• Title, Summary, Keyword: mitochondrial pathway

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KSP inhibitor SB743921 induces death of multiple myeloma cells via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway

  • Song, In-Sung;Jeong, Yu Jeong;Nyamaa, Bayalagmaa;Jeong, Seung Hun;Kim, Hyoung Kyu;Kim, Nari;Ko, Kyung Soo;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Han, Jin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.10
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    • pp.571-576
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    • 2015
  • SB743921 is a potent inhibitor of the spindle protein kinesin and is being investigated in ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of myeloma. However, little is known about the molecular events underlying the induction of cell death in multiple myeloma (MM) by SB743921, alone or in combination treatment. Here, we report that SB743921 induces mitochondria-mediated cell death via inhibition of the $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathway, but does not cause cell cycle arrest in KMS20 MM cells. SB743921-mediated inhibition of the $NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway results in reduced expression of SOD2 and Mcl-1, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also found that combination treatment with SB743921 and bortezomib induces death in bortezomib-resistant KMS20 cells. Altogether, these data suggest that treatment with SB743921 alone or in combination with bortezomib offers excellent translational potential and promises to be a novel MM therapy.

P53 transcription-independent activity mediates selenite-induced acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cell apoptosis

  • Guan, Liying;Huang, Fang;Li, Zhushi;Han, Bingshe;Jiang, Qian;Ren, Yun;Yang, Yang;Xu, Caimin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.10
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    • pp.745-750
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    • 2008
  • Selenium, an essential trace element possessing anti-carcinogenic properties, can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We have previously shown that sodium selenite can induce apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in NB4 cells. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Presently, we demonstrate that p53 contributes to apoptosis by directing signaling at the mitochondria. Immunofluorescent and Western blot procedures revealed selenite-induced p53 translocation to mitochondria. Inhibition of p53 blocked accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that mitochondrial p53 acts as an upstream signal of ROS and activates the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Selenite also disrupted cellular calcium ion homeostasis in a ROS-dependent manner and increased mitochondrial calcium ion concentration. p38 kinase mediated phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of p53. Taken together, these results indicate that p53 involves selenite-induced NB4 cell apoptosis by translocation to mitochondria and activation mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in a transcription-independent manner.

Induction of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis Pathways in the Human Leukemic MOLT-4 Cell Line by Terpinen-4-ol

  • Khaw-On, Patompong;Banjerdpongchai, Ratana
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3073-3076
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    • 2012
  • Terpinen-4-ol is a terpene found in the rhizome of Plai (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.). In this study apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by terpinen-4-ol were investigated in the human leukemic MOLT-4 cell line. Terpinen-4-ol exhibited cytotoxicity in MOLT-4 cells, with characteristic morphological features of apoptosis by Wright's staining. The mode of cell death was confirmed to be apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis after staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. A sub-G1 peak in DNA histograms of cell cycle assays was observed. Terpinen-4-ol induced-MOLT-4 cell apoptosis mediated through an intrinsic pathway involving the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) and release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In addition, terpinen-4-ol also induced apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation resulting in the cleavage of cytosolic Bid. Truncated-Bid (tBid) translocated to mitochondria and activated the mitochondrial pathway in conjunction with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression. Caspase-3 activity also increased. In conclusion, terpinen-4-ol can induce human leukemic MOLT-4 cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

Minimal systems analysis of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by cisplatin

  • Hong, Ji-Young;Hara, Kenjirou;Kim, Jun-Woo;Sato, Eisuke F.;Shim, Eun Bo;Cho, Kwang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.367-378
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    • 2016
  • Recently, it was reported that the role of mitochondria-reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating pathway in cisplatin-induced apoptosis is remarkable. Since a variety of molecules are involved in the pathway, a comprehensive approach to delineate the biological interactions of the molecules is required. However, quantitative modeling of the mitochondria-ROS generating pathway based on experiment and systemic analysis using the model have not been attempted so far. Thus, we conducted experiments to measure the concentration changes of critical molecules associated with mitochondrial apoptosis in both human mesothelioma H2052 and their ${\rho}^0$ cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Based on the experiments, a novel mathematical model that can represent the essential dynamics of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by cisplatin was developed. The kinetic parameter values of the mathematical model were estimated from the experimental data. Then, we have investigated the dynamical properties of this model and predicted the apoptosis levels for various concentrations of cisplatin beyond the range of experiments. From parametric perturbation analysis, we further found that apoptosis will reach its saturation level beyond a certain critical cisplatin concentration.

