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Analysis of Acquisition Parameters That Caused Artifacts in Four-dimensional (4D) CT Images of Targets Undergoing Regular Motion (표적이 규칙적으로 움직일 때 생기는 4DCT 영상의 모션 아티팩트(Motion Artifact) 관련된 원인분석)

  • Sheen, Heesoon;Han, Youngyih;Shin, Eunhyuk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.243-252
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the impacts of acquisition parameters on artifacts in four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) images, such as the partial volume effect (PVE), partial projection effect (PPE), and mis-matching of initial motion phases between adjacent beds (MMimph) in cine mode scanning. A thoracic phantom and two cylindrical phantoms (2 cm diameter and heights of 0.5 cm for No.1 and 10 cm for No.2) were scanned using 4D CT. For the thoracic phantom, acquisition was started automatically in the first scan with 5 sec and 8 sec of gantry rotation, thereby allowing a different phase at the initial projection of each bed. In the second scan, the initial projection at each bed was manually synchronized with the inhalation phase to minimize the MMimph. The third scan was intentionally un-synchronized with the inhalation phase. In the cylindrical phantom scan, one bed (2 cm) and three beds (6 cm) were used for 2 and 6 sec motion periods. Measured target volume to true volume ratios (MsTrueV) were computed. The relationships among MMimph, MsTrueV, and velocity were investigated. In the thoracic phantom, shorter gantry rotation provided more precise volume and was highly correlated with velocity when MMimph was minimal. MMimph reduced the correlation. For moving cylinder No. 1, MsTrueV was correlated with velocity, but the larger MMimph for 2 sec of motion removed the correlation. The volume of No. 2 was similar to the static volume due to the small PVE, PPE, and MMimph. Smaller target velocity and faster gantry rotation resulted in a more accurate volume description. The MMimph was the main parameter weakening the correlation between MsTrueV and velocity. Without reducing the MMimph, controlling target velocity and gantry rotation will not guarantee accurate image presentation given current 4D CT technology.

Design of 1× Optical Path Relay Adapter for Beam Splitting Prism used in Day & Night Scope (주야 관측경용 빔 분리프리즘을 위한 1× Optical Path Relay Adapter 설계)

  • Lee, Dong-Hee;Choi, Gyu-Jung;Jung, In;Park, Seung-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.441-447
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This paper is about development and design of the 1x optical path relay adapter for the beam splitting prism by us the day & night scope. Methods: To product the day & night scope by using the beam splitting prism and the commercial zoom optical system with the C-mount lens barrel structure, the optical path relay adapter, which doesn't change the image size of the zoom optical system and can stretch the position of the image-forming surface, is needed. We could design the 1x optical path relay adapter by using the CodeV program in which the Lens Module mode is offered. Results: We could design the optical path relay adapter used in the day&night scope with the beam splitting prism, of which characteristics have the EFL of -56.0 mm, the magnification of +1.0x, the distance from the 1st lens surface to the last lens surface of about 20.4 mm. The resolution of this system is characterized by 30 lp/mm at 40% MTF. This is enough to accommodate the designed optical path relay adapter can overcome the resolution of the 3rd generation of image intesifier tubes. Conclusions: By designing and applying the optical path relay adapter of which optical characteristics have the EFL of -56.0 mm, the magnification of +1.0x, the distance from the 1st lens surface to the last lens surface of about 20.4 mm, and the resolution of 30 lp/mm at 40% MTF, we could develop the new type day&night scope consisting of the beam splitting, the commercial zoom optical system with the C-mount lens barrel structure, and the 3rd generation of image intesifier tubes.

