• Title, Summary, Keyword: molecular subtypes

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Clinicopathological Features of Indonesian Breast Cancers with Different Molecular Subtypes

  • Widodo, Irianiwati;Dwianingsih, Ery Kus;Triningsih, Ediati;Utoro, Totok;Soeripto, Soeripto
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6109-6113
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with molecular subtypes that have biological distinctness and different behavior. They are classified into luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 and triple negative/basal-like molecular subtypes. Most of breast cancers reported in Indonesia are already large size, with high grade or late stage but the clinicopathological features of different molecular subtypes are still unclear. They need to be better clarified to determine proper treatment and prognosis. Aim: To elaborate the clinicopathological features of molecular subtypes of breast cancers in Indonesian women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 84 paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer samples from Dr. Sardjito General Hospital in Central Java, Indonesia was performed. Expression of ER, PR, Her-2 and Ki-67 was analyzed to classify molecular subtypes of breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. The relation of clinicopathological features of breast cancers with molecular subtypes of luminal A, luminal B, Her-2 and triple negative/basal-like were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-Square test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Case frequency of luminal A, Luminal B, Her-2+ and triple negative/basal-like subtypes were 38.1%, 16.7%, 20.2% and 25%, respectively. Significant difference was found in breast cancer molecular subtypes in regard to age, histological grade, lymph node status and staging. However it showed insignificant result in regard to tumor size. Luminal A subtype of breast cancer was commonly found in >50 years old women (p:0.028), low grade cancer (p:0.09), negative lymph node metastasis (p:0.034) and stage III (p:0.017). Eventhough the difference was insignificant, luminal A subtype breast cancer was mostly found in small size breast cancer (p:0.129). Her-2+ subtype breast cancer was more commonly diagnosed with large size, positive lymph node metastasis and poor grade. Triple negative/basal-like cancer was mostly diagnosed among <50 years old women. Conclusions: This study suggests that immunohistochemistry-based subtyping is essential to classify breast carcinoma into subtypes that vary in clinicopathological features, implying different therapeutic options and prognosis for each subtype.

Molecular Profiling of Breast Carcinoma in Almadinah, KSA: Immunophenotyping and Clinicopathological Correlation

  • Elkablawy, Mohamed A;Albasry, Abdelkader M;Hussainy, Akbar S;Nouh, Magdy M;Alhujaily, Ahmed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7819-7824
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To subtype breast cancer (BC) in Saudi women according to the recent molecular classification and to correlate these subtypes with available clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu) immunostaining was semi-quantitatively assessed to define molecular subtypes of luminal A and B, HER-2 and triple negative (basal-like) in BC paraffin embedded sections from 115 Saudi female patients diagnosed between 2005 to 2015 at the Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital, Almadinah, Saudi Arabia. Results: The most common subtypes were luminal A (47%), followed by luminal B (27.8%) and basal like subtypes (18.3%), whereas HER-2 was the least common subtype (6.9%). Luminal A was predominantly found in the old age group, with low tumor grade (p<0.001) and small tumor size, whereas HER-2 and basal-like subtypes were significantly associated with young age, high tumor grade, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.03, 0.004, 0.05 and 0.04 respectively). All subtypes showed advanced clinical stage at the time of presentation. Conclusions: Molecular subtypes of Saudi BC patients in Almadinah region are consistent with most of the worldwide subtyping. The biological behaviour of each molecular subtype could be expected based on its characteristic clinicopathological features. Along with other prognostic indicators, molecular subtyping would be helpful in predicting prognosis and management of our BC patients. We recommend screening and early diagnosis of BC in our population.

Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes and Associations with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Iranian Women, 2002-2011

