• Title, Summary, Keyword: mode acceleration method

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A Numerical Study on the Strain Based Monitoring Method for Lateral Structural Response of Buildings using FBG Sensors (FBG를 이용한 변형률 기반 건물의 횡방향 구조반응 모니터링 기법에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Choi, Se Woon;Park, Keunhyoung;Kim, Yousok;Park, Hyo Seon
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the strain based monitoring method to evaluate the lateral structural response of buildings is presented and an applicability of the proposed method is confirmed through the numerical study. It is assumed that the fiber Bragg grating(FBG) strain sensor is employed to measure the strain response of members due to the excellent properties such as multiplexing, and higher sampling frequency. These properties of FBG sensors is proper for buildings the a lot of sensors are required to monitor the reponses of those. FBG sensors measure the strain response of vertical members and are employed to calculate the curvatures of members using the measured strain responses. Then the lateral displacement, and lateral acceleration is evaluated based on the curvatures of vertical members. Additionally, these dynamic responses of buildings are used to evaluate the dynamic properties of buildings such as the natural frequencies and mode shapes using the frequency domain decomposition(FDD) method. Through the application of nine-story steel moment frame example structure, it is confirmed that the proposed method is appropriate to evaluate the lateral structural responses and dynamic properties of buildings.

Buffeting Response Correction Method based on Dynamic Properties of Existing Cable-Stayed Bridge (공용 사장교의 동적특성을 반영하는 버페팅 응답보정법)

  • Kim, Byeong Cheol;Yhim, Sung Soon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2013
  • According to design specifications for structural safety, a bridge in initial design step has been modelled to have larger self-weight, external loads and less stiffness than those of real one in service. Thereby measured buffeting responses of existing bridge show different distributions from those of the design model in design step. In order to obtain accurate buffeting responses of the in-site bridge, the analysis model needs to be modified by considering the measured natural frequencies. Until now, a Manual Tuning Method (MTM) has been widely used to obtain the Measurement-based Model(MBM) that has equal natural frequencies to the real bridge. However, since state variables can be selected randomly and its result is not apt to converge exact rapidly, MTM takes a lot of effort and elapsed time. This study presents Buffeting Response Correction Method (BRCM) to obtain more exact buffeting response above MTM. The BRCM is based on the idea the commonly used frequency domain buffeting analysis does not need all structural properties except mode shapes, natural frequencies and damping ratio. BRCM is used to improve each modal buffeting responses of the design model by substituting measured natural frequencies. The measured natural frequencies are determined from acceleration time-history in ordinary vibration of the real bridge. As illustrated examples, simple beam is applied to compare the results of BRCM with those of a assumed MBM by numerical simulation. Buffeting responses of BRCM are shown to be appropriate for those of in-site bridge and the difference is less than 3% between the responses of BRCM and MTM. Therefore, BRCM can calculate easily and conveniently the buffeting responses and improve effectively maintenance and management of in-site bridge than MTM.

A Numerical Study on Improvement in Seismic Performance of Nuclear Components by Applying Dynamic Absorber (동흡진기 적용을 통한 원전기기의 내진성능향상에 관한 수치적 연구)

  • Kwag, Shinyoung;Kwak, Jinsung;Lee, Hwanho;Oh, Jinho;Koo, Gyeong-Hoi
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, we study the applicability of Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) to improve seismic performance of piping system under earthquake loading. For this purpose, a mode analysis of the target pipeline is performed, and TMD installation locations are selected as important modes with relatively large mass participation ratio in each direction. In order to design the TMD at selected positions, each corresponding mode is replaced with a SDOF damped model, and accordingly the corresponding pipeline is converted into a 2-DOF system by considering the TMD as a SDOF damped model. Then, optimal design values of the TMD, which can minimize the dynamic amplification factor of the transformed 2-DOF system, are derived through GA optimization method. The proposed TMD design values are applied to the pipeline numerical model to analyze seismic performance with and without TMD installation. As a result of numerical analyses, it is confirmed that the directional acceleration responses, the maximum normal stresses and directional reaction forces of the pipeline system are reduced, quite a lot. The results of this study are expected to be used as basic information with respect to the improvement of the seismic performance of the piping system in the future.

Reliable and High Spatial Resolution Method to Identify the Number of MoS2 Layers Using a Scanning Electron Microscopy

  • Sharbidre, Rakesh Sadanand;Park, Se Min;Lee, Chang Jun;Park, Byong Chon;Hong, Seong-Gu;Bramhe, Sachin;Yun, Gyeong Yeol;Ryu, Jae-Kyung;Kim, Taik Nam
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.705-709
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    • 2017
  • The electronic and optical characteristics of molybdenum disulphide ($MoS_2$) film significantly vary with its thickness, and thus a rapid and accurate estimation of the number of $MoS_2$ layers is critical in practical applications as well as in basic researches. Various existing methods are currently available for the thickness measurement, but each has drawbacks. Transmission electron microscopy allows actual counting of the $MoS_2$ layers, but is very complicated and requires destructive processing of the sample to the point where it will no longer be useable after characterization. Atomic force microscopy, particularly when operated in the tapping mode, is likewise time-consuming and suffers from certain anomalies caused by an improperly chosen set point, that is, free amplitude in air for the cantilever. Raman spectroscopy is a quick characterization method for identifying one to a few layers, but the laser irradiation causes structural degradation of the $MoS_2$. Optical microscopy works only when $MoS_2$ is on a silicon substrate covered with $SiO_2$ of 100~300 nm thickness. The last two optical methods are commonly limited in resolution to the micrometer range due to the diffraction limits of light. We report here a method of measuring the distribution of the number of $MoS_2$ layers using a low voltage field emission electron microscope with acceleration voltages no greater than 1 kV. We found a linear relationship between the FESEM contrast and the number of $MoS_2$ layers. This method can be used to characterize $MoS_2$ samples at nanometer-level spatial resolution, which is below the limits of other methods.

