• Title/Summary/Keyword: migration

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Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu Suppresses Retinal Endothelial Permeability and Choroidal Neovascularization by Inhibiting the VEGF Receptor 2 Signaling Pathway

  • Park, Wonjin;Baek, Yi-Yong;Kim, Joohwan;Jo, Dong Hyun;Choi, Seunghwan;Kim, Jin Hyoung;Kim, Taesam;Kim, Suji;Park, Minsik;Kim, Ji Yoon;Won, Moo-Ho;Ha, Kwon-Soo;Kim, Jeong Hun;Kwon, Young-Guen;Kim, Young-Myeong
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.474-483
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    • 2019
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-A-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Akt, ERK, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to suppression of VEGF-A-mediated hyper-production of NO. Treatment with RLYE also inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated angiogenic processes (migration, proliferation, and tube formation) and the hyperpermeability of HRMECs, in addition to attenuating VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability in mice. The anti-vascular permeability activity of RLYE was correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of the junction proteins VE-cadherin, ${\beta}$-catenin, claudin-5, and ZO-1, critical components of the cortical actin ring structure and retinal endothelial barrier, at the boundary between HRMECs stimulated with VEGF-A. Furthermore, intravitreally injected RLYE bound to retinal microvascular endothelium and inhibited laser-induced CNV in mice. These findings suggest that RLYE has potential as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of CNV by preventing VEGFR2-mediated vascular leakage and angiogenesis.

Analysis and Verification of Ancient DNA (고대 DNA의 분석과 검증)

  • Jee, Sang-hyun;Seo, Min-seok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.40
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    • pp.387-411
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    • 2007
  • The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) has become increasingly considerable anthropological, archaeological, biological and public interest. Although this approach is complicated by the natural damage and exogenous contamination of a DNA, archaeologists and biologists have attempted to understand issues such as human evolutionary history, migration and social organization, funeral custom and disease, and even evolutionary phylogeny of extinct animals. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) is powerful technique that analyzes DNA sequences from a little extract of an ancient specimen. However, deamination and fragmentation are common molecular damages of aDNA and cause enzymatic inhibition in PCR for DNA amplification. Besides, the deamination of a cytosine residue yielded an uracil residue in the ancient template, and results in the misincorporation of an adenine residue in PCR. This promotes a consistent substitution (cytosine thymine, guanine adenine) to original nucleotide sequences. Contamination with exogenous DNA is a major problem in aDNA analysis, and causes oversight as erroneous conclusion. This report represents serious problems that DNA modification and contamination are the main issues in result validation of aDNA analysis. Now, we introduce several criterions suggested to authenticate reliance of aDNA analysis by many researchers in this field.

Association between Tuberculosis Case and CD44 Gene Polymorphism (결핵 발병과 CD44 유전자 다형성사이의 연관성 연구)

  • Lim, Hee-Seon;Lee, Sang-In;Park, Sangjung
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 2019
  • Tuberculosis, a chronic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), differs in its status latency and activity because of the characteristics of MTB, immune status of the host, and genetic susceptibility. The host defense mechanism against MTB is caused mainly by interactions between macrophages, T cells, and dendritic cells. CD44 is expressed in activated T cells when infected with MTB and regulates lymphocyte migration. In addition, CD44 mediates leukocyte adhesion to the ECM and plays a role in attracting macrophages and $CD4^+$ T cells to the lungs. Therefore, genetic polymorphism of the CD44 gene will inhibit the host cell immune mechanisms against MTB. This study examined whether the genetic polymorphism of the CD44 gene affects the susceptibility of tuberculosis. A total of 237 SNPs corresponding to the CD44 genes were analyzed using the genotype data of 443 tuberculosis cases and 3,228 healthy controls from the Korean Association Resource (KARE). Of these, 17 SNPs showed a significant association with the tuberculosis case. The most significant SNP was rs75137824 (OR=0.231, CI: 1.51~3.56, $P=1.3{\times}10^{-4}$). In addition, rs10488809, one of the 17 significant SNPs, is important for the tuberculosis outbreak can bind to the JUND and FOS transcription factors and can affect CD44 gene expression. This study suggests that polymorphism of the CD44 gene modulates the host susceptibility to tuberculosis in a variety of ways, resulting in differences in the status of tuberculosis.

