• Title, Summary, Keyword: microRNAs

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Limited Diagnostic Value of microRNAs for Detecting Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis

  • Zhou, Xuan-Jun;Dong, Zhao-Gang;Yang, Yong-Mei;Du, Lu-Tao;Zhang, Xin;Wang, Chuan-Xin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4699-4704
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    • 2013
  • Background: MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Several studies utilizing microRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the diagnostic value of microRNAs for detecting colorectal cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library for published studies that used microRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Summary estimates for sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy of microRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were calculated using the bivariate random effects model. A summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was also generated to summarize the overall effectiveness of the test. Result: Thirteen studies from twelve published articles met the inclusion criteria and were included. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odd ratio of microRNAs for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were 0.81 (95%CI: 0.79-0.84), 0.78 (95%CI: 0.75-0.82), 4.14 (95%CI: 2.90-5.92), 0.24 (95%CI: 0.19-0.30), and 19.2 (95%CI: 11.7-31.5), respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.89. Conclusions: The current evidence suggests that the microRNAs test might not be used alone as a screening tool for CRC. Combining microRNAs testing with other conventional tests such as FOBT may improve the diagnostic accuracy for detecting CRC.

The role of microRNAs in synaptic development and function

  • Corbin, Rachel;Olsson-Carter, Katherine;Slack, Frank
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.131-135
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    • 2009
  • MicroRNAs control gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of their target mRNAs. Since the discovery of the first microRNAs, lin-4 and let-7, in C. elegans, hundreds of microRNAs have been identified as key regulators of cell fate determination, lifespan, and cancer in species ranging from plants to humans. However, while microRNAs have been shown to be particularly abundant in the brain, their role in the development and activity of the nervous system is still largely unknown. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of microRNA function at synapses, the specialized structures required for communication between neurons and their targets. We also propose how these advances might inform the molecular model of memory.

MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease

  • Ha, Tai-You
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.309-323
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    • 2011
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

Non-canonical targets play an important role in microRNA stability control mechanisms

  • Park, June Hyun;Shin, Chanseok
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.158-159
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    • 2017
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by guiding the Argonaute (Ago)-containing RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific target mRNA molecules. It is well established that miRNAs are stabilized by Ago proteins, but the molecular features that trigger miRNA destabilization from Ago proteins remain largely unknown. To explore the molecular mechanisms of how targets affect the stability of miRNAs in human Ago (hAgo) proteins, we employed an in vitro system that consisted of a minimal hAgo2-RISC in HEK293T cell lysates. Surprisingly, we found that miRNAs are drastically destabilized by binding to seedless, non-canonical targets. We showed that miRNAs are destabilized at their 3' ends during this process, which is largely attributed to the conformational flexibility of the L1-PAZ domain. Based on these results, we propose that non-canonical targets may play an important regulatory role in controlling the stability of miRNAs, instead of being regulated by miRNAs.

Clinical Aspect of MicroRNA in Lung Cancer

  • Jeong, Hye Cheol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.77 no.2
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    • pp.60-64
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    • 2014
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that modulate target gene activity, and are aberrantly expressed in most types of cancer as well in lung cancer. A miRNA can potentially target a diverse set of mRNAs; further, it plays a critical role in lung tumorigenesis as well as affects patient outcome. Previous studies focused mainly on abnormal miRNAs expressions in lung cancer tissues. Interestingly, circulating miRNAs were identified in human plasma and serum in 2008. Since then, considerable effort has been directed to the study of circulating miRNAs as one of the biomarkers of lung cancer. miRNAs expression of tissues and blood in lung cancer patients is being analyzed by more researchers. Recently, to overcome the high false-positivity of low-dose chest computed tomography scan, miRNAs in lung cancer screening are being investigated. This article summarizes the recent researches regarding clinical applications of miRNAs in the diagnosis and management of lung cancer.

MiR-146 and miR-125 in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation

  • Lee, Hye-Mi;Kim, Tae Sung;Jo, Eun-Kyeong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2016
  • Innate immune responses are primary, relatively limited, and specific responses to numerous pathogens and toxic molecules. Protein expression involved in these innate responses must be tightly regulated at both transcriptional level and post-transcriptional level to avoid the development of excessive inflammation that can be potentially harmful to the host. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs (∼22 nucleotides [nts]) that participate in the regulation of numerous physiological responses by targeting specific messenger RNAs to suppress their translation. Recent work has shown that several negative regulators of transcription including microRNAs play important roles in inhibiting the exacerbation of inflammatory responses and in the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. This emerging research area will provide new insights on how microRNAs regulate innate immune signaling. It might show that dysregulation of microRNA synthesis is associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In this review, we focused on miR-146 and miR-125 and described the roles these miRNAs in modulating innate immune signaling. These microRNAs can control inflammatory responses and the outcomes of pathogenic infections.

