• Title, Summary, Keyword: methylation

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A lifelong exposure to a Western-style diet, but not aging, alters global DNA methylation in mouse colon

  • Choi, Sang-Woon;Tammen, Stephanie A;Liu, Zhenhua;Friso, Simonetta
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have indicated that when compared to young mice, old mice have lower global DNA methylation and higher p16 promoter methylation in colonic mucosa, which is a common finding in colon cancer. It is also known that a Western-style diet (WSD) high in fat and calories, and low in calcium, vitamin D, fiber, methionine and choline (based on the AIN 76A diet) is tumorigenic in colons of mice. Because DNA methylation is modifiable by diet, we investigate whether a WSD disrupts DNA methylation patterns, creating a tumorigenic environment. SUBJECTVIES/METHODS: We investigated the effects of a WSD and aging on global and p16 promoter DNA methylation in the colon. Two month old male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a WSD or a control diet (AIN76A) for 6, 12 or 17 months. Global DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and p16 expression were determined by LC/MS, methyl-specific PCR and real time RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The WSD group demonstrated significantly decreased global DNA methylation compared with the control at 17 months (4.05 vs 4.31%, P = 0.019). While both diets did not change global DNA methylation over time, mice fed the WSD had lower global methylation relative to controls when comparing all animals (4.13 vs 4.30%, P = 0.0005). There was an increase in p16 promoter methylation from 6 to 17 months in both diet groups (P < 0.05) but no differences were observed between diet groups. Expression of p16 increased with age in both control and WSD groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this model a WSD reduces global DNA methylation, whereas aging itself has no affect. Although the epigenetic effect of aging was not strong enough to alter global DNA methylation, changes in promoter-specific methylation and gene expression occurred with aging regardless of diet, demonstrating the complexity of epigenetic patterns.

Role of P14 and MGMT Gene Methylation in Hepatocellular Carcinomas: a Meta-analysis

  • Li, Cheng-Cheng;Yu, Zhuang;Cui, Lian-Hua;Piao, Jin-Mei;Liu, Meng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6591-6596
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    • 2014
  • Background: This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between methylation of the P14 and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant studies that analysed HCC tissues for P14 and MGMT gene methylation status; we then performed a meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between gene methylation and the risk of HCC. Results: Ten studies that assessed P14 gene methylation in 630 HCC tumour tissues and nine studies analysing MGMT methylation in 497 HCC tumour tissues met our inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis revealed that the rate of P14 methylation was significantly higher in HCCs than in adjacent tissues (OR 3.69, 95%CI 1.63-8.35, p=0.002), but there was no significant difference in MGMT methylation between HCC and adjacent tissues (OR 1.76, 95%CI 0.55-5.64, p=0.34). A subgroup analysis according to ethnicity revealed that P14 methylation was closely related to the risk of HCC in Chinese and Western individuals (Chinese, OR 7.74, 95%CI 1.36-44.04, p=0.021; Western, OR 3.60, 95%CI 1.49-8.69, p=0.004). Furthermore, MGMT methylation was not correlated with the risk of HCC in Chinese individuals (OR 2.42, 95%CI 0.76-7.73, p=0.134). The combined rate of P14 methylation was 35% (95%CI 24-48%) in HCC tumour tissues and 11% (95%CI 4-27%) in adjacent tissues, whereas the combined rate of MGMT methylation was 15% (95%CI 6-32%) in HCC and 10% (95%CI 4-22%) in adjacent tissues. Conclusions: These results suggest that the risk of HCC is related to P14 methylation, but not MGMT methylation. Therefore, P14 gene methylation may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC.

Analysis of sulphur and chlorine induced DNA cytosine methylation alterations in fresh corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and rugosa) leaf tissues by methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) approach

