University Hospital, 15 from Yonsei University Hospital, and 3 from Seonam University Hospital, were classified into three molecular types. Molecular type II was the most common pattern and included 72 strains. All strains from Dankook University Hospital and 40 strains from Chunnam University Hospital belonged to molecular type I or II. A. baumannii strains form Yonsei University Hospital were very distant similarity values. The range of genetic similarity values among 85 strains of A. baumannii was 0.26 to 1.00. Although phenotypes including biotype and antimicrobial resistance pattern of A. baumannii strains were same or very similar to each other, their RAPD patterns were quite different. Typing with phenotypes was found to be less reliable than molecular typing by RAPD analysis. These results suggest that RAPD analysis provides rapid and simple typing method of A. baumannii strains for epidemiological studies. This work is the first epidemiological report of A. baumannii infections in Korea and it is hoped that results of this work may contribute to a better understanding of the clinical importance and epidemiology of A. baumannii strains.

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HLA-B27 DNA Typing using Group Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (중합효소연쇄반응을 이용한 HLA-B27 유전자분석)

  • Kyung Ok Lee;Sung Hoi Hong;Moom Ju Oh;Kyung In Kim;Min Jung Kim
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 1996
  • HLA-B27 gene, one of the HLA-class I molecule, is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis. It has been most frequently used as a disease-correlated HLA gene by clinicians. In most laboratories, conventional HLA-B27 typing is still performed by cell cytotoxicity tests or fluorescence serology with specific antibodies. In this study, DNA typing method for HLA-B27 was developed by using group specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Four HLA-B27 cell lines (HOM-2, JESTHOM, WT24 and BTB) and fifty six B27 Korean individuals defined by serology were used. The results of control cell and B-27 positive individual samples were correlated well with the data which was performed by serological method. All of B27 positive PCR products gave positive signals on Southern blot hybridization with B27 specific probe. This study shows that the HLA-B27 DNA typing is a relatively simple, fast and practical tool for the determination of the HLA-B27 gene in routine clinical laboratory work.

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Distribution of Pathogenic Genes and Molecular Typing of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from Spring Water in Seoul

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Shim, Mi-Ja
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.161.2-161
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    • 2003
  • In order to investigate the pathogenic genes and genetic relationships of Y. pseudotuberculosis, we isolated 9 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis from about 380 spring water sites in Seoul and carried out antibiotic susceptibility test, biological test and molecular typing. All isolated strains were distributed throughout the northeast area in Seoul (Mt. Bookhan, Mt. Soorak, Mt. Boolam and etc...).Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that all the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, but were resistant to novobiocin and vancomycin. (omitted)

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Personal identification of the excavated ancient human bone through molecular-biological methods (분자생물학적 방법을 통한 출토인골의 개인 동정-사천 늑도 출토 인골과 민통선 민묘 출토 인골을 중심으로)

  • Seo, Min-Seok;Lee, Kyu-Shik;Chung, Yong-Jae;Lee, Myeong-Hui
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.27-40
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    • 2001
  • DNA typing is often used to determine identity from human remains. Recently, the molecular biological analysis of ancient deposits has become possible since methods for the recovery of DNA conserved in bones or teeth from archaeological remains have been developed. In the field of archaeology, one of the most promising approaches is to identify the individuals present in a mass burial site. We performed nuclear DNA typing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing analysis based on PCR from a Korea ancient human remain excavated from Sa-chon Nuk-island and civilian access controlline(CACL). A femur bone were collected and successfully subjected to DNA extraction, quantification, PCR amplification, and subsequently typed for several shot tandem repeat(STR)loci. 4 types of STR systems used in this study were CTT multiplex(CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01), FFv multiplex(F13A01, FESFPS, vWA), Silver STRⅢ multiplex(D16S539, D7S820, D13S317), and amelogenin for sex determination. This studies are primarily concerned with the extraction, amplification, and DNA typing of ancient human bone DNA samples. Also, it is suggestive of importance about closely relationship between both fields of archaeology and molecular biology.

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