• Title, Summary, Keyword: mitochondrial mass

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Amentoflavone Acts as a Radioprotector for Irradiated v79 Cells by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Cell Cycle and Mitochondrial Mass

  • Xu, Ping;Jiang, En-Jin;Wen, Si-Yuan;Lu, Dan-Dan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7521-7526
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    • 2014
  • Radioprotective effects of amentoflavone were investigated by examining cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycling concentrations of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species), and relative mitochondrial mass by flow cytometry after $^{60}Co$ irradiation. Pretreatment with amentoflavone 24 hours prior to 8 Gy $^{60}Co$ ${\gamma}$-ray irradiation significantly inhibited apoptosis, promoted the G2 phase, decreased the concentration of ROS and mitochondrial mass. These results collectively indicate that amentoflavone is an effective radioprotective agent.

Exercise and Mitochondrial Remodeling in Skeletal Muscle in Type 2 Diabetes

  • Lee, Hojun;Song, Wook
    • Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2018
  • Exercise is regarded as a potent stimulus in modulation of glucose utility and mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle, leading to enhanced metabolic health. As mitochondria play a crucial role in sustaining metabolic homeostasis, and disturbances in mitochondrial function are highly linked with development of metabolic diseases, a comprehensive understanding of exercise-mediated mitochondrial remodeling under the pathophysiological condition of type 2 diabetes is warranted to develop an efficient therapeutic strategy. Although it is evident that the primary etiology of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, there is accumulating evidence linking abnormal mitochondrial functional and morphological properties to development of type 2 diabetes. Despite this, the precise molecular and cellular events that underline these phenomena remain uncertain. Mitochondria are highly dynamic subcellular organelles that can change mass and shape as necessary via coordinated processes such as mitochondrial fusion, fission, and biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion is controlled by proteins, including mitofusin-1, mitofusin-2, and optic atrophy protein 1, while the fission process is mainly modulated by control of fission protein 1 and dynamin-related protein 1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma $coactivator-1{\alpha}$ acts as a master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis. The present review's primary aims were to briefly discuss the cellular mechanisms of muscle fiber type-dependent glucose uptake and to highlight emerging evidence linking disturbances in mitochondrial dynamics to development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The potential for exercise to normalize type 2 diabetes-induced aberrant mitochondrial integrity is also addressed.

Myocardial atrophy in children with mitochondrial disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy

  • Lee, Tae Ho;Eun, Lucy Youngmin;Choi, Jae Young;Kwon, Hye Eun;Lee, Young-Mock;Kim, Heung Dong;Kang, Seong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.232-239
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Mitochondrial disease (MD) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are often associated with cardiomyopathy, but the myocardial variability has not been isolated to a specific characteristic. We evaluated the left ventricular (LV) mass by echocardiography to identify the general distribution and functional changes of the myocardium in patients with MD or DMD. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the echocardiographic data of 90 children with MD and 42 with DMD. Using two-dimensional echocardiography, including time-motion (M) mode and Doppler measurements, we estimated the LV mass, ratio of early to late mitral filling velocities (E/A), ratio of early mitral filling velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/Ea), stroke volume, and cardiac output. A "z score" was generated using the lambda-mu-sigma method to standardize the LV mass with respect to body size. Results: The LV mass-for-height z scores were significantly below normal in children with MD ($-1.02{\pm}1.52$, P<0.001) or DMD ($-0.82{\pm}1.61$, P =0.002), as were the LV mass-for-lean body-mass z scores. The body mass index (BMI)-for-age z scores were far below normal and were directly proportional to the LV mass-for-height z scores in both patients with MD (R =0.377, P<0.001) and those with DMD (R =0.330, P=0.033). The LV mass-for-height z score correlated positively with the stroke volume index (R =0.462, P<0.001) and cardiac index (R =0.358, P<0.001). Conclusion: LV myocardial atrophy is present in patients with MD and those with DMD and may be closely associated with low BMI. The insufficient LV mass for body size might indicate deterioration of systolic function in these patients.