  • Kadivar, Maryam;Mafi, Negar;Joulaee, Azadeh;Shamshiri, Ahmad;Hosseini, Niloufar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1881-1886
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is affected by ethnicity of patients. According to hormone receptor status and gene expression profiling, breast cancers are classified into four molecular subtypes, each showing distinct clinical behavior. Lack of sufficient data on molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Iran, prompted us to investigate the prevalence and the clinicopathological features of each subtype among Iranian women. A total of 428 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2002 to 2011 were included and categorized into four molecular subtypes using immunohistochemistry. Prevalence of each subtype and its association with patients' demographics and tumor characteristics, such as size, grade, lymph-node involvement and vascular invasion, were investigated using Chi-square, analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression. Luminal A was the most common molecular subtype (63.8%) followed by Luminal B (8.4%), basal-like (15.9%) and HER-2 (11.9%). Basal-like and HER-2 subtypes were mostly of higher grades while luminal A tumors were more of grade 1 (P<0.001). Vascular invasion was more prevalent in HER-2 subtype, and HER-2 positive tumors were significantly associated with vascular invasion (P=0.013). Using muti-variate analysis, tumor size greater than 5 cm and vascular invasion were significant predictors of 3 or more nodal metastases. Breast cancer was most commonly diagnosed in women around 50 years of age and the majority of patients had lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. This points to the necessity for devising an efficient screening program for breast cancer in Iran. Further, prospective surveys are suggested to evaluate prognosis of different subtypes in Iranian patients.

Disease Free Survival among Molecular Subtypes of Early Stage Breast Cancer between 2001 and 2010 in Iran

  • Najafi, Behrouz;Anvari, Saeid;Roshan, Zahra Atrkar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5811-5816
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Molecular subtypes are important in determining prognosis. This study evaluated five-year disease-free survival among four molecular subtypes in patients with early stages of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, information on patients with breast cancer between 2001-2010 was evaluated. Five hundred ninety two patients in the early stages of breast cancer (stages 1 and 2) were selected to undergo anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Relapse, death or absence (censor) were considered as the end of the study. Patients based on ER, PR and HER-2 expression were divided into four subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER-2 enriched and triple negative). Information based upon questionnaire was analysed. To show the patients survival rate, life table and Kaplan-Meyer methods were used, and for comparing mean survival among different groups, the Log-Rank test was utilized. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was $47.9{\pm}9.6$. Out of the 592 patients, 586 were female (99%) and 6 were male (1%). Considering breast cancer molecular subtypes, 361 patients were in the luminal A group (61%), 49 patients in the luminal B group (8.3%), 48 patients in the HER-2 enriched group (8.1%) and 134 in the triple negative group (22.6%). Mean disease-free survival was 53.7 months overall, 55.4 months for the luminal A group, 48.3 months for the luminal B group, 43 months for the HER-2enriched group and 54.6 months for the triple negatives. Disease free survival differed significantly among the molecular subtypes (p value=0.0001). Conclusions: The best disease-free survival rate was among the luminal A subgroup and the worst disease-free survival rate was among the HER-2 enriched subgroup. Disease free survival rate in the HER-2 positive groups (luminal B and HER-2 enriched) was worse than the HER-2 negative groups (luminal A and triple negative).

Association of Immunohistochemically Defined Molecular Subtypes with Clinical Response to Presurgical Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Khokher, Samina;Qureshi, Muhammad Usman;Mahmood, Saqib;Nagi, Abdul Hannan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3223-3228
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    • 2013
  • Gene expression profiling (GEP) has identified several molecular subtypes of breast cancer, with different clinico-pathologic features and exhibiting different responses to chemotherapy. However, GEP is expensive and not available in the developing countries where the majority of patients present at advanced stage. The St Gallen Consensus in 2011 proposed use of a simplified, four immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarker panel (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67/Tumor Grade) for molecular classification. The present study was conducted in 75 newly diagnosed patients of breast cancer with large (>5cm) tumors to evaluate the association of IHC surrogate molecular subtype with the clinical response to presurgical chemotherapy, evaluated by the WHO criteria, 3 weeks after the third cycle of 5 flourouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (FAC regimen). The subtypes of luminal, basal-like and HER2 enriched were found to account for 36.0 % (27/75), 34.7 % (26/75) and 29.3% (22/75) of patients respectively. Ten were luminal A and 14 luminal B (8 HER2 negative and 6HER2 positive). The triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was most sensitive to chemotherapy with 19% achieving clinical-complete-response (cCR) followed by HER2 enriched (2/22 (9%) cCR), luminal B (1/6 (7%) cCR) and luminal A (0/10 (0%) cCR). Heterogeneity was observed within each subgroup, being most marked in the TNBC although the most responding tumors, 8% developing clinical-progressive-disease. The study supports association of molecular subtypes with response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer and the existence of further heterogeneity within subtypes.