Dynamic Response of PSC I shape girder being used wide upper flange in Railway Bridge (확장된 상부플랜지 PSC I형 거더교의 동특성 및 동적안정성 분석)

  • Park, Jong-Kwon;Jang, Pan-Ki;Cha, Tae-Gweon;Kim, Chan-Woo;Jang, Il-Young
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.125-135
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    • 2015
  • The tendency of more longer span length being required economical in railway bridges is studying about PSC I shaped girder. In this case, it is important to analyze and choose the effective girder section for stiffness of bridge. This study investigates the dynamic properties and safety of PSC I shaped girder being used wide upper flange whose selection based on radii and efficiency factor of flexure for railway bridge in different span type. In addition, 40m PSC Box girder bridge adopted in Honam high speed railway is further analyzed to compare dynamic performance of PSC I shaped girder railway bridge with same span length. Time history response is acquired based on the mode superposition method. Static analysis is also analyzed using standard train load combined with the impact factor. Consequently, the result met limit values in every case including vertical displacement, acceleration and distort.

Verification on the Application of Monitoring for Frame Structures Using the VRS-RTK Method through the Free Vibration Test (자유 진동 실험을 통한 VRS-RTK 기법을 이용한 골조 구조물의 모니터링 적용성 검토)

  • Choi, Se-Woon;Park, Hyo-Seon;Kim, Bub-Ryur;Lee, Hong-Min;Kim, You-Sok
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2014
  • To monitor the wind-induced responses of buildings, conventional real-time kinematic (RTK) methods based on two global positioning system (GPS) receivers (e.g., a reference and a rover) are widely applied. However, these methods can encounter problems such as difficulty in securing and maintaining a space for a reference station. With the recently developed virtual reference station (VRS)-RTK approach, the position of a structure can be measured using only a rover receiver. In this study, to evaluate the applicability of VRS-RTK methods in monitoring the lateral structural responses of frame structures, we performed free vibration tests on a one-story frame model (the first natural frequency of 1 Hz) and a three-story frame model (the first natural frequency of 0.85 Hz). To assess the reliability of the displacement and acceleration responses measured by the GPS, we performed a concurrent measurement using laser displacement sensors and an accelerometer. The accelerometer results were consistent with the GPS measurements in terms of the time history and frequency content. Furthermore, to derive an appropriate sampling rate for the continuous monitoring of buildings, the errors in the displacement responses were evaluated at different GPS sampling rates (5, 10, 20 Hz). The results indicate that as the sampling rate increased, the errors in the displacement responses decreased. In addition, in the three-story model, all modal components (first, second, and third modes) could be recorded at a sampling rate of 20 Hz.

Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Chronic Lung Disease with Hypoxemia (만성 저산소성 폐질환의 폐동맥 고혈압에 대한 심초음파 검사)

  • Chang, Jung-Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.846-855
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    • 1999
  • Background : Secondary pulmonary hypertension is an important final endpoint in patients with chronic hypoxic lung disease, accompanied by deterioration of pulmonary hemodynamics. The clinical diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and/or cor pulmonale could be difficult, and simple noninvasive evaluation of pulmonary artery pressures has been an relevant clinical challenge for many years. Doppler echocardiography might to be a more reliable method for evaluating pulmonary hemodynamics in such patients in terms of the accuracy, reproducibility and easiness for obtaining an appropriate echocardiographic window than M-mode echocardiography. The aim of this study was to assess echocardiographic parameters associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, defined by increasing right ventricular systolic pressure(RVSP), calculated from trans-tricuspid gradient in patients with chronic hypoxic lungs. Method : We examined 19 patients with chronic hypoxic lung disease, suspected pulmonary hypertension under the clinical guidelines by two dimensional echocardiography via the left parasternal and subcostal approach in a supine position. Doppler echocardiography measured RVSP from tricuspid regurgitant velocity in continuous wave with 2.5MHz transducer and acceleration time(AT) on right ventricular outflow tract in pulsed wave for the estimation of pulmonary arterial pressure. Results : On echocardiography, moderate to severe degree of pulmonary arterial hypertension was defined as RVSP more than 40mmHg, presenting tricuspid regurgitation. Increased right ventricular endsystolic diameter and shortened AT were noted in the increased RVSP group. Increased RVSP was correlated negatively with the shortening of AT. Other clinical data, including pulmonary functional parameters, arterial blood gas analysis and M mode echocardiographic parameters were not changed significantly with the increased RVSP. Conclusion : These findings suggest that shortened AT on pulsed doppler can be useful when quantifying pulmonary arterial pressure with increased RVSP in patients with chronic lung disease with hypoxemia. Doppler echocardiography in pulmonary hypertension of chronic hypoxic lungs is an useful option, based on noninvasiveness under routine clinical practice.

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