• Title, Summary, Keyword: mild condition

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The Effects of Simulated Mild Leg Length Discrepancy on Gait Parameters and Trunk Acceleration

  • Jung, Soo-jung;An, Duk-hyun;Shin, Sun-shil
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2018
  • Background: Leg length discrepancy (LLD) leads to many musculoskeletal disorders and affects daily activities such as walking. In the majority of the population, mild LLD is a common condition. Nevertheless, it is still controversy among researchers and clinicians on the effects of mild LLD during gait, and available studies have largely overlooked this issue. Objects: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of mild LLD on the gait parameters and trunk acceleration. Methods: A total of 15 female and male participants with no evidence of LLD of >.5 ㎝ participated in the present study. All participants walked under the following two conditions: (1) The non-LLD condition, where the participants walked in shoes of the same heel height; (2) A mild LLD condition induced by wearing a 1.5 ㎝ higher heel on the right shoe. The GAITRite system and tri-axial accelerometer were used to measure gait parameters and trunk acceleration. To compare the variation of each variable, a paired t-test was performed. Results: Compared to the non-LLD condition, step time and swing phase were significantly increased in the mild LLD condition, while stance phase, single support phase, and double support phase significantly decreased in the short limb (p<.05). In the long limb of the mild LLD condition, single support phase significantly increased, while swing phase significantly decreased (p<.05). Furthermore, significant decrease in the gait velocity and cadence in the mild LLD condition were observed (p<.05). In the comparison between both limbs in the mild LLD condition, the step time and swing phase of the short limb significantly increased compared with the long limb, while step length, stance phase, and single support phase of the long limb significantly increased compared with the short limb (p<.05). Additionally, trunk acceleration of all directions (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, vertical) significantly increased in the mild LLD condition (p<.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that mild LLD causes altered and asymmetrical gait patterns and affects the trunk, resulting in inefficient gait. Therefore, mild LLD should not be overlooked and requires adequate treatment.

A Study on the Optimal Cutting conditions for Mild Materials (연질재료의 최적 절삭조건설정에 관한 연구)

  • 최상련
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 1999
  • Aluminum alloy, which is advantageous to machining and injection, makes a great contribution to shortening in delivery time, infection cycle time and reducing expense. This study presents machining conditions for mild materials and describes the difference between theoretical and practical machined surface roughnesses affected by various machining conditions. Machining results have been evaluated and analyzed under varying machining conditions. Special properties of the mild materials have been presented by the quantitative analysis and the optimal machining condition has been proposed for the mild materials.

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The characteristics of temperature distribution, NOx and CO formation in a MILD combustor with the variation of equivalence ratio (당량비 변화에 따른 MILD 연소로의 온도 분포 및 NOx, CO 생성 특성)

  • Ha, Ji-Soo;Yu, Sang-Yeol;Sim, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Tae-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.485-490
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    • 2010
  • MILD (Moderate and Intense Low Oxygen Dilution) combustion is a technique which is able to reduce NOx formation and to uniform temperature distribution in the furnace by recirculating the exhaust gas to the fresh air and fuel. This study focuses on finding optimal condition of MILD combustor by changing equivalence ratio with fuel and air flow. The present experiment employs six thermocouple sensors in the furnace, and two concentration probes of NOx and CO at the exhaust exit pipe respectively. The MILD combustion phenomena have been observed at the condition of equivalent ratios of 0.71~0.73, and the temperature uniformity, NOx and CO concentration are also examined at the MILD combustion condition.

Inhibition Effect of Nevirapine an Antiretroviral on the Corrosion of Mild Steel Under Acidic Condition

  • Bhat, J. Ishwara;Alva, Vijaya D.P.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.835-841
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    • 2011
  • Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by nevirapine, an antiretroviral has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and weight loss methods. The experimental results suggested, nevirapine is a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration. The kinetic parameters for corrosion process and thermodynamic parameters for adsorption process were calculated and discussed. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Experimental Study for Oxygen Methane MILD Combustion in a Laboratory Scale Furnace (Laboratory Scale 연소로를 적용한 산소 메탄 MILD 연소에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Pil Hyong;Hwang, Sang Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.6-15
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    • 2016
  • The oxygen fuel MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion has been considered as one of the promising combustion technology for flame stability, high thermal efficiency, low emissions and improved productivity. In this paper, the effect of oxygen and fuel injection condition on formation of MILD combustion was analyzed using lab scale oxygen fuel MILD combustion furnace. The results show that the flame mode was changed from a diffusion flame mode to a split flame mode via a MILD combustion flame mode with increasing the oxygen flow rate. A high degree of temperature uniformity was achieved using optimized combination of fuel and oxygen injection configuration without the need for external oxygen preheating. In particular, the MILD combustion flame was found to be very stable and constant flame temperature region at 7 KW heating rate and oxygen flow rate 75-80 l/min.