Influence of Variation of Aging Heat Treatment Condition on Phase Transformation and Mechanical Properties of 15-5PH Stainless Steel (15-5PH 스테인리스강의 시효열처리 조건변화가 상변태 및 기계적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, T.S.;Lee, Jewon;Roh, Y.S.;Sung, J.H.;Lim, S.G.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.212-223
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    • 2019
  • This study is to investigate the relationship between microstructural factors and tensile properties after aging heat treatment of the 15-5PH stainless steel at the temperature range of $450^{\circ}C$, $500^{\circ}C$ and $550^{\circ}C$ for various time. For the aging time of 2 hours, hardness showed maximum at $450^{\circ}C$ and then decreased with increasing aging temperature. While, hardness decreased gradually during aging $450^{\circ}C$, $500^{\circ}C$ and $550^{\circ}C$ from 1 hour to 5 hours but the hardness nearly unchanged until the 100 hours after 5 hours aging. When aging at $450^{\circ}C$, Cu atoms preferentially aggregated at the prior austenite grain boundaries and martensite lath boundaries, and Cu concentration at those boundaries was nearly unchanged even after aging for 100 hours. Therefore it was suggested that the coherency is still maintained after 100 hours aging at $450^{\circ}C$. Aging at $500^{\circ}C$ and $550^{\circ}C$ results in an increase in the concentration of Ni at the martensite lath boundaries and prior austenite grain boundaries, resulting in the formation of reversed austenite. Especially, when aged at $550^{\circ}C$ for 100 hours, the concentration of Ni remarkably increased at those boundaries, and thus the microstructure of herring bone shape was appeared. Considering the migration of Ni atom to the lath boundaries and prior austenite grain boundaries, Ni atoms contributed greatly to the formation of reversed austenite. On the other hand, it was found that Cu atoms hardly moving to those boundaries may not be contributed to the formation of reversed austenite. When aging at $450^{\circ}C$, the coarsening of the precipitated Cu atoms proceeded very slowly with increasing aging time, therefore the decrease in strengths were small but the reduction area was considerably increased due to the softening of the matrix. At the aging temperature of $500^{\circ}C$ and $550^{\circ}C$, the strengths decreased and the elongation and reduction area increased due to the appearance of the reversed austenite. Especially, the increase of reduction area was remarkable.

Effects of climate change on biodiversity and measures for them (생물다양성에 대한 기후변화의 영향과 그 대책)