Genome-Wide Identification and Classification of MicroRNAs Derived from Repetitive Elements

  • Gim, Jeong-An;Ha, Hong-Seok;Ahn, Kung;Kim, Dae-Soo;Kim, Heui-Soo
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 2014
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known for their role in mRNA silencing via interference pathways. Repetitive elements (REs) share several characteristics with endogenous precursor miRNAs. In this study, 406 previously identified and 1,494 novel RE-derived miRNAs were sorted from the GENCODE v.19 database using the RepeatMasker program. They were divided into six major types, based on their genomic structure. More novel RE-derived miRNAs were confirmed than identified as RE-derived miRNAs. In conclusion, many miRNAs have not yet been identified, most of which are derived from REs.

MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Autoimmune Diseases to Skin, Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • Ha, Tai-You
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.227-244
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    • 2011
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that miRNAs play critical roles in several biologic processes, including cell cycle, differentiation, cell development, cell growth, and apoptosis and that miRNAs are highly expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells and a wide range of miRNAs are involved in the regulation of immunity and in the prevention of autoimmunity. It has been increasingly reported that miRNAs are associated with various human diseases like autoimmune disease, skin disease, neurological disease and psychiatric disease. Recently, the identification of miRNAs in skin has added a new dimension in the regulatory network and attracted significant interest in this novel layer of gene regulation. Although miRNA research in the field of dermatology is still relatively new, miRNAs have been the subject of much dermatological interest in skin morphogenesis and in regulating angiogenesis. In addition, miRNAs are moving rapidly center stage as key regulators of neuronal development and function in addition to important contributions to neurodegenerative disorder. Moreover, there is now compelling evidence that dysregulation of miRNA networks is implicated in the development and onset of human neruodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Down syndrome, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, I briefly summarize the current studies about the roles of miRNAs in various autoimmune diseases, skin diseases, psychoneurological disorders and mental stress.

Role of MicroRNAs in the Warburg Effect and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Cancer

  • Jin, Li-Hui;Wei, Chen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7015-7019
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    • 2014
  • Metabolism lies at the heart of cell biology. The metabolism of cancer cells is significantly different from that of their normal counterparts during tumorigenesis and progression. Elevated glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, even under aerobic conditions. The Warburg effect not only allows cancer cells to meet their high energy demands and supply biological materials for anabolic processes including nucleotide and lipid synthesis, but it also minimizes reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria, thereby providing a growth advantage for tumors. Indeed, the mitochondria also play a more essential role in tumor development. As information about the numorous microRNAs has emerged, the importance of metabolic phenotypes mediated by microRNAs in cancer is being increasingly emphasized. However, the consequences of dysregulation of Warburg effect and mitochondrial metabolism modulated by microRNAs in tumor initiation and progression are still largely unclear.

Identification of Genes and MicroRNAs Involved in Ovarian Carcinogenesis

  • Wan, Shu-Mei;Lv, Fang;Guan, Ting
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3997-4000
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    • 2012
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play roles in the clinic, both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The identification of relevant microRNAs is critically required for ovarian cancer because of the prevalence of late diagnosis and poor treatment options currently. To identify miRNAs involved in the development or progression of ovarian cancer, we analyzed gene expression profiles downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Comparison of expression patterns between carcinomas and the corresponding normal ovarian tissues enabled us to identify 508 genes that were commonly up-regulated and 1331 genes that were down-regulated in the cancer specimens. Function annotation of these genes showed that most of the up-regulated genes were related to cell cycling, and most of the down-regulated genes were associated with the immune response. When these differentially expressed genes were mapped to MiRTarBase, we obtained a total of 18 key miRNAs which may play important regulatory roles in ovarian cancer. Investigation of these genes and microRNAs should help to disclose the molecular mechanisms of ovarian carcinogenesis and facilitate development of new approaches to therapeutic intervention.