• Title, Summary, Keyword: modification factor

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A Role for Ginseng in the Control of Postprandial Glycemia and Type 2 Diabetes

  • Vuksan Vladimir;Sievenpiper John L;Xu Zheng;Zdravkovic Uljana Beljan;Jenkins Alexandra L;Arnason John T;Bateman Ryon M.;Leiter Lawrence A;Josse Robert G;Francis Thomas;Stavro Mark P
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2002
  • The use of herbals has increased considerably while their efficacy and safety remain untested. This unsupported surge in demand has prompted a call for their clinical evaluation. One area in which evaluations are emerging is ginseng and diabetes. Growing evidence is accumulating from in vitro and animal models indicating that various ginseng species, American (Panax quinquefolius L), Asian (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), Korean Red, San-chi (Panax notoginseng [Burk.] P.R. Chen), and the non-panax species Siberian (Eleutherococcus senticossus) ginsing, and their fractions, saponins (ginsenosides) and peptidoglycans (panaxans for panax species and eleutehrans for Siberian ginseng), might affect carbohydrate metabolism and related signaling molecules. Recent human studies from our laboratory have also shown a blood glucose lowering effect of American ginseng (AG) and some other ginseng spices postprandially after acute administration and chronically after administration for 8-weeks in people with type 2 diabetes. Although generally encouraging, these data only indicate a need for more evaluations of ginsengs safety and efficacy. Because of poor industry standardization, it is not known whether all ginsengs will affect blood glucose. In this regards some ginseng batches have demonstrated null effects while others have even raised postprandial glycemia. Clinical research should therefore focus on components involved in its glucose lowering effects.

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Response Modification Factors of Non-seismic School Buildings Considering Short Column Effects and Natural Period (단주효과 및 고유주기를 고려한 비내진 학교시설의 반응 수정계수)

  • Kim, Beom Seok;Park, Ji-Hun
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 2019
  • Response modification factors of school facilities for non-seismic RC moment frames with partial masonry infills in 'Manual for Seismic Performance Evaluation and Retrofit of School Facilities' published in 2018 were investigated in the preceding study. However, since previous studies are based on 2D frame analysis and limited analysis conditions, additional verification needs to be performed to further apply various conditions including orthogonal effect of seismic load. Therefore, this study is to select appropriate response modification factors of school facilities for non-seismic RC moment frames with partial masonry infills by 3D frame analysis. The results are as follows. An appropriate response modification factor for non-seismic RC moment frames with partial masonry infills is proposed as 2.5 for all cases if the period is longer than 0.6 seconds. Also if the period is less than 0.4 seconds and the ratio of shear-controlled columns is less than 30%, 2.5 is chosen too. However, if the period is less than 0.4 seconds and the ratio of shear-controlled columns is higher than 30%, the response modification factor shall be reduced to 2.0. If the period is between 0.4 and 0.6 seconds, then linearly interpolates the response correction factor.

A Study on the Response Modification Factor of Unreinforced masonry Buildings (비보강 조적조 건물의 반응 수정 계수에 관한 연구)

  • 정상훈
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 1999
  • there is no earthquake resistant design code for the unreinforced masonary(URM) buildings in Korea. But it does not mean that all URM buldings in Korea is safe under the possible extent of an earthquake. The purpose of this study is in the inelastic analysis of unreinforced masonary walls with many different types of openings and carry out their ductilities an strengths, response modification factor of each wall has been compared and the most appropriate response modification factor for URM building in Korea has been proposed.

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Evaluation of Response Modification Factors for Shear Wall Apartment Building (벽식 APT의 반응수정계수 추정에 관한 연구)

  • 송정원;송진규;이수곤
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.859-864
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    • 2001
  • For earthquake resistance design, a response modification factor is used to reduce the design strength and it reflects ductility, reserve strength, redundancy and damping effect. But this factor has not theoretical basis. In this study, two response modification factors are compared and analyzed for shear wall apartment building.; the one is introduced by ATC-19 Procedures, the other is suggested FEMA-273 and ATC-40 through nonlinear static analysis. For the results, ATC-19 procedure gives a reasonable estimation to R factor. But $R_{u}$ by using FEAM-273 and ATC-40 methods is estimated so small in case of a minor or moderate earthquake region. Due to this fact, response modification factor is smaller than suggested load criterion 3.0. So, it needs to decrease wall volume and reduce the global strength and system stiffness for proper ductile behavior matching to domestic load criterion.

