• Title, Summary, Keyword: mixed precipitates

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Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination, Mineral Composition and Spectral Characteristics of White, Reddish Brown and Mixed Precipitates Occurring at Osip Stream Drainage, Gangwondo, South Korea (강원도 오십천 수계에 분포하는 백색침전물, 적갈색침전물 및 혼합침전물의 중금속 오염, 광물조성 및 분광학적 특성의 비교분석)

  • Lim, Jeong Hwa;Yu, Jaehyung;Shin, Ji Hye;Koh, Sang-Mo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed precipitation environment, heavy metal contamination, and mineral composition of white, reddish brown and mixed precipitates occurring at the Osip stream drainage, Gangwondo. Furthermore, spectral characteristics of the precipitates associated with heavy metal contamination and mineral composition was investigated based on spectroscopic analysis. The pH range of the precipitates was 4.43-6.91 for white precipitates, 7.74-7.94 for reddish brown precipitates, and 7.59-7.9 for the mixed precipitates, respectively. XRF analysis revealed that these precipitates were contaminated with Ni, Cu, Zn, and As. The white precipitates showed high Al concentration compared to reddish brown precipitates as much as 3.3 times, and the reddish brown precipitates showed high Fe concentration compared to white precipitates as much as 15 times. XRD analysis identified that the mineral composition of the white participates was aluminocoquimbite, gibbsite, quartz, saponite, and illite, and that of reddish brown precipitates was aluminum isopropoxide, kaolinite, goethite, dolomite, pyrophyllite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, pyrope. The mineral composition of the mixed precipitates was quartz, albite, and calcite. The spectral characteristics of the precipitates was manifested by gibbsite, saponite, illite for white precipitates, goethite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite for reddish brown precipitates, and albite for the mixed precipitates, respectively. The spectral reflectance of the precipitates decreased with increase in heavy metal contamination, and absorption depth of the precipitates indicated that the heavy metal ions were adsorbed to saponite and illite for white precipitates, and goethite and magnetite for reddish brown precipitates.

X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Uranyl Hydrolysis Precipitates Synthesized in Neutral to Alkaline Aqueous Solutions

  • 박용준;표형렬;김원호;전관식
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.925-929
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    • 1996
  • Uranyl hydrolysis precipitates were obtained by increasing pH value of aqueous uranyl solution in the range of neutral to alkaline pH value and their phase transformation during the solubility experiment under various conditions has been examined. The precipitates formed in the hydrolysis reaction of uranyl ion had a layered structure such as a meta-schoepite phase, a schoepite structure, or a mixed phase of meta-schoepite and schoepite. Phase transformation between them was strongly dependent on the pH value at which the precipitate was formed. The distance between the layers in meta-schoepite or schoepite phase was ∼7.35 Å, and it was increased with the pH value at which the precipitate was synthesized as well as the pH values of the aqueous solution. The phase transformation from a meta-schoepite to schoepite was fast for the precipitates formed at low pH values, however, it was not the case for the precipitates formed at high pH values. A small difference of pH value in aqueous solution gave a great change on its solubilities near pH 9.7, because a layered structure of the precipitates became amorphous above that pH value. Greater solubility for the precipitate formed at higher pH value can be explained from the fact that the precipitates formed at low pH value had a better crystallinity and also that the precipitates formed at higher pH value has a slower rate of crystallization.

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Influence of Milk Co-precipitates on the Quality of Restructured Buffalo Meat Blocks

  • Kumar, Sunil;Sharma, B.D.;Biswas, A.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.564-568
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    • 2004
  • Restructuring had made it possible to utilize lower value cuts and meat trimmings from spent animals by providing convenience in product preparation besides enhancing tenderness, palatability and value. Milk co-precipitates (MCP) have been reported to improve the nutritional and functional properties of certain meat products. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of incorporation of milk co-precipitates at four different levels viz. 0, 10, 15 and 20% on the quality of restructured buffalo meat blocks. Low-calcium milk co-precipitates were prepared from skim milk by heat and salt coagulation of milk proteins. Meat chunks were mixed with the curing ingredients and chilled water in a Hobart mixer for 5 minutes, followed by addition of milk co-precipitates along with condiments and spice mix and again mixed for 5 minutes. Treated chunks were stuffed in aluminium moulds and cooked in steam without pressure for 1.5 h. After cooking, treated meat blocks were compared for different physico-chemical and sensory attributes. Meat blocks incorporated with 10% MCP were significantly better (p<0.05) than those incorporated with 0, 15 and 20% MCP in cooking yield, percent shrinkage and moisture retention. Sensory scores were also marginally higher for meat blocks incorporated with 10% MCP than product incorporated with 15 and 20% MCP, besides being significantly higher than control. On the basis of above results 10% MCP was considered optimum for the preparation of restructured buffalo meat blocks. Instrumental texture profile analysis revealed that meat blocks incorporated with 10% MCP were significantly better (p<0.05) in hardness/ firmness than control although, no significant (p>0.05) differences were observed in cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness of both type of samples.