  • An, Ji Hong;Lim, Chi Hong;Jung, Song Hie;Kim, A Reum;Lee, Chang Seok
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.474-480
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    • 2016
  • In this study, formation background of biodiversity and its changes in the process of geologic history, and effects of climate change on biodiversity and human were discussed and the alternatives to reduce the effects of climate change were suggested. Biodiversity is 'the variety of life' and refers collectively to variation at all levels of biological organization. That is, biodiversity encompasses the genes, species and ecosystems and their interactions. It provides the basis for ecosystems and the services on which all people fundamentally depend. Nevertheless, today, biodiversity is increasingly threatened, usually as the result of human activity. Diverse organisms on earth, which are estimated as 10 to 30 million species, are the result of adaptation and evolution to various environments through long history of four billion years since the birth of life. Countlessly many organisms composing biodiversity have specific characteristics, respectively and are interrelated with each other through diverse relationship. Environment of the earth, on which we live, has also created for long years through extensive relationship and interaction of those organisms. We mankind also live through interrelationship with the other organisms as an organism. The man cannot lives without the other organisms around him. Even though so, human beings accelerate mean extinction rate about 1,000 times compared with that of the past for recent several years. We have to conserve biodiversity for plentiful life of our future generation and are responsible for sustainable use of biodiversity. Korea has achieved faster economic growth than any other countries in the world. On the other hand, Korea had hold originally rich biodiversity as it is not only a peninsula country stretched lengthily from north to south but also three sides are surrounded by sea. But they disappeared increasingly in the process of fast economic growth. Korean people have created specific Korean culture by coexistence with nature through a long history of agriculture, forestry, and fishery. But in recent years, the relationship between Korean and nature became far in the processes of introduction of western culture and development of science and technology and specific natural feature born from harmonious combination between nature and culture disappears more and more. Population of Korea is expected to be reduced as contrasted with world population growing continuously. At this time, we need to restore biodiversity damaged in the processes of rapid population growth and economic development in concert with recovery of natural ecosystem due to population decrease. There were grand extinction events of five times since the birth of life on the earth. Modern extinction is very rapid and human activity is major causal factor. In these respects, it is distinguished from the past one. Climate change is real. Biodiversity is very vulnerable to climate change. If organisms did not find a survival method such as 'adaptation through evolution', 'movement to the other place where they can exist', and so on in the changed environment, they would extinct. In this respect, if climate change is continued, biodiversity should be damaged greatly. Furthermore, climate change would also influence on human life and socio-economic environment through change of biodiversity. Therefore, we need to grasp the effects that climate change influences on biodiversity more actively and further to prepare the alternatives to reduce the damage. Change of phenology, change of distribution range including vegetation shift, disharmony of interaction among organisms, reduction of reproduction and growth rates due to odd food chain, degradation of coral reef, and so on are emerged as the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Expansion of infectious disease, reduction of food production, change of cultivation range of crops, change of fishing ground and time, and so on appear as the effects on human. To solve climate change problem, first of all, we need to mitigate climate change by reducing discharge of warming gases. But even though we now stop discharge of warming gases, climate change is expected to be continued for the time being. In this respect, preparing adaptive strategy of climate change can be more realistic. Continuous monitoring to observe the effects of climate change on biodiversity and establishment of monitoring system have to be preceded over all others. Insurance of diverse ecological spaces where biodiversity can establish, assisted migration, and establishment of horizontal network from south to north and vertical one from lowland to upland ecological networks could be recommended as the alternatives to aid adaptation of biodiversity to the changing climate.

Limno-Biological Investigation of Lake Ok-Jeong (옥정호의 육수생물학적 연구)