  • Zenda, Tinashe;Liu, Songtao;Yao, Daxuan;Duan, Huijun
    • Genes and Genomics
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.913-925
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    • 2018
  • DNA (cytosine) methylation mechanism is another way through which plants respond to various cues including soil fertility amendments and abiotic stresses, and the mechanism has been used to infer some physiological, biochemical or adaptation processes. Despite numerous studies on global DNA methylation profiling in various crop species, however, researches on fresh corn (Zea mays L. saccharata or rugosa) remain largely unreported. The study aimed at investigating sulphur and chlorine induced DNA methylation changes in the fresh corn leaves of field-grown plants at the milk stage. Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to profile sulphur (S) and chlorine (Cl) induced DNA methylation patterns, levels and polymorphism alterations at the CCGG sites in fresh corn leaves of TDN21, JKN2000 and JKN928 hybrid cultivars. Twelve primer pairs used effectively detected 325 MSAP bands, exhibiting differentially methylated sites in the genomic DNA of all the three cultivars, with control showing higher (48.9-56.3%) type I bands as compared to sulphur (34.8-44.9%) and chlorine (40.9-47.4%) treatment samples. Consequently, total methylation levels were greater in S and Cl treatment samples than control; accounting for 43.7-59.7, 51.1-65.2 and 46.8-55.1% of total sites in TDN21, JKN2000 and JKN928, respectively. Full methylation of the internal cytosine was greater than hemi-methylation. Further, demethylation polymorphic loci significantly exceeded methylation polymorphic loci, being greater in S than Cl and control samples in all cultivars. Sulphur and chlorine have a profound influence on DNA methylation patterns and levels at the milk stage, principally by increasing the demethylation loci in the internal cytosine of the fresh corn genome. We speculate that these methylation alterations play an integral role in photosynthates assimilation and physiochemical pathways regulating quality parameters in kernels, as well as abiotic stress responses in fresh corn.

Disappearance of Serum Methylated p16 Indicates Longer Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer

  • Lim, Han-Ki;Park, Joong-Min;Chi, Kyong-Choun;Lee, Eun-Ju;Jeong, Eun-Mi
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.157-163
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess clinical correlations with postoperative alteration of p16 DNA methylation, and to clarify whether postoperative changes in the serum DNA methylation status of p16 could be used as a reliable prognostic factor for gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three consecutive gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent gastric resection (Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea) were included. DNA methylation of p16 was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction using serum DNA preoperatively and at the 10th postoperative day. The correlation between changes in methylation status and patients' prognosis was analyzed. Results: p16 was methylated in 79.2% of preoperative serum DNA and in 54.7% of postoperative serum DNA, respectively. Methylation in p16 disappeared more frequently in patients who underwent standard D2 lymphadenectomy compared to those who underwent modified D1+ lymphadenectomy (P=0.016). Whereas methylation of preoperative serum DNA was not correlated with survival, patients with postoperative disappearance of p16 methylation showed longer survival than those without postoperative disappearance of p16 methylation in the patients who had gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis (P=0.042). Conclusions: Postoperative disappearance of p16 methylation could be an available prognostic factor for node-positive gastric cancer.

Alu Methylation in Serum from Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

  • Tiwawech, Danai;Srisuttee, Ratakorn;Rattanatanyong, Prakasit;Puttipanyalears, Charoenchai;Kitkumthorn, Nakarin;Mutirangura, Apiwat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9797-9800
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    • 2014
  • Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Southern China and Southeast Asia. Alu elements are among the most prevalent repetitive sequences and constitute 11% of the human genome. Although Alu methylation has been evaluated in many types of cancer, few studies have examined the levels of this modification in serum from NPC patients. Objective: To compare the Alu methylation levels and patterns between serum from NPC patients and normal controls. Materials and Methods: Sera from 50 NPC patients and 140 controls were examined. Quantitative combined bisulfite restriction analysis-Alu (qCOBRA-Alu) was applied to measure Alu methylation levels and characterize Alu methylation patterns. Amplified products were classified into four patterns according to the methylation status of 2 CpG sites: hypermethylated (methylation at both loci), partially methylated (methylation of either of the two loci), and hypomethylated (unmethylated at both loci). Results: A comparison of normal control sera with NPC sera revealed that the latter presented a significantly lower methylation level (p=0.0002) and a significantly higher percentage of hypomethylated loci (p=0.0002). The sensitivity of the higher percentage of Alu hypomethyted loci for distinguishing NPC patients from normal controls was 96%. Conclusions: Alu elements in the circulating DNA of NPC patients are hypomethylated. Moreover, Alu hypomethylated loci may represent a potential biomarker for NPC screening.