Preparation and Characteristics of Ceramic Composite Powders Coated with $Al_2O_3$: (I) Hydrolysis of Mixed Aluminum Salt Solution for Coating ($Al_2O_3$로 피복시킨 세라믹 복합분체의 제조 및 특성 : (I) 피복용 혼합 알루미늄 염 용액의 가수분해)

  • 현상훈;정형구
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.851-860
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    • 1990
  • The hydrolysis-precipitation reaction of mixed aluminum salt solutions of aluminum sulfate, aluminum nitrate, and urea has been investigated to obtain narrow-sized and unagglomerated fine spherical precipitates of aluminum hydroxide required for coating core particles. The hydrolysis-precipitatin reaction could be controlled to be appropriate to coating processes by usign urea as a pH control-agent. As the concetration of total Al3+ ion and the molar ratio of SO42-/Al3+ in starting solutions became smaller and also as the vol. ratio of water/solution for hydrolyzing mixed aluminum salt solution became larger, the morphology of precipitates tended to be more unagglomerated and spherical, while their size(0.5longrightarrow0.05${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) to be smaller. The optimum hydrolysis condition for coating processes was to hydrolyze the mixed aluminum salt solution, in which the molar ratio of SO42-/Al3+ was 0.75, while the amount of water corresponding to the vol. ratio of water/solution of 15. The precipitate was the aluminum hydroxide which sulfate ions were strongly adsorbed on and the maximum yield in the hydrolysis-precipitation reaction was about 20%.

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High Temperature Gas Nitriding of Fe-20Mn-12Cr-1Cu Damping Alloy (Fe-20Mn-12Cr-1Cu 제진합금의 고온가스 질화처리)

  • Sung, Jee-Hyun;Kim, Yeong-Hee;Sung, Jang-Hyun;Kang, Chang-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2013
  • The microstructural changes of Fe-20Mn-12Cr-1Cu alloy have been studied during high temperature gas nitriding (HTGN) at the range of $1000^{\circ}C{\sim}1150^{\circ}C$ in an atmosphere of nitrogen gas. The mixed microstructure of austenite and ${\varepsilon}$-martensite of as-received alloy was changed to austenite single phase after HTGN treatment at the nitrogen-permeated surface layer, however the interior region that was not affected nitrogen permeation remained the structure of austenite and ${\varepsilon}$-martensite. With raising the HTGN treatment temperature, the concentration and permeation depth of nitrogen, which is known as the austenite stabilizing element, were increased. Accordingly, the depth of austenite single phase region was increased. The outmost surface of HTGN treated alloy at $1000^{\circ}C$ appeared Cr nitride. And this was in good agreement with the thermodynamically calculated phase diagram. The grain growth was delayed after HTGN treatment temperature ranges of $1000^{\circ}C{\sim}1100^{\circ}C$ due to the grain boundary precipitates. For the HTGN treatment temperature of $1150^{\circ}C$, the fine grain region was shown at the near surface due to the grain boundary precipitates, however, owing to the depletion of grain boundary precipitates, coarse grain was appeared at the depth far from the surface. This depletion may come from the strong affinity between nitrogen and substitutional element of Al and Ti leading the diffusion of these elements from interior to surface. Because of the nitrogen dissolution at the nitrogen-permeated surface layer by HTGN treatment, the surface hardness was increased above 150 Hv compared to the interior region that was consisted with the mixed microstructure of austenite and ${\varepsilon}$-martensite.

Formation Mechanism of Ultrafine $TiO_2$ Powders from Aqueous $TiOCl_2$ Solution by Homogeneous Precipitation Process at Low Temperature (저온 균일침전법으로 $TiOCl_2$ 수용액에서 얻은 $TiO_2$ 초미분체의 형성기구)

  • 김선재;이희균;박순동;전치중;이창규;김흥회;이은구
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.473-478
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    • 2000
  • The TiO2 powder with the values of the large specific surface area more than 150$m^2$/g has been prepared with the homogeneous precipitation process below 5$0^{\circ}C$ and its formation mechanism was investigated using the SEM, TEM and Raman Spectroscopy. With the spontaneous hydrolysis of aqueous TiOCl2 solutions, all the precipitates were fully and homogeneously crystallized with the rutile TiO2 phase simply by heating, which as transformed to the anatase TiO2 phase as increasing the addition of SO42- ions to the aqueous TiOCl2 solution. The precipitates were formed with spherical secondary particles which consisted of acicular, spherical and mixed primary particles corresponding to the rutile, anatase and mixed phases, respectively. It can be thought that the formation and phase determination of crystalline TiO2 powders even at ambient temperature would be related with the existence of the capillary force. This force might be varied depending on the shape change of the primary particles.