The mitochondrial proteome analysis in wheat roots

  • Kim, Da-Eun;Roy, Swapan Kumar;Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa;Kwon, Soo Jeong;Cho, Kun;Cho, Seong-Woo;Park, Chul-Soo;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.126-126
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    • 2017
  • Mitochondria are important in wheat, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth including vitamin synthesis, amino acid metabolism and photorespiration. To investigate the mitochondrial proteome of the roots of wheat seedlings, a systematic and targeted analysis were carried out on the mitochondrial proteome from 15 day-old wheat seedling root material. Mitochondria were isolated by Percoll gradient centrifugation; and extracted proteins were separated and analyzed by Tricine SDS-PAGE along with LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometry. From the isolated the sample, 184 proteins were identified which is composed of 140 proteins as mitochondria and 44 proteins as other subcellular proteins that are predicted by the freeware subcellular predictor. The identified proteins in mitochondria were functionally classified into 12 classes using the ProtFun 2.2 server based on biological processes. Proteins were shown to be involved in amino acid biosynthesis (17.1%), biosynthesis of cofactors (6.4%), cell envelope (11.4%), central intermediary metabolism (10%), energy metabolism (20%), fatty acid metabolism (0.7%), purines and pyrimidines (5.7%), regulatory functions (0.7%), replication and transcription (1.4%), translation (22.1%), transport and binding (1.4%), and unknown (2.8%). These results indicate that many of the protein components present and functions of identifying proteins are common to other profiles of mitochondrial proteins performed to date. This dataset provides the first extensive picture, to our knowledge, of mitochondrial proteins from wheat roots. Future research is required on quantitative analysis of the wheat mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level.

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Effect of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx on Energy Metabolism in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells (부자추출물의 골격근 세포에서의 에너지 조절 작용)

  • Song, Mi-Young
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The all anti-obesity drugs currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration work by reducing energy intake. In fact, no approved drug targets energy expenditure. In Korean medicine, it is known to Qi or Yang invigorating therapy could increase energy metabolism. Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (ACD) is a Yang invigorating herb, often used for treat obesity in Korean medicine. In the present study, the authors investigated the regulatory effects of ACD in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Methods: The water extract of ACD (0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) were treated in differentiated C2C12 cells. The protein or mRNA levels of target genes were analyzed and mitochondrial mass were investigated. Results: ACD activated the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha ($PGC-1{\alpha}$), nuclear respiratory factor 1 and TFAM and increased mitochondrial mass. ACD also increased adenosin monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Conclusions: This study suggests that ACD has the potential to increase energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by activating AMPK and $PGC1{\alpha}$.

Yoga Training Improves Metabolic Parameters in Obese Boys

  • Seo, Dae-Yun;Lee, Sung-Ryul;Figueroa, Arturo;Kim, Hyoung-Kyu;Baek, Yeong-Ho;Kwak, Yi-Sub;Kim, Na-Ri;Choi, Tae-Hoon;Rhee, Byoung-Doo;Ko, Kyung-Soo;Park, Byung-Joo;Park, Song-Young;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 2012
  • Yoga has been known to have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the metabolic parameters and to be uncomplicated therapy for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to test the effect of an 8-week of yoga-asana training on body composition, lipid profile, and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adolescent boys. Twenty volunteers with body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile were randomly assigned to yoga (age $14.7{\pm}0.5$ years, n=10) and control groups (age $14.6{\pm}1.0$ years, n=10). The yoga group performed exercises three times per week at 40~60% of heart-rate reserve (HRR) for 8 weeks. IR was determined with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After yoga training, body weight, BMI, fat mass (FM), and body fat % (BF %) were significantly decreased, and fat-free mass and basal metabolic rate were significantly increased than baseline values. FM and BF % were significantly improved in the yoga group compared with the control group (p<0.05). Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly decreased in the yoga group (p<0.01). HDL-cholesterol was decreased in both groups (p<0.05). No significant changes were observed between or within groups for triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Our findings show that an 8-week of yoga training improves body composition and TC levels in obese adolescent boys, suggesting that yoga training may be effective in controlling some metabolic syndrome factors in obese adolescent boys.

NecroX-5 protects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity and preserves PGC1α expression levels during hypoxia/reoxygenation injury