  • SONG Hyung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 1982
  • Limnological study on the physico-chemical properties and biological characteristics of the Lake Ok-Jeong was made from May 1980 to August 1981. For the planktonic organisms in the lake, species composition, seasonal change and diurnal vertical distribution based on the monthly plankton samples were investigated in conjunction with the physico-chemical properties of the body of water in the lake. Analysis of temperature revealed that there were three distinctive periods in terms of vertical mixing of the water column. During the winter season (November-March) the vertical column was completely mixed, and no temperature gradient was observed. In February temperature of the whole column from the surface to the bottom was $3.5^{\circ}C$, which was the minimum value. With seasonal warming in spring, surface water forms thermoclines at the depth of 0-10 m from April to June. In summer (July-October) the surface mixing layer was deepened to form a strong thermocline at the depth of 15-25 m. At this time surface water reached up to $28.2^{\circ}C$ in August, accompanied by a significant increase in the temperature of bottom layer. Maximum bottom temperature was $r5^{\circ}C$ which occurred in September, thus showing that this lake keeps a significant turbulence Aehgh the hypolimnial layer. As autumn cooling proceeded summer stratification was destroyed from the end of October resulting in vertical mixing. In surface layer seasonal changes of pH were within the range from 6.8 in January to 9.0 in guutuost. Thighest value observed in August was mainly due to the photosynthetic activity of the phytoplankton. In the surface layer DO was always saturated throughout the year. Particularly in winter (January-April) the surface water was oversaturated (Max. 15.2 ppm in March). Vertical variation of DO was not remarkable, and bottom water was fairly well oxygenated. Transparency was closely related to the phytoplankton bloom. The highest value (4.6 m) was recorded in February when the primary production was low. During summer transparency decreased hand the lowest value (0.9 m) was recorded in August. It is mainly due to the dense blooming of gnabaena spiroides var. crassa in the surface layer. A. The amount of inorganic matters (Ca, Mg, Fe) reveals that Lake Ok-Jeong is classified as a soft-water lake. The amount of Cl, $NO_3-N$ and COD in 1981 was slightly higher than those in 1980. Heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg) were not detectable throughout the study period. During the study period 107 species of planktonic organisms representing 72 genera were identified. They include 12 species of Cyanophyta, 19 species of Bacillariophyta, 23 species of Chlorophyta, 14 species of Protozoa, 29 species of Rotifera, 4 species of Cladocera and 6 species of Copepoda. Bimodal blooming of phytoplankton was observed. A large blooming ($1,504\times10^3\;cells/l$ in October) was observed from July to October; a small blooming was present ($236\times10^3\;cells/l$ in February) from January to April. The dominant phytoplankton species include Melosira granulata, Anabaena spiroides, Asterionella gracillima and Microcystis aeruginota, which were classified into three seasonal groups : summer group, winter group and the whole year group. The sumner group includes Melosira granulate and Anabaena spiroides ; the winter group includes Asterionella gracillima and Synedra acus, S. ulna: the whole year group includes Microtystis aeruginosa and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. It is noted that M. granulate tends to aggregate in the bottom layer from January to August. The dominant zooplankters were Thermocpclops taihokuensis, Difflugia corona, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Keratelle quadrata and Asplanchna priodonta. A single peak of zooplankton growth was observed and maximum zooplankton occurrence was present in July. Diurnal vertical migration was revealed by Microcystis aeruginosa, M. incerta, Anabaena spiroides, Melosira granulata, and Bosmina longirostris. Of these, M. granulata descends to the bottom and forms aggregation after sunset. B. longirostris shows fairly typical nocturnal migration. They ascends to the surface after sunset and disperse in the whole water column during night. Foully one species of fish representing 31 genera were collected. Of these 13 species including Pseudoperilnmpus uyekii and Coreoleuciscus splendidus were indigenous species of Korean inland waters. The indicator species of water quality determination include Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira granulata, Asterionelta gracillima, Brachionus calyciflorus, Filinia longiseta, Conochiloides natans, Asplanchna priodonta, Difflugia corona, Eudorina elegans, Ceratium hirundinella, Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Heliodiaptomus kikuchii and Thermocyclops taihokuensis. These species have been known the indicator groups which are commonly found in the eutrophic lakes. Based on these planktonic indicators Lake Ok-Jeong can be classified into an eutrophic lake.

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Implementation of integrated monitoring system for trace and path prediction of infectious disease (전염병의 경로 추적 및 예측을 위한 통합 정보 시스템 구현)