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High-temperature Oxidation Kinetics and Scales Formed on Fe-2.3%Cr-1.6%W Alloy (Fe-2.3%Cr-1.6%W합금의 고온산화 속도와 스케일 분석)

  • Park, Sang-Hwan;Zhao, Chenguang;Lee, Jae-Ho;Bong, Seong-Jun;Lee, Dong-Bok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.96-97
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    • 2011
  • The T23 steel, whose composition was Fe-2.3%Cr-1.6%W, was arc-melted, and oxidized between $600^{\circ}C$ and $900^{\circ}C$ in air for up to 7 months. The amount of precipitates in the arc-melted microstructure was as large as 11.4 vol.%. The precipitates increased the oxidation rate of the arc-melted T23 steel. Owing to the low amount of Cr in the T23 steel, breakaway oxidation occurred after a few hours during oxidation above $700^{\circ}C$ in both arc-melted and as-received T23 steels. The scales that formed on arc-melted and as-received T23 steels were similar to each other. They consisted primarily of the outer $Fe_2O_3$ layer and the inner ($Fe_2O_3$, $FeCr_2O_4$)-mixed layer. The precipitates increased the microhardness and the oxidation rates.

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Preliminary Study on the Phase Transition of White Precipitates Found in the Acid Mine Drainage (산성광산배수에서 발견되는 흰색침전물의 상전이에 대한 예비 연구)

  • Yeo, Jin Woo;Kim, Yeongkyoo
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2019
  • The white aluminum phases in acid mine drainage usually precipitates when mixed with stream waters with relatively high pH. The minerals in white precipitates play important roles in controlling the behavior of heavy metals by adsorbing and coprecipitation. By the phase transition of these minerals in white precipitates, dissolution and readsorption of heavy metals may occur. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary information on the phase transition of the mineral phases in white precipitates. In this study, the mineral phase changes in the white precipitates collected from the stream around Dogye Mining Site over time were investigated with different pH values and temperatures. White precipitates consist mainly of basaluminite, amorphous $Al(OH)_3$ and a small amount of $Al_{13}$-tridecamer. During aging, the incongruent dissolution of the basaluminite occurs first, increasing the content of the amorphous $Al(OH)_3$. After that, pseudoboehmite is finally precipitated following the precursor phase of pseudoboehmite. At $80^{\circ}C$, this series of processes was clearly observed, but at relatively low temperatures, no noticeable changes were observed from the initial condition with coexisting basaluminite and amorphous $Al(OH)_3$. At high pH, the desorption of $SO{_4}^{2-}$ group in basaluminite was initiated to promote phase transition to the pseudoboehmite precursor. Over time, the solution pH decreases due to the dissolution and phase transition of the minerals, and even after the precipitation of pseudoboehmite, only the particle size slightly increased but no clear cystal form was observed.

Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Directionally Solidified Ni Base Superalloy, GTD-111(II) -Microstructural Change of Base Metal during Bonding Process - (일방향응고 Ni기초내열합금 GTD-111의 천이액상확산접합(II) -접합공정에서 모재조직의 변화-)

  • 강정윤;황형철;김인배;김대업;우인수
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2003
  • The change of microstructures in the base metal during transient liquid phase bonding process of directionally Ni base superalloy, GTD-111 was investigated. Bonds were fabricated using a series of holding times(0-7.2ks) at three different temperatures(1403, 1418 and 1453K) under a vacuum of 13.3mPa. In raw material, ${\gamma}$- ${\gamma}$' eutectic phases, platelet η phases, MC carbide and PFZ were seen in interdendritic regions or near grain boundary and size of primary ${\gamma}$' precipitates near interdendritic regions were bigger than core region. The primary ${\gamma}$' precipitates in dendrite core were dissolved early in bonding process, but ${\gamma}$' precipitates near interdendritic regions were dissolved partially and shape changed. The dissolution rate increased with increasing temperature. Phases in interdendritic regions or near pain boundary continually changed with time at the bonding temperature. In the bonding temperature of 1403K, eutectic phases had not significantly changed, but η phases had transformed from platelet shape to needle morphology and PFZ region had widened with time. The interdendritic region and near pain boundary were liquated partially at 1423k and fully at 1453k by reaction of η phases and PFZ. In the bonding temperature of 1453K, interdendritic region and near pain boundary were liquated and then new phases which mixed with η phases, PFZ and MC carbide crystallized during cooling. Crystallized η phases transformed from rod shape to platelet shape with increasing holding time.

High-temperature Oxidation Kinetics and Scales Formed on Fe-2.3%Cr-1.6%W Alloy (Fe-2.3%Cr-1.6%W 합금의 고온산화 부식속도와 스케일 분석)

  • Bak, Sang-Hwan;Kim, Min-Jung;Lee, Jae-Ho;Bong, Sung-June;Kim, Seul-Ki;Lee, Dong-Bok
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2011
  • The T23 steel, whose composition was Fe-2.3%Cr-1.6%W, was arc-melted, and oxidized between $600^{\circ}C$ and $900^{\circ}C$ in air for up to 7 months. The amount of precipitates in the arc-melted microstructure was as large as 11.4 vol.%. The precipitates increased the oxidation rate of the arc-melted T23 steel. Owing to the low amount of Cr in the T23 steel, breakaway oxidation occurred after a few hours during oxidation above $700^{\circ}C$ in both arc-melted and as-received T23 steels. The scales that formed on arc-melted and as-received T23 steels were similar to each other. They consisted primarily of the outer $Fe_2O_3$ layer and the inner ($Fe_2O_3$, $FeCr_2O_4$)-mixed layer. The precipitates increased the microhardness and the oxidation rates.