Molecular Types and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Breast Cancer- While Molecular Shifting is More Common in Luminal a Tumors, The Pathologic Complete Response is Most Frequently Observed in Her-2 Like Tumors

  • Salim, Derya Kivrak;Mutlu, Hasan;Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt;Musri, Fatma Yalcin;Tural, Deniz;Gunduz, Seyda;Coskun, Hasan Senol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9379-9383
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    • 2014
  • Background: Pathologic complete response (pCR) is one of the most important target end-points of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with breast cancer (BC). In present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between molecular subtypes and NACT in patients with BC. Materials and Methods: Using the Akdeniz University database, 106 patients who received NACT for operable breast cancer were retrospectively identified. Prognostic factors before and after NACT were assessed. According to the molecular subtypes, molecular shifting after NACT and tumoral and nodal response to NACT were analyzed. Results: The distribution of subtypes was: Luminal A, 28.3% (n=30); Luminal B, 31.1% (n=33); HER2-like, 24.5% (n=26); and basal like/triple negative (BL/TN), 16.0% (n=17). According to molecular subtypes, pCR rates in both breast and axillary were 0%, 21.4%, 36.4% and 27.3% for luminal A, luminal B, HER2-like and BL/TN, respectively (p=0.018). Molecular subtype shifting was mostly seen in luminal A type (28.6%) after the NACT. The pCR rate in breast and axillary was significantly higher in patients with HER2-like type BC. Conclusions: In patients with HER-2 like type BC, NACT may be offered in early stages. Additionally, due to molecular shifting, adjuvant treatment schedule should be reviewed again, especially in the luminal A group.

Prognostic Influence of BCL2 on Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

  • Hwang, Ki-Tae;Han, Wonshik;Kim, Jongjin;Moon, Hyeong-Gon;Oh, Sohee;Song, Yun Seon;Kim, Young A;Chang, Mee Soo;Noh, Dong-Young
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.54-64
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: We aimed to reveal the prognostic influence of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) on molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: We analyzed 9,468 patients with primary breast cancer. We classified molecular subtypes according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and St. Gallen guidelines, mainly on the basis of the expression of hormonal receptor (HR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. Results: Regarding NCCN classification, BCL2 was a strong favorable prognostic factor in the HR(+)/HER2(-) subtype (p<0.001) and a marginally significant favorable prognosticator in the HR(+)/HER2(+) subtype (p=0.046). BCL2 had no prognostic impact on HR(-)/HER2(+) and HR(-)/HER2(-) subtypes. In relation to St. Gallen classification, BCL2 was a strong favorable prognosticator in luminal A and luminal B/HER2(-) subtypes (both p<0.001). BCL2 was a marginally significant prognosticator in the luminal B/HER2(+) subtype (p=0.046), and it was not a significant prognosticator in HER2 or triple negative (TN) subtypes. The prognostic effect of BCL2 was proportional to the stage of breast cancer in HR(+)/HER2(-), HR(+)/HER2(+), and HR(-)/HER2(-) subtypes, but not in HR(-)/HER2(+) subtype. BCL2 was not a prognostic factor in TN breast cancer regardless of epidermal growth factor receptor expression. Conclusion: The prognostic influence of BCL2 was different across molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and it was largely dependent on HR, HER2, Ki-67, and the stage of cancer. BCL2 had a strong favorable prognostic impact only in HR(+)/HER2(-) or luminal A and luminal B/HER2(-) subtypes, particularly in advanced stages. Further investigations are needed to verify the prognostic influence of BCL2 on molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to develop clinical applications for prognostication using BCL2.