  • Kim, Eungyeong;Lee, Seok;Byun, Young Tae;Lee, Hyuk-Jae;Lee, Taikjin
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2013
  • The incidence of globally infectious and pathogenic diseases such as H1N1 (swine flu) and Avian Influenza (AI) has recently increased. An infectious disease is a pathogen-caused disease, which can be passed from the infected person to the susceptible host. Pathogens of infectious diseases, which are bacillus, spirochaeta, rickettsia, virus, fungus, and parasite, etc., cause various symptoms such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, liver disease, and acute febrile illness. They can be spread through various means such as food, water, insect, breathing and contact with other persons. Recently, most countries around the world use a mathematical model to predict and prepare for the spread of infectious diseases. In a modern society, however, infectious diseases are spread in a fast and complicated manner because of rapid development of transportation (both ground and underground). Therefore, we do not have enough time to predict the fast spreading and complicated infectious diseases. Therefore, new system, which can prevent the spread of infectious diseases by predicting its pathway, needs to be developed. In this study, to solve this kind of problem, an integrated monitoring system, which can track and predict the pathway of infectious diseases for its realtime monitoring and control, is developed. This system is implemented based on the conventional mathematical model called by 'Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) Model.' The proposed model has characteristics that both inter- and intra-city modes of transportation to express interpersonal contact (i.e., migration flow) are considered. They include the means of transportation such as bus, train, car and airplane. Also, modified real data according to the geographical characteristics of Korea are employed to reflect realistic circumstances of possible disease spreading in Korea. We can predict where and when vaccination needs to be performed by parameters control in this model. The simulation includes several assumptions and scenarios. Using the data of Statistics Korea, five major cities, which are assumed to have the most population migration have been chosen; Seoul, Incheon (Incheon International Airport), Gangneung, Pyeongchang and Wonju. It was assumed that the cities were connected in one network, and infectious disease was spread through denoted transportation methods only. In terms of traffic volume, daily traffic volume was obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS). In addition, the population of each city was acquired from Statistics Korea. Moreover, data on H1N1 (swine flu) were provided by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and air transport statistics were obtained from Aeronautical Information Portal System. As mentioned above, daily traffic volume, population statistics, H1N1 (swine flu) and air transport statistics data have been adjusted in consideration of the current conditions in Korea and several realistic assumptions and scenarios. Three scenarios (occurrence of H1N1 in Incheon International Airport, not-vaccinated in all cities and vaccinated in Seoul and Pyeongchang respectively) were simulated, and the number of days taken for the number of the infected to reach its peak and proportion of Infectious (I) were compared. According to the simulation, the number of days was the fastest in Seoul with 37 days and the slowest in Pyeongchang with 43 days when vaccination was not considered. In terms of the proportion of I, Seoul was the highest while Pyeongchang was the lowest. When they were vaccinated in Seoul, the number of days taken for the number of the infected to reach at its peak was the fastest in Seoul with 37 days and the slowest in Pyeongchang with 43 days. In terms of the proportion of I, Gangneung was the highest while Pyeongchang was the lowest. When they were vaccinated in Pyeongchang, the number of days was the fastest in Seoul with 37 days and the slowest in Pyeongchang with 43 days. In terms of the proportion of I, Gangneung was the highest while Pyeongchang was the lowest. Based on the results above, it has been confirmed that H1N1, upon the first occurrence, is proportionally spread by the traffic volume in each city. Because the infection pathway is different by the traffic volume in each city, therefore, it is possible to come up with a preventive measurement against infectious disease by tracking and predicting its pathway through the analysis of traffic volume.

A study on the establishment and regional strunture of Seoul metropolitan region (서울대도시권역의 설정과 지역구조에 관한 연구)

  • ;;Lee, Hee-Yeon;Song, Jong-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.35-56
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    • 1995
  • During the last two decades, Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth. In this process the nation has become urbanized and industrialized. But we have also encountered widening regional disparity, housing shortage of larger cities, transportation congestion, environmental pollution and many other problems. Rapid increasing urbanization and continuous migration toward Seoul since the late 1960s have been one of the major concerns of government. Government has sought ways to moderate the population increase in Seoul. The regulation which include new town development near Seoul and dispersion strategies of higher education and other administration and living facilities outside of Seoul havemade a great expansion of the spatial influence of Seoul city. Seoul metropolitan reaion has evolved as the most powerful center of political and economical spaces. Generally within a metropolitan region, there exists a growing mutual interdependence economically, as well as socially between a central city and its surrounding area. Seoul metropolitan region manifests itself not only as a coherent system of urbanized regions, but also as an integral part of the daily urban system. The surrounding Gyunggi province and Seoul city become closely linked both economically and functionally, constituting true functlonai urban system. This study is primarily undertaken with the purpose of delineation of the sphere of influence of Seoul city in 1990. At the time of 1985, Seoul metropolitan region was delineated according to the result of the study which was performed by Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements. Afterward, the rapid speed of metropolitanization process with dramatic increase in mobility through the provision of wider transportation system across the Capital region have evolved, resulting in the great expansion of the spatial influence of Seoul city. So this study examines the expanded area of Seoul metropolitan regin during the period of 1985-90. In order to delineate Seoul metropolitan region, the indices of urbanization and functional linkage are selected. Variables included in the measurement of the urbanization level are agricultural structure, population characteristics, manufacturing and service industries, and cultural aspects such as newspaper circulation, the ratio of car ownership and piped water supply. Variables included in the measurement of functional linkage are commuting, shopping pattern, centralized service such as medical facilities and trade of agricultural products. The standardization method and factor analysis are employed in making the delineation of Seoul metropolitan region. According to the result of this study, 2 cities, 8 Eups and 46 Myuns are included Seoul metropolitan region in 1990. If we compare this delineated area in 1990 to that of 1985, we can find the distinctive pattern of expanded axes according to the main transportation routes such as Seoul-Suweon, Seoul-Gwangju, Seoul-Incheon. In 199O, all the Gyunggi province, except a few Myuns located at the north and northwest part of Gyunggi province, are included in Seoul metropolitan region. Furthermore, this study attempts to the analysis of regional structure of Seoul metropolitan region according to the functional characteristics of each city and Gun. Variables included in this analysis are the new residential function, manufacturing function, service function, education and infermation function, public facility function and agricultural function. Factor analysis and cluster analysis are employed in making regionalization. Seoul metropolitan reaion is subdivided into four subregions which reflect different functional specialization. The first group is the specialized region of newly formed residential function. The second group is the specialized reaion of manufacturing function. The third group is the specialized region of service function. And the fourth group has little specialized in terms of manufacturing, service, and residential function. But this region has some potentiality of development when Seoul metropolitan region grow continuously. Seoul metropolitan region accounted for 43% of national population, despite 11.8% of national land size in 1990. Although Seoul metropolitan region enjoys important agglomeration economies, it also has huge social cost in the form of transportation congestion, housing shortage, rapid increase of land value, environment pollution, and etc. Efficient metropolitan plan making is a vital element in promoting Seoul's economic development and providing high quality living environment at low cost. In the light of the result of this study, the outer ring of Seoul metropolitan region, especially northeastern part, are underdeveloped compared to overdeveloped southwestern area. It is needed to develop the guidelines for the implement of the growth control and management plan, inducing more balanced development for whole Seoul metropolitan reaion.