Stigmalactam from Orophea Enterocarpa Induces Human Cancer Cell Apoptosis Via a Mitochondrial Pathway

  • Banjerdpongchai, Ratana;Wudtiwai, Benjawan;Pompimon, Wilart
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10397-10400
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    • 2015
  • Stigmalactam, an aristolactam-type alkaloid extracted from Orophea enterocarpa, exerts cytotoxicity against several human and murine cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The aims of this study were to identify the mode and mechanisms of human cancer cell death induced by stigmalactam employing human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and human invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells as models, compared to normal murine fibroblasts. It was found that stigmalactam was toxic to HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cells with $IC_{50}$ levels of $23.0{\pm}2.67{\mu}M$ and $33.2{\pm}4.54{\mu}M$, respectively, using MTT assays. At the same time the $IC_{50}$ level towards murine normal fibroblast NIH3T3 cells was $24.4{\pm}6.75{\mu}M$. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was reduced in stigmalactam-treated cells dose dependently after 4 h of incubation, indicating antioxidant activity, measured by using 2',7',-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were increased in a dose response manner, while stigmalactam decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential dose-dependently in HepG2 cells, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, indicating mitochondrial pathway-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, stigmalactam from O. enterocarpa was toxic to both HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cells and induced human cancer HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway.

N-Butanol Extract of Capparis spinosa L. Induces Apoptosis Primarily Through a Mitochondrial Pathway Involving mPTP Open, Cytochrome C Release and Caspase Activation

  • Ji, Yu-Bin;Yu, Lei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9153-9157
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    • 2014
  • Background: Capparis spinosa L., a Uygur medicine, had been shown to have anti-tumor activity in our early experiments with an N-butanol extract (CSBE) as its active fraction. However, the mechanisms responsible for its effects are not clearly understood. Here, we report that treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CSBE resulted in dose-dependent reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Materials and Methods: To observe the inhibitory and killing effects of CSBE on SGC-7901, the SRB method was adopted, apoptosis being observed by electron microscopy. To clarify the mechanisms of apoptosis, Western blot and enzyme-labeled methods were used to examine the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and the activation of the caspase cascade. Results: By electron microscopy, apoptotic morphologic changes were detectable after CSBE administration. In this study, it was also demonstrated that CSBE induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting mPTP open, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Conclusions: The findings indicated that CSBE induces aap optosis through mitochondrial pathway.

Potassium Cyanate Induces Apoptosis of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell via Mitochondrial Pathway

  • Yang, Eun-Ju;Chang, Jeong-Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2011
  • Potassium cyanate (KOCN) is an inorganic compound and induces the carbamylation of proteins with cytotoxic effects on human cells. Although there is a potential cytotoxic molecule, the role of KOCN on the apoptosis of cancer cell is not well understood. The present study investigated the effects of KOCN on the human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT 116 cells. To understand the anti-cancer effect of KOCN on HCT 116 cells, we examined alteration of apoptosis, the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration, the intracellular signaling pathway and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cells treated with KOCN. The apoptosis of HCT 116 cells was induced by KOCN in a dose-dependent manner at 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. The apoptosis was processed via the cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and activation of caspase 3 in HCT 116 cells. KOCN induced the elevation of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration and changed the expressions of Bcl-2 family proteins. The pro-apoptotic Bax was continuously up-regulated, and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was down-regulated by KOCN. KOCN also induced the hyperpolarization of mitochondria and the generation of ROS in HCT 116 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that KOCN induces the apoptosis of HCT 116 cells by disruption of $Ca^{2+}$ homeostasis and via mitochondrial pathway. This study provides the compound that may be used as a potent agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Augmenter of Liver Regeneration Alleviates Renal Hypoxia-Reoxygenation Injury by Regulating Mitochondrial Dynamics in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells

  • Long, Rui-ting;Peng, Jun-bo;Huang, Li-li;Jiang, Gui-ping;Liao, Yue-juan;Sun, Hang;Hu, Yu-dong;Liao, Xiao-hui
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.893-905
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    • 2019
  • Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion processes that closely related to their function. Disruption of mitochondrial dynamics has been demonstrated in acute kidney injury (AKI), which could eventually result in cell injury and death. Previously, we reported that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) alleviates renal tubular epithelial cell injury. Here, we gained further insights into whether the renoprotective roles of ALR are associated with mitochondrial dynamics. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics were examined in experimental models of renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR). In a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) injury in vitro, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission process protein 1 (MTFP1), two key proteins of mitochondrial fission, were downregulated in the Lv-ALR + HR group. ALR overexpression additionally had an impact on phosphorylation of Drp1 Ser637 during AKI. The inner membrane fusion protein, Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1), was significantly increased whereas levels of outer membrane fusion proteins Mitofusin-1 and -2 (Mfn1, Mfn2) were not affected in the Lv-ALR + HR group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, the mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling pathway was highly activated in the Lv-ALR + HR group. ALR overexpression led to suppression of HR-induced apoptosis. Our collective findings indicate that ALR gene transfection alleviates mitochondrial injury, possibly through inhibiting fission and promoting fusion of the mitochondrial inner membrane, both of which contribute to reduction of HK-2 cell apoptosis. Additionally, fission processes are potentially mediated by promoting tubular cell survival through activating the mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling pathway.

Enterocarpam-III Induces Human Liver and Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis via Mitochondrial and Caspase-9 Activation

  • Banjerdpongchai, Ratana;Wudtiwai, Benjawan;Pompimon, Wilart
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1833-1837
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    • 2015
  • An aristolactam-type alkaloid, isolated from Orophea enterocarpa, is enterocarpam-III (10-amino-2,3,4,6-tetramethoxyphenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid lactam). It is cytotoxic to various human and murine cancer cell lines; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate cytotoxic effects on and mechanism (s) of human cancer cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and human invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells compared to normal murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay to determine $IC_{10}$, $IC_{20}$ and $IC_{50}$ levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and the caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities using specific chromogenic (p-nitroaniline) tetrapeptide substrates, viz., DEVD-NA, IETD-NA and LEHD-NA and employing a microplate reader. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) was measured by staining with 3, 3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide ($DiOC_6$) and using flow cytometry. The compound was cytotoxic to HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cells with the $IC_{50}$ levels of $26.0{\pm}4.45$ and $51.3{\pm}2.05{\mu}M$, respectively. For murine normal fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, the $IC_{50}$ concentration was $81.3{\pm}10.1{\mu}M$. ROS production was reduced in a dose-response manner in HepG2 cells. The caspase-9 and -3 activities increased in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas caspase-8 activity did not alter, indicating the intrinsic pathway activation. Enterocarpam-III decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) dose-dependently in HepG2 cells, suggesting that the compound induced HepG2 cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. In conclusion, enterocarpam-III inhibited HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and induced human HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway and induction of caspase-9 activity.

Control Mechanism of AMPK and Autophagy for Mitochondrial Biogenesis (AMPK와 자식작용의 미토콘드리아 생합성 조절 기전)

  • Jeon, Byeong-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 2009
  • Increased oxidative stress by abnormal mitochondrial function can damage cell signal transduction and gene expression, and induce insulin resistance or diabetes. Autophagy, however, improve insulin resistance by clearance of malfunctioning mitochondria. Exercise also recovers the muscle dysfunction and degeneration by activating mitochondrial biogenesis. As it seems that exercise and autophagy might act as an orchestrated network to induce mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated whether autophagy is involved in AMPK signal pathway stimulated by exercise or AICAR to increase mitochondrial biogenesis. And it showed that PGC-1 and mtTFA, but not autophagy marker LC3 mRNA expression were significantly increased by 6 hr of acute exercise. On the other hand, PGC-1 and mtTFA mRNA expression were upregulated by AICAR treatment to C2C12 myotube. However these genes were not inhibited by LC3 siRNA transfection. These results provide the evidence that autopahgy affects on mitochondrial biogenesis through different signal pathway from AMPK signal transduction.