  • Vu, Thi Thu;Kim, Hyoung Kyu;Le, Thanh Long;Nyamaa, Bayalagmaa;Song, In-Sung;To, Thanh Thuy;Nguyen, Quang Huy;Marquez, Jubert;Kim, Soon Ha;Kim, Nari;Ko, Kyung Soo;Rhee, Byoung Doo;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.201-211
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    • 2016
  • Although the antioxidant and cardioprotective effects of NecroX-5 on various in vitro and in vivo models have been demonstrated, the action of this compound on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system remains unclear. Here we verify the role of NecroX-5 in protecting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity during hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR). Necrox-5 treatment ($10{\mu}M$) and non-treatment were employed on isolated rat hearts during hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment using an ex vivo Langendorff system. Proteomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and non-labeling peptide count protein quantification. Real-time PCR, western blot, citrate synthases and mitochondrial complex activity assays were then performed to assess heart function. Treatment with NecroX-5 during hypoxia significantly preserved electron transport chain proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and metabolic functions. NecroX-5 also improved mitochondrial complex I, II, and V function. Additionally, markedly higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-$1{\alpha}$ ($PGC1{\alpha}$) expression levels were observed in NecroX-5-treated rat hearts. These novel results provide convincing evidence for the role of NecroX-5 in protecting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity and in preserving $PGC1{\alpha}$ during cardiac HR injuries.

Independent beneficial effects of aged garlic extract intake with regular exercise on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women

  • Seo, Dae-Yun;Lee, Sung-Ryul;Kim, Hyoung-Kyu;Baek, Yeong-Ho;Kwak, Yi-Sub;Ko, Tae-Hee;Kim, Na-Ri;Rhee, Byoung-Doo;Ko, Kyoung-Soo;Park, Byung-Joo;Han, Jin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a 12 weeks aged garlic extract (AGE) regimen with regular exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women. A total of 30 postmenopausal women ($54.4{\pm}5.4$ years) were randomly divided into the following four groups: Placebo (Placebo; n = 6), AGE intake (AGEI; n = 8), exercise and placebo (Ex + Placebo; n = 8), exercise and AGE (Ex + AGE; n = 8) groups. The AGE group consume 80 mg per day, and exercise groups performed moderate exercise (aerobic and resistance) three times per week. After 12 weeks of treatment, body composition, lipid profile, and CVD risk factors were analyzed. Body weight was significantly decreased in AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups compared to baseline. Body fat % was significantly decreased in the AGEI and Ex + Placebo groups. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE groups. Fat-free mass was significantly decreased in the AGEI group. Total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in the Ex + Placebo compared to the Placebo group. AGE supplementation or exercise effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Triglyceride (TG) was significantly increased in the AGEI group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly decreased in the AGEI, Ex + Placebo, and Ex + AGE compared to the placebo group. AGE supplementation reduced homocysteine levels regardless of whether the women also exercised. The present results suggest that AGE supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk factors independently of exercise in postmenopausal women.

Effect of Ovariectomy and Genistein on Hepatic Mitochondrial Function (난소절제와 Genistein 투여가 간 미토콘드리아 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Young Min;Jung Myeong Ho;Lee Yeon Sook;Song Jihyun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.786-793
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    • 2004
  • Women with menopause or rats with ovariectomy is associated with increased body weight, body fat and insulin resistance, which are components of metabolic syndrome. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome after menopause might be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, since mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylation activity is strongly correlated with insulin sensitivity. Although estradiol replacement prevents the metabolic syndrome, harmful effect of estradiol hampers the casual usage to prevent the metabolic syndrome. It has been reported that genistein has a mild estrogenic activity, decreases fat mass in mice and has an antidiabetic role in diabetic rats. Although insulin resistance is closely related to mitochondrial functions, there has not been yet any study in regard to the effect of dietary genistein on mitochondrial function in the insulin resistant female subjects induced by ovariectomy or similar situation. The present study investigated whether the supplementation of genistein in the high fat diet affected the mitochondrial function of high fat fed ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were assigned to the following groups: sham-operated+ high fat diet (S, n=6); sham-operated + high fat diet with 0.1% genistein (S + G, n=7); ovariectomized + high fat diet (OVX, n=8); ovariectomized + high fat diet with 0.1% genistein (OVX+ G, n=8). Ovariectomy significantly increased body weight compared with S group. Genistein consumption in ovariectomized (OVX + G) rats decreased body weight gain compared with OVX rats. Liver weights were increased by ovariectomy. The hepatic mitochondrial protein density expressed as mg per g liver was lower in the OVX group than in the S group. However, OVX + G group showed the increased mitochondrial protein density similar to the level of S group. When mRNA levels of genes related to mitochondria such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) were measured, there were decreases in the mRNA levels of PGC-1 and COX III in S + G, OVX and OVX + G group. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase was not different between groups. We could observe the decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity per g liver in OVX rats. Genistein supplement increased SDH activity. In conclusion, genistein supplementation to the OVX rats enhanced mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial protein density and SDH activity. The improvement in mitochondrial function by genistein can contribute to the improvement in metabolic syndrome.