The Study on the Analysis Method of Tetrodotoxin in Puffer Fish (복어 중 테트로도톡신 분석법에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Young-Woon;Lee, Yoon-Suk;Park, Sung-Kug;Seo, Jung-Heok;Kim, Mee-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2012
  • The current standard for testing tetrodotoxin (TTX) in foodstuffs is the mouse bioassay (MBA) in Korea as in many other countries. However, this test suffers from potential ethical concerns over the use of live animals. In addition, the mouse bioassay does not test for a specific toxin thus a sample resulting in mouse incapacitation would need further confirmatory testing to determine the exact source toxin (e.g., TTX, STX, brevotoxin, etc.). Furthermore, though the time of death is proportional to toxicity in this assay, the dynamic range for this proportional relationship is small thus many samples must be diluted and new mice be injected to yield a result that falls within the quantitative dynamic range. Therefore, in recent years, there have been many efforts in this field to develop alternative assays. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has been emerged as one of the most promising options. A LC-MS-MS method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) and followed by analysis using an electrospray in the positive ionization mode and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). To adopt LC-MS-MS method as alternative standard for testing TTX, we performed a validation study for the quantification of TTX in puffer fish. This LC-MS-MS method showed good sensitivity as limits of detection (LOD) of $0.03{\sim}0.08{\mu}g/g$ and limits of quantification (LOQ) of $0.10{\sim}0.25{\mu}g/g$. The linearity ($r^2$) of tetrodotoxin were 0.9986~0.9997, the recovery were 80.9~103.0% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 4.3~13.0%. The correlation coefficient between the mouse bioassay and LC/MS/MS method was higher than 0.95.

Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea

  • Choy, Yun Ho;Mahboob, Alam;Cho, Chung Il;Choi, Jae Gwan;Choi, Im Soo;Choi, Tae Jeong;Cho, Kwang Hyun;Park, Byoung Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1696-1702
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A)-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA), and retail cut percentage (RCP). Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90), through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP) based on their test day measures. The (co)variance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex) and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth) for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability ($h^2$) estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The $h^2$ estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The $h^2$ for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations ($r_G$) were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (-0.29 to -0.38), and between DAYS90 and EMA (-0.16 to -0.26). BF had strong $r_G$ with RCP (-0.87 to -0.93). Moderately positive $r_G$ existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28) and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44) among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the $r_G$ between DAYS90 and AEMA from model III (0.27 to 0.30). The $r_G$ between AEMA and ABF and between AEMA and ARCP were moderate but with negative and positive signs, respectively; also reflected influence of pre-adjustments. However, the $r_G$ between BF and RCP remained non-influential to trait pre-adjustments or covariable fits. Therefore, we conclude that ultrasound measures taken at a body weight of about 90 kg as the test final should be adjusted for body weight growth. Our adjustment formulas, particularly those for BF and EMA, should be revised further to accommodate the added variation due to different performance testing endpoints with regard to differential growth in body composition.

Profiling of flavonoid glycosides in fruits and leaves of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder) using UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS (UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS를 이용한 대추나무(Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder) 잎과 열매의 플라보노이드 배당체 분석)

  • Lee, Min-Ki;Kim, Heon-Woong;Kim, Young Jin;Lee, Seon-Hye;Jang, Hwan-Hee;Jung, Hyun-Ah;Kim, Sook-Bae;Lee, Sung-Hyen;Choe, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Jung-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.1004-1011
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    • 2016
  • Flavonoids, non-nutrient secondary metabolites of plants, are widely distributed in commonly consumed agro-food resources. Flavonoids include aglycones, and their glycosides are reported to have potential health-promoting compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate flavonoid glycosides in the fruit and leaves of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder (jujube). A total of six flavonoids (five flavonols and one chalcone) were identified in jujube fruit and leaves by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry along with chemical library and an internal standard. In positive ion mode, six flavonoids were linked to the C- and O-glycosides which were conjugated with sugar moieties based on kaempferol, quercetin, and phloretin aglycones. Total flavonoid contents of leaves (8,356.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) was approximately 900-fold higher than that of fruit (fresh fruit, 13.6 mg/100 g dry DW; sun-dried fruits, 9.2 mg/100 g dry DW). Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and quercetin 3-O-robinobioside were the predominant flavonols in fruit and leaves of jujube. In particular, rutin had the highest content (6,735.2 mg/100 g DW) in leaves, and rutin is a widely reported bioactive compound. Phloretin 3',5'-di-C-glucoside (chalcone type) was detected only in leaves. The leaves of jujube contain a high content of flavonoids and the results of this study indicate that jujube leaves may be a source of bioactive flavonoids.

