• Title, Summary, Keyword: metazoans

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Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

  • Kim, Suyoung;Park, Sook-Young;Kim, Hyejeong;Kim, Dongyoung;Lee, Seon-Woo;Kim, Heung Tae;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Choi, Woobong
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2014
  • Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5'-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

PDZ Domain-containing Proteins at Autotypic Junctions in Myelinating Schwann Cells (수초화 슈반세포 autotypic 세포연접의 PDZ 도메인 보유 단백질)

  • Han, Seongjohn;Park, Hyeongbin;Hong, Soomin;Lee, Donghyun;Choi, Maro;Cho, Jeongmok;Urm, Sang-Hwa;Jang, Won Hee;Seog, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.101-112
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    • 2015
  • A type of cell junction that is formed between different parts within the same cell is called autotypic cell junction. Autotypic junction proteins form tight junctions found between membrane lamellae of a cell, especially in myelinating glial cells. Some of them have postsynaptic density-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domains, which interact with the carboxyl (C)-terminal PDZ-binding motif of other proteins. PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules that play a role in protein complex assembly. The PDZ domain, which is widespread in bacteria, plants, yeast, metazoans, and Drosophila, allows the assembly of large multi-protein complexes. The multi-protein complexes act in intracellular signal transduction, protein targeting, and membrane polarization. The identified PDZ domain-containing proteins located at autotypic junctions include zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), ZO-2, pals-1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), multi-PDZ domain proteins (MUPPs), membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 (MAGI2), and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-3. PAR-3 interacts with atypical protein kinase C and PAR-6, forming a ternary complex, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell polarity. MAGI2 interacts with ${\alpha}$-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor at excitatory synapses. PATJ is detected in paranodal loops associated with claudin-1. On the other hand, MUPP1 is found in mesaxons and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures with claudin-5. ZO-1, ZO-2, and PAR-3 are found at all three sites. Different distributions of PDZ domain-containing proteins affect the development of autotypic junctions. In this review, we will describe PDZ domain-containing proteins at autotypic tight junctions in myelinating Schwann cells and their roles.