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Characteristics of Fish Fauna Collected from Near Estuaries Bank and Fish-way on the Bank of Naktong River (낙동강 하구둑 수역의 어류 군집구조와 어도 이용 어류)

  • Kang, Eon-Jong;Yang, Hyeon;Lee, Heung-Hun;Kim, Kwang-Sug;Kim, Chi-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.201-219
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    • 2012
  • The estuaries bank of Nakdong River, Korea, was constructed in 1987 and many arguments have been under discussion on the subject of ecological impact on ecosystem during 20 years. In this context, however, it was not focused on the role of fish-way and the way of improvement to promote fish movement to complete its life history. This paper was the result of investigation on fish fauna of upper and lower part of the bank and the analysis of comparison of the fishes with those using fish-way which were installed in each side of bank as ladder type and fish gate. The authors discussed the importance of fish gate and its management base on the result. The number of fishes collected in this study for upper part of estuaries bank was 31 species, among them 71% was the pure freshwater residents indicating the characteristics of the area as a freshwater ecosystem. It was observed that 9 species of coastal fishes were found in this region including Coilia ectens and Neosalanx sp. which is anadromous to spawn. Excluding 6 freshwater fishes, 30 fish species collected in lower part of estuaries bank were coastal fishes indicating that former brackish ecosystem was changed into marine one. The freshwater fishes found in this region were restricted the appearance only in the season of discharging freshwater into the sea. The number of fishes found in fish-way was 39 species, more than that of river and coast. But only 19 species founded in fish ladder was comparable with the result of investigation on fish gate including 32 species. It was considered that the fish gate has more important role as a fish passage from the fact that only it allowed to movement of numerous number of fry of Neosalanx sp. and Engraulis japonicus. These results indicates that two-way movement system is more efficient than downward only one in estuaries bank for fish migration.