Anti-oxidative and Anti-cancer Activities of Methanol Extract of Machaerium cuspidatum (Machaerium cuspidatum 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 및 항암활성에 관한 연구)

  • Jin, Soojung;Oh, You Na;Park, Hyun-jin;Kwon, Hyun Ju;Kim, Byung Woo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.432-441
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    • 2016
  • Machaerium cuspidatum, a canopy liana, is a species of genus legume in the Fabaceae family and contributes to the total species richness in the tropical rain forests. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative and anti-cancer effects of M. cuspidatum and its mode of action. The methanol extract of M. cuspidatum (MEMC) exhibited anti-oxidative activity with an $IC_{50}$ value of $1.66{\mu}g/ml$, and this was attributable to its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. MEMC also exhibited a cytotoxic effect and induced morphological changes in a dose-dependent manner in several cancer cell lines including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, and human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Moreover, MEMC treatment induced the accumulation of subG1 population, which is indicative of apoptosis in A549 and HepG2 cells. MEMC-induced apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in Annexin V-positive apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies using Annexin-V staining and DAPI staining, respectively. Further investigation showed that MEMC-induced apoptosis was associated with the increase in p53 and Bax expression, and the decrease in Bcl-2 expression. In addition, MEMC treatment led to proteolytic activation of caspase-3, 8, and 9 and degradation of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, these results suggest that MEMC may exert a beneficial anti-cancer effect by inducing apoptosis via both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in A549 and HepG2 cells.

Effects of Sinetrol-XPur on Leptin-Deficient Obese Mice and Activation of cAMP-Dependent UCP-2 (Leptin 유전자 결핍 동물모델을 이용한 시네트롤(Sinetrol-XPur)의 항비만 효과와 cAMP를 통한 UCP-2 활성화 기전 연구)

  • Yoo, Jae Myeong;Lee, Minhee;Kwon, Han Ol;Choi, Sei Gyu;Bae, Mun Hyoung;Kim, Ok-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.484-491
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    • 2016
  • The present study investigated the effect of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic Citrus spp. and Paullinia cupana Kunth dry extract) and defined the action mode for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 activation. Leptin-deficient obese mice were treated with two different doses, 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 300 mg/kg BW of each AIN93G supplement, for 7 weeks. Treatment of obese mice with both low and high doses of Sinetrol-XPur significantly reduced body weight gain compared to control obese mice. White adipose tissue weight of mice was reduced by 30.96% in high dose-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were reduced by a high dose of Sinetrol-XPur by 20.02% and 30.96%, respectively. Serum level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased by treatment with both doses, as the ratio of HDL to low density lipoprotein increased by 138.78% and 171.49%, respectively. Regarding expression of biochemical factors related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthase significantly decreased and UCP-2 increased upon treatment with a high dose of Sinetrol-XPur, but there was no significant difference in lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. To define cellular mechanism, intracellular cAMP levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner over the range of $50{\sim}250{\mu}m/mL$. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine clearly blocked cAMP, suggesting that Sinetrol-XPur promotes lipolysis of adipocytes through inhibition of cAMP-dependent PDE, resulting in induction of cAMP response element binding protein and UCP-2. These results suggest that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing body weight and fat by improving serum lipid profiles and genetic expression of lipid metabolic factors, especially activation of cAMP-dependent UCP-2.

Developing a Dental Unit Waterline Model Using General Laboratory Equipments (실험실 일반 장비를 이용한 치과용 유니트 수관 모델 개발)