Influence of Mild Hypothermia on Clonidine-Induced Cardiovascular Responses in the Pentobarbital-Anesthetized Rat

  • Kim, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Seong-Yun;Lee, Sang-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.383-391
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to determine whether the effects of an ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ agonist, clonidine, on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) are influenced by mild hypothermia. Experiments were performed in respiration-controlled and spontaneously breathing pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Rectal temperature was maintained at $37.5{\pm}0.3^{circ}C$ for normothermic groups or at $35.2{\pm}0.3^{circ}C$ for mild hypothermic groups. Intravenous injection of clonidine (1 and 2 ${\mu}g/kg)$ produced depressor and bradycardic responses in spontaneously breathing rats under both normothermic and mild hypothermic condition: a decrease in MAP was not altered but bradycardic response was significantly augmented in the mild hypothermic group as compared with the normothermic group. Under the respiration-controlled condition, the hypotensive effect of clonidine $(2\;{\mu}g/kg)$ was reduced, whereas the bradycardic effect was increased in mild hypothermic rats as compared with normothermic rats. Both hypotensive and bradycardic effects of clondine $(2\;{\mu}g/kg)$ were blocked by pretreatment with an ${\alpha}_2-adrenoceptor$ antagonist, yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg), in both thermal conditions. Yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) alone produced signifcantly an increase in heart rate in the mild hypothermic group than in the normothermic group. Pretreatment with a muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine methylnitrate (1 mg/kg, i.v.), attenuated the bradycardic effect of clonidine in the mild hypothermic group but not in the normothermic group. These results suggest that clonidine- induced bradycardia is amplified by mild hypothermia probably through an increased parasympathetic activity.

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Mild Cold Stimulus on Forehead of Healthy Men and Heart Rate Variability (이마의 냉각자극이 건강인의 심박 변이율에 미치는 영향에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim Ki-Hwan;Park Kyung-Mo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.1191-1194
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the change of Heart Rate Variability(HRV) that mild cold stimulus on the forehead of healthy men induces. 34 healthy male subjects participated in the experiments. On the first test series, 15 subjects were applied to the mild cold stimulus by the devise for cold stimulation. In the second test series, 10 subjects With heat Syndrome and 5 subjects With cold Syndrome were applied to the mild cold Stimulus. Aa a additional test, 4 subjects with cold syndrome were applied to the warm stimulus in the last test series. We analyzed the HRV through measuring electrocardiogram.(ECG). The result of this study is comparatively clear. In the first test series, mild cold stimulus made parasympathetic nervous system be activated. In the second test series, mild cold stimulus made parasympathetic nervous system be activated both in subjects with heat syndrome and subjects with cold syndrome, and heat syndrome shows more active parasympathetic nervous system rather than cold syndrome subjects do. In the last test series, 2 subjects with cold syndrome respond the mild cold stimulus. That means warm stimulus of cold condition subjects made parasympathetic nervous system active in 2 of 4 subjects. We found out that mild cold stimulus on forehead makes parasympathetic nervous system be activated in healthy male, and it can be interpreted that mild cold stimulus make healthy human be relaxed. Also, subjects have different fondness of thermal stimulus according to their Cold or Heat condition Preferences. Last test series shows that we need to investigate effect of the warm stimulus heat syndrome subjects.

MILD Combustion Technology for Recycled Fuel (재생연료의 MILD연소기술)

  • Shim, Sung Hoon;Jeong, Sang Hyun;Lee, Sang Sup
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.205.2-205.2
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    • 2010
  • Optimum operation conditions of low-NOx MILD combustion for gaseous and solid fuels have been investigated by experimental and computer simulation. Loop reactor type MILD combustor without air pre-heater has been used in the present work. The results show that the balance of injection velocities of fuel and surrounding air is major factor for maintaining MILD combustion mode. Temperature difference between lower and upper part can be reduced less than 20 degree of Celsius. It was found that NOx emission in MILD combustion also can be remarkably reduced to more than 85% in comparison with conventional premixed combustion, and reduced to more than 50% in case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide carrying dried waste water sludge and pulverized coal in comparison with the same of air carrying. It was also found that carbon monoxide emission increase was not appeared at the time of changeover to MILD combustion mode from premixed or air carrying combustion at optimum operation condition.

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TMEDA Catalyzed Henry (Nitroaldol) Reaction under Metal and Solvent-free Conditions

  • Majhi, Anjoy;Kadam, Santosh T.;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1767-1770
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    • 2009
  • The Henry (nitroaldol) reaction proceeds under mild conditions with catalytic amount of tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) to afford $\beta$-nitro alkanol in considerably excellent yield. Structurally diverse aldehydes react with nitromethane in presence of 0.3 equiv of TMEDA under solvent-free condition at rt. The low catalytic loading and mild reaction condition are the key features of the catalytic method.