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Current Clinical Evidence for Korean Red Ginseng in Management of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: A Toronto's Ginseng Clinical Testing Program

  • Vuksan, Vladimir;Sievenpipper, John;Jovanovski, Elena;Jenkins, Alexandra L.
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.264-273
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    • 2010
  • While ginseng is reported to have a wide array of applications, there is growing evidence for its indications in diabetes and vascular disease. A clear connection, however, has not been established between ginseng's composition, dose and its targeted efficacy in humans. We therefore developed and initiated the Korean Red Ginseng Clinical Testing Program for diabetes and vascular function which is an efficacy and safety-based clinical screening model for ginseng. The most efficacious sources, ginsenoside profiles, doses, and modes of administration were examined in sequential, acute, followed by long term, randomized-controlled trials to investigate the efficacy and safety profiles. This review discusses the current state of the clinical research of Korean red ginseng program conducted in Toronto, paving the way for the use of clinically selected ginseng and its ginsenoside fractions in the management of diabetes and vascular diseases.

Response modification factor of the frames braced with reduced yielding segment BRB

  • Fanaie, Nader;Dizaj, Ebrahim Afsar
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, overstrength, ductility and response modification factors are calculated for frames braced with a different type of buckling restrained braces, called reduced yielding segment BRB (Buckling Restrained Brace) in which the length of its yielding part is reduced and placed in one end of the brace element in comparison with conventional BRBs. Forthermore, these factors are calculated for ordinary BRBF and the results are compared. In this regard incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) method is used for studying 17 records of the most known earthquakes happened in the world. To do that, the considered buildings have different stories and two bracing configurations: diagonal and inverted V chevron, the most ordinary configurations of BRBFs. Static pushover analysis, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis and linear dynamic analysis have been performed using OpenSees software. Considering the results, it can be seen that, overstrength, ductility and response modification factors of this type of BRBF(Buckling Restrained Braced Frame) is greater than those of conventional types and it shows better seismic performance and also eliminates some of conventional BRBF's disadvantages such as low post-yield stiffness.

Seismic Design of Structures in Low Seismicity Regions

  • Lee, Dong-Guen;Cho, So-Hoon;Ko, Hyun
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.53-63
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    • 2007
  • Seismic design codes are developed mainly based on the observation of the behavior of structures in the high seismicity regions where structures may experience significant amount of inelastic deformations and major earthquakes may result in structural damages in a vast area. Therefore, seismic loads are reduced in current design codes for building structures using response modification factors which depend on the ductility capacity and overstrength of a structural system. However, structures in low seismicity regions, subjected to a minor earthquake, will behave almost elastically because of the larger overstrength of structures in low seismicity regions such as Korea. Structures in low seismicity regions may have longer periods since they are designed to smaller seismic loads and main target of design will be minor or moderate earthquakes occurring nearby. Ground accelerations recorded at stations near the epicenter may have somewhat different response spectra from those of distant station records. Therefore, it is necessary to verify if the seismic design methods based on high seismicity would he applicable to low seismicity regions. In this study, the adequacy of design spectra, period estimation and response modification factors are discussed for the seismic design in low seismicity regions. The response modification factors are verified based on the ductility and overstrength of building structures estimated from the farce-displacement relationship. For the same response modification factor, the ductility demand in low seismicity regions may be smaller than that of high seismicity regions because the overstrength of structures may be larger in low seismicity regions. The ductility demands in example structures designed to UBC97 for high, moderate and low seismicity regions were compared. Demands of plastic rotation in connections were much lower in low seismicity regions compared to those of high seismicity regions when the structures are designed with the same response modification factor. Therefore, in low seismicity regions, it would be not required to use connection details with large ductility capacity even for structures designed with a large response modification factor.

The Effect of Addendum Modification Coefficient on Gear Strength to Planetary Gear Reducer (유성기어 감속기에서 전위계수가 기어 강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Ki-Suk;Han, Dong-Seop
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2011
  • Industrial reducer is in general use to Deck Crane. High-precision and high-efficient reducer is minimized the power-loss and energy-loss of a machine. So it contribute the price reduction and life extension. Reducer is usually using the Planetary gear reducer. Planetary gear reducer is composed the sun gear, planet gear, internal gear and casing. Industrial reducer's wear and breakage have a short-life. To solve this problem, it is using the profile-shifted-gear or tooth modification. This study was carried out the effect of addendum modification coefficient on tooth fillet bending strength to planetary reducer. Tooth fillet bending stress is calculate. And all parameter were expressed the function of addendum modification coefficient. And then stress concentration factor of tooth fillet curve was express the function of addendum modification coefficient using comparison between theory and finite element analysis.

An Improved Method for the Evaluation of Load Carrying Capacity of Existing Bridges (교량 구조물의 개선된 내하력 평가기법)

  • Oh, Byung-Whan;Kim, Ki-Su;Shin, Ho-Song;Lee, Woong-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 1997
  • Recently, safety evaluation of structures has received great concern in this country. One major problem in safety evaluation is that the results are often quite different depending upon evaluation authority. This is mainly due to arbitrary selection of various modification factors when employing allowable stress method for safety evaluation, The purpose of the present study is, therefore, to establish a rational method to determine the modification factors, especially the stress modification factor and the deterioration modification factor based on visual examination. It is thought that the proposed method yields a rational and consistent result for safety evaluation and may efficiently be used for realistic evaluation of load capacity of bridge structures.

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