  • Yoon, Hye Young;Lee, Si Young
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.284-292
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    • 2016
  • Water supplied through dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) has been shown to contain high number of bacteria. To reduce the contamination of DUWLs, it is essential to develop effective disinfectants. It is, however, difficulty to obtain proper DUWL samples for studies. The purpose of this study was to establish a simple laboratory model for reproducing DUWL biofilms. The bacteria obtained from DUWLs were cultured in R2A liquid medium for 10 days, and then stored at $-70^{\circ}C$. This stock was inoculated into R2A liquid medium and incubated in batch mode. After 5 days of culturing, it was inoculated into the biofilm formation model developed in this study. Our biofilm formation model comprised of a beaker containing R2A liquid medium and five glass rods attached to DUWL polyurethane tubing. Biofilm was allowed to form on the stir plate and the medium was replaced every 2 days. After 4 days of biofilm formation in the laboratory model, biofilm thickness, morphological characteristics and distribution of the composing bacteria were examined by confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mean of biofilm accumulation was $4.68{\times}10^4$ colony forming unit/$cm^2$ and its thickness was $10{\sim}14{\mu}m$. In our laboratory model, thick bacterial lumps were observed in some parts of the tubing. To test the suitability of this biofilm model system, the effectiveness of disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine, was examined by their application to the biofilm formed in our model. Lower concentrations of disinfectants were less effective in reducing the count of bacteria constituting the biofilm. These results showed that our DUWL biofilm laboratory model was appropriate for comparison of disinfectant effects. Our laboratory model is expected to be useful for various other purposes in further studies.

Development of Simultaneous Analytical Method for Determination of Isoxaflutole and its Metabolite (Diketonitrile) residues in Agricultural Commodities Using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Isoxaflutole과 대사산물(Diketonitrile)의 동시시험법 개발)

  • Ko, Ah-Young;Kim, Heejung;Do, Jung Ah;Jang, Jin;Lee, Eun-Hyang;Ju, Yunji;Kim, Ji Young;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.93-103
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    • 2016
  • A simultaneous analytical method was developed for the determination of isoxaflutole and metabolite (diketonitrile) in agricultural commodities. Samples were extracted with 0.1% acetic acid in water/acetonitrile (2/8, v/v) and partitioned with dichloromethane to remove the interference obtained from sample extracts, adjusting pH to 2 by 1 N hydrochloric acid. The analytes were quantified and confirmed via liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in positive-ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Matrix matched calibration curves were linear over the calibration ranges ($0.02-2.0{\mu}g/mL$) for all the analytes into blank extract with $r^2$ > 0.997. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at three different concentration levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ) performing five replicates at each level. The recoveries were ranged between 72.9 to 107.3%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10% for all analytes. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guideline (CAC/GL40, 2003). Furthermore, inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate the method. The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective, and sensitive for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile determination in agricultural commodities.

A Study on Chemical Characteristics of Aerosol Composition at West Inflow Regions in the Korean Peninsula I. Characteristics of PM Concentration and Chemical Components (한반도 서부유입권역에서 대기 중 에어로졸 성분의 화학적 특성 연구 I. PM 농도 및 화학 성분 특성)

  • Choi, Jin-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Tae-Hyoung;Choi, Yong-Joo;Park, Tae-Hyun;Oh, Jun;Park, in-Soo;Ahn, Joon-Young;Jeon, Ha-Eun;Koo, Youn-Seo;Kim, Shin-Do;Hong, You-Deog;Hong, Ji-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.469-484
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    • 2016
  • HR-ToF-AMS was applied for a seasonal and size-distributional measurements for inorganic ($SO{_4}^{2-}$, $NO_3{^-}$, $NH_4{^+}$, $Cl^-$) and organic components in Baegryung Island Super Site. The average concentration of $PM_{1.0}$ remarks $12.9{\mu}g/m^3$ while $14.5{\mu}g/m^3$ in Spring time, $14.2{\mu}g/m^3$ in Winter, $13.1{\mu}g/m^3$ in Summer and $9.86{\mu}g/m^3$ in Autumn. The mass of measured $PM_{1.0}$ shows 54.6% of $PM_{2.5}$ which is similar to those of Beijing and Lanzhou, China. The highest portion of Chemical composition is $SO{_4}^{2-}$ marking 41.0%, 31.8% by organics, 13.5% by $NH_4{^+}$, 12.8% by $NO_3{^-}$ and 1% by $Cl^-$. In every seasons, except winter, $SO{_4}^{2-}$ remarks the highest level, organic components take place the highest in winter time. The size-distribution of $PM_{1.0}$ components scattered at accumulation mode of 200 nm~800 nm which means the influence of primary emission is low. In case of air stream from the industrialized area of Sandung, Shanghai, China, the concentrations of such components were distributed a bit higher.