Rapid Molecular Diagnosis using Real-time Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) for Detection of Influenza A Virus Subtypes

  • Lim, Jae-Won;Lee, In-Soo;Cho, Yoon-Jung;Jin, Hyun-Woo;Choi, Yeon-Im;Lee, Hye-Young;Kim, Tae-Ue
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2011
  • Influenza A virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family is a contagious respiratory pathogen that continues to evolve and burden in the human public health. It is able to spread efficiently from human to human and have the potential to cause pandemics with significant morbidity and mortality. It has been estimated that every year about 500 million people are infected with this virus, causing about approximately 0.25 to 0.5 million people deaths worldwide. Influenza A viruses are classified into different subtypes by antigenicity based on their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. The sudden emergence of influenza A virus subtypes and access for epidemiological analysis of this subtypes demanded a rapid development of specific diagnostic tools. Also, rapid identification of the subtypes can help to determine the antiviral treatment, because the different subtypes have a different antiviral drug resistance patterns. In this study, our aim is to detect influenza A virus subtypes by using real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) which has high sensitivity and specificity through molecular beacon. Real-time NASBA is a method that able to shorten the time compare to other molecular diagnostic tools and is performed by isothermal condition. We selected major pandemic influenza A virus subtypes, H3N2 and H5N1. Three influenza A virus gene fragments such as HA, NA and matrix protein (M) gene were targeted. M gene is distinguished influenza A virus from other influenza virus. We designed specific primers and molecular beacons for HA, NA and M gene, respectively. In brief, the results showed that the specificity of the real-time NASBA was higher than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, time to positivity (TTP) of this method was shorter than real-time PCR. This study suggests that the rapid detection of neo-appearance pandemic influenza A virus using real-time NASBA has the potential to determine the subtypes.

Differential Distribution of microRNAs in Breast Cancer Grouped by Clinicopathological Subtypes

  • Li, Jian-Yi;Jia, Shi;Zhang, Wen-Hai;Zhang, Yang;Kang, Ye;Li, Pi-Song
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3197-3203
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    • 2013
  • Background: microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate proliferation, invasion and metastasis are considered to be the principal molecular basis of tumor heterogeneity. Breast cancer is not a homogeneous tissue. Thus, it is very important to perform microarray-based miRNA screening of tumors at different sites. Methods: Breast tissue samples from the centers and edges of tumors of 30 patients were classified into 5 clinicopathological subtypes. In each group, 6 specimens were examined by microRNA array. All differential miRNAs were analyzed between the edges and centers of the tumors. Results: Seventeen kinds of miRNAs were heterogeneously distributed in the tumors from different clinicopathological subtypes that included 1 kind of miRNA in Luminal A and Luminal B Her2+ subtypes, 4 kinds in Luminal A and Her2 overexpression subtypes, 6 kinds in Luminal B Ki67+ and Luminal B Her2+ subtypes, 2 kinds between Luminal B Ki67+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes, 2 kinds between Luminal B Her2+ and TNBC subtypes, and 2 kinds between Luminal B Ki67+, Luminal B Her2+, and TNBC subtypes. Twenty kinds of miRNAs were homogenously distributed in the tumors from different clinicopathological subtypes that included 6 kinds of miRNAs in Luminal B Ki67+ and Luminal B Her2+ subtypes, 1 kind in Luminal B Ki67+ and Her2 overexpression subtypes, 10 kinds between Luminal B Ki67+ and TNBC subtypes, 2 kinds in Luminal B Her2+ and TNBC subtypes, and 1 kind between Luminal B Ki67+, Luminal B Her2+, and TNBC subtypes. Conclusions: A total of 37 miRNAs were significantly distributed in tumors from the centers to edges, and in all clinicopathological subtypes.

Iterative integrated imputation for missing data and pathway models with applications to breast cancer subtypes

  • Linder, Henry;Zhang, Yuping
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.411-430
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    • 2019
  • Tumor development is driven by complex combinations of biological elements. Recent advances suggest that molecularly distinct subtypes of breast cancers may respond differently to pathway-targeted therapies. Thus, it is important to dissect pathway disturbances by integrating multiple molecular profiles, such as genetic, genomic and epigenomic data. However, missing data are often present in the -omic profiles of interest. Motivated by genomic data integration and imputation, we present a new statistical framework for pathway significance analysis. Specifically, we develop a new strategy for imputation of missing data in large-scale genomic studies, which adapts low-rank, structured matrix completion. Our iterative strategy enables us to impute missing data in complex configurations across multiple data platforms. In turn, we perform large-scale pathway analysis integrating gene expression, copy number, and methylation data. The advantages of the proposed statistical framework are demonstrated through simulations and real applications to breast cancer subtypes. We demonstrate superior power to identify pathway disturbances, compared with other imputation strategies. We also identify differential pathway activity across different breast tumor subtypes.