Lithologic and Structural Controls and Geochemistry of Uranium Deposition in the Ogcheon Black-Slate Formation (옥천대(沃川帶) 우라늄광층(鑛層)의 구조규제(構造規制) 및 지구화학적(地球化學的) 특성연구(特性硏究))

  • Lee, Dai Sung;Yun, Suckew;Lee, Jong Hyeog;Kim, Jeong Taeg
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.19-41
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    • 1986
  • Structural, radioactive, petrological, petrochemical, mineralogical and stable isotopic study as well as the review of previous studies of the uranium-bearing slates in the Ogcheon sequence were carried out to examine the lithological and structural controls, and geochemical environment in the uranium deposition in the sequence. And the study was extended to the coal-bearing formation (Jangseong Series-Permian) to compare the geochemical and sedimentologic aspects of uranium chemistry between Ogcheon and Hambaegsan areas. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The uranium mineralization occurs in the carbonaceous black slates of the middle to lower Guryongsan formation and its equivalents in the Ogcheon sequence. In general, two or three uranium-bearing carbonaceous beds are found with about 1 to 1.5km stratigraphic interval and they extend from Chungju to Jinsan for 90km in distance, with intermittent igneous intrusions and structural Jisturbances. Average thickness of the beds ranges from 20 to 1,500m. 2. These carbonaceous slate beds were folded by a strong $F_1$-fold and were refolded by subsequent $F_1$-fold, nearly co-axial with the $F_1$, resulting in a repeated occurrence of similar slate. The carbonaceous beds were swelled in hing zones and were shrinked or thined out in limb by the these foldings. Minor faulting and brecciation of the carbonaceous beds were followed causing metamorphism of these beds and secondary migration and alteration of uranium minerals and their close associations. 3. Uranium-rich zones with high radioactive anomalies are found in Chungju, Deogpyong-Yongyuri, MiwonBoun, Daejeon-Geumsan areas in the range of 500~3,700 cps (corresponds to 0.017~0.087%U). These zones continue along strike of the beds for several tens to a few hundred meters but also discontinue with swelling and pinches at places that should be analogously developed toward underground in their vertical extentions. The drilling surveyings in those area, more than 120 holes, indicate that the depth-frequency to uranium rich bed ranging 40~160 meter is greater. 4. The features that higher radioactive anomalies occur particularly from the carbonaceous beds among the argillaceous lithologic units, are well demonstrated on the cross sections of the lithology and radioactive values of the major uranium deposits in the Ogcheon zone. However, one anomalous radioactive zone is found in a l:ornfels bed in Samgoe, near Daejeon city. This is interpreted as a thermal metamorphic effect by which original uranium contents in the underlying black slate were migrated into the hornfels bed. 5. Principal minerals of the uranium-bearing black slates are quartz, sericite, biotite and chlorite, and as to chemical composition of the black slates, $Al_2O_3$ contents appear to be much lower than the average values by its clarke suggesting that the Changri basin has rather proximal to its source area. 6. The uranium-bearing carbonaceous beds contain minor amounts of phosphorite minerals, pyrite, pyrrhotite and other sulfides but not contain iron oxides. Vanadium. Molybdenum, Barium, Nickel, Zirconium, Lead, Cromium and fixed Carbon, and some other heavy metals appear to be positive by correlative with uranium in their concentrations, suggesting a possibility of their genetic relationships. The estimated pH and Eh of the slate suggests an euxenic marine to organic-rich saline water environment during uranium was deposited in the middle part of Ogcheon zone. 7. The Carboniferous shale of Jangseong Series(Sadong Series) of Permian in Hambaegsan area having low radioactivity and in fluvial to beach deposits is entirely different in geochemical property and depositional environment from the middle part of Ogcheon zone, so-called "Pibanryong-Type Ogcheon Zone". 8. Synthesizing various data obtained by several aspects of research on uranium mineralization in the studied sequence, it is concluded that the processes of uranium deposition were incorporated with rich organic precipitation by which soluble uranyl ions, $U{_2}^{+{+}}$ were organochemically complexed and carried down to the pre-Ogcheon sea bottoms formed in transitional environment, from Red Sea type basin to Black Sea type basin. Decomposition of the organic matter under reducing conditions to hydrogen sulfide, which reduced the $UO{_2}^{+2}$ ions to the insoluble uranium dioxide($UO_2$), on the other side the heavy metals are precipitated as sulfides. 9. The EPMA study on the identification of uraninite and others and the genetic interpretation of uranium bearing slates by isotopic values of this work are given separately by Yun, S. in 1984.

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