Methylation Status and Expression of BRCA2 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in Indonesia

  • Pradjatmo, Heru
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8599-8604
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    • 2016
  • Ovarian cancer is the main cause of mortality in gynecological malignancy and extensive studies have been conducted to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. The BRCA2 gene is known to be an important tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, thereby BRCA2 alterations may lead to cancer progression. However, the BRCA2 gene is rarely mutated, and loss of function is suspected to be mediated by epigenetic regulation. In this study we investigated the methylation status and gene expression of BRCA2 in ovarian cancer patients. Ovarian cancer pateints (n=69) were recruited and monitored for 54 months in this prospective cohort study. Clinical specimens were used to study the in situ expression of aberrant BRCA2 proteins and the methylation status of BRCA2. These parameters were then compared with clinical parameters and overall survival rate. We found that BRCA2 methylation was found in the majority of cases (98.7%). However, the methylation status was not associated with protein level expression of BRCA2 (49.3%). Therefore in addition to DNA methylation, other epigenetic mechanisms may regulate BRCA2 expresison. Our findings may become evidence of BRCA2 inactivation mechanism through DNA methylation in the Indonesian population. More importantly, from multivariate analysis, BRCA2 expression was correlated with better overall survival (HR 0.32; p=0.05). High percentage of BRCA2 methylation and correlation of BRCA2 expression with overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer cases may lead to development of treatment modalities specifically to target methylation of BRCA genes.

A Visualization Tool for Computational Analysis of DNA Methylation Level Using Bisulfite Sequencing Data

  • Tae, Hong-Seok
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.136-137
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    • 2011
  • Methylation of cytosine is a post-synthesis modification that does not affect the primary DNA sequence but greatly influences gene expression level and phenotypes of an organism. As high-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA is the most efficient method to identify methylated sites, several tools to map sequencing reads on a reference are available. But tools to visualize and to interpret the methylation level of methylation sites are currently insufficient. Herein, we present a novel tool to visualize the methylation level of CpG sites.

Methylation Methods on Identification of Phenolics in Chebulae Fructus (Chebulae Fructus중 페놀 물질 확인시의 Methylation법 비교)

  • 김정숙
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 1994
  • Food quality in food processing and storage were affected by the kinds of phenolics involved. To analyze phenolics of Chebulae Fructus by the way of GC-MSm methylation and trimethylsilyation(TMS) are necessary. The methods of methylation were dimethyl sulfate method and diazomethane method. so this study was undertaken to research the better methylation method before measuring GC-MS. But dimethyl sulfate method of methylation was not sufficient to analyze phenolics. So the phenolics of Chebulae Fructus were analyzed by the diazomethane methylation method and TMS with the pyridine, N-O-bis-trimethylsilyl-acetamide(BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane(TMCS). With the exception of pyrogallol and phloroglucinol in insoluble phenolics of Chebulae Fructus, the greater part of phenolics. analysis could be analyzed by GC-MS in company with diazomethane methylation method and TMS.

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Regulatory patterns of histone modifications to control the DNA methylation status at CpG islands

  • Jung, In-Kyung;Kim, Dong-Sup
    • Interdisciplinary Bio Central
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.4.1-4.7
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    • 2009
  • Introduction: Histone modifications and DNA methylation are the major factors in epigenetic gene regulation. Especially, revealing how histone modifications are related to DNA methylation is one of the challenging problems in this field. In this paper, we address this issue and propose several plausible mechanisms for precise controlling of DNA methylation status at CpG islands. Materials and Methods: To establish the regulatory relationships, we used 38 histone modification types including H2A.Z and CTCF, and DNA methylation status at CpG islands across chromosome 6, 20, and 22 of human CD4+ T cell. We utilized Bayesian network to construct regulatory network. Results and Discussion: We found several meaningful relationships supported by previous studies. In addition, our results show that histone modifications can be clustered into several groups with different regulatory properties. Based on those findings we predicted the status of methylation level at CpG islands with high accuracy, and suggested core-regulatory network to control DNA methylation status.

Hypermethylation of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

  • Saelee, Pensri;Chuensumran, Ubol;Wongkham, Sopit;Chariyalertsak, Sunanta;Tiwawech, Danai;Petmitr, Songsak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3489-3493
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    • 2012
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary hepatic tumor, is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region, including Thailand. Many genetic and epigenetic alterations in HCC have been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether aberrant methylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 gene (SOCS1) occurs in HCCs. Methylation specific-PCR assays were performed to identify the methylation status of SOCS1 in 29 tumors and their corresponding normal liver tissues. An abnormal methylation status was detected in 17 (59%), with a higher prevalence of aberrant SOCS1 methylation significantly correlating with HCC treated without chemotherapy (OR=0.04, 95%CI=0.01-0.31; P=0.001). This study suggests that epigenetic aberrant SOCS1 methylation may be a predictive marker for HCC patients.