• Title/Summary/Keyword: metallic elements

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A Study on the Characteristics of $PM_{10}$ and Air-borne Metallic Elements Produced in the Industrial City (산업도시 대기 중$PM_{10}$의 농도 및 금속원소 성분의 특성 연구)

  • 나덕재;이병규
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 2000
  • PM10, which is below 10 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in a diameter, has a high deposition in the lung or the bronchus by breathing and is generally composed of a lot of organic matters, viruses, algae, mold, and metallic elements that are very toxic to people. This study identified the characteristics of concentration of PM10 and air-borne jmetallic elements produced in the industrial city, Ulsan, and analyzed the correlatuion between sources and generation patterns of PM10 and metallic elements. We classified the five areas(green, residential, heavy traffic, mechanic, and petrochemcal and non-ferrous metal) which might have different characteristics of sources of PM10 and metallic elements. The average concentrations of PM10 in the five areas were as follows(petrochemical and non-ferrous metal(99.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥)>mechanic(77.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥)>heavy traffic(47.1 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥)>residential(39.3 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥)>green(32.8 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥)). Those of petrochemical and non-ferrous metal areas were higher than other areas. In this study, the average concentration trend of metallic elements contained in PM10 are shown as follows: Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mn>Cr>As>Cd>Sn>Hg, respectively. The metallic elements identified in PM10 showed the highest concentration in the petrochemical and non-ferrous areas. Metal combinations showed that a high correlation among concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: As, Cd and Fe in the residential area; Zn, Mn, Cu and Pb in the mechanical area; and Zn, Cu, As, Pb in the petrochemical and non-ferrous industrial area.

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Distribution of Organic Matters and Metallic Elements in the Surface Sediments of Masan Harbor, Korea (마산항 표층 퇴적물의 유기물 및 금속원소의 분포)

  • Hwang Dong-Woon;Jin Hyun-Gook;Kim Seong-Soo;Kim Jung-Dae;Park Jong-Soo;Kim Seong-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.106-117
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    • 2006
  • We measured the concentrations of organic matter and metallic elements (Al, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg) in the surface sediments of Masan Harbor (in the southern sea, Korea) to evaluate the geochemical characters of sediment and the pollutions by organic matter and metallic elements. The mean grain size of the surface sediments in the study area ranged from $5.6{\phi}$ to $7.8{\phi}$, indicating silt sediment. The water content of the surface sediments exceeded 60% except at some stations. The contents of ignition loss (IL), total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) ranged from 7.2-14.3%, 1.2-3.2%, and 0.10-0.28%, respectively. Based on the C/N ratios, the organic matter in the surface sediments of Masan Harbor may originate from terrigenous sources including fluvial inputs (mainly sewage in urban areas). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) ranged from $11.3-29.9\;mgO_2/g\;dry$ and 0.20-4.47 mgS/g dry, respectively, and low concentrations were observed near a shipping route. In addition, the concentrations of metallic elements showed large spatial variations in Masan Harbor and the distributions of metallic elements were also comparable to those of organic matter. This implies that the distributions of organic matter and metallic elements in the surface sediments of Masan Harbor are mainly controlled by biogenic matter and artificial action (mainly dredging). In addition, we calculated the enrichment facto. (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) in order to evaluate pollution by metallic elements. The enrichment of metallic elements relative to Al was three to eighteen times higher at the study sites, compared to levels in the Earth's crust except for Fe, Ni and Mn. In addition, the Igeo class indicated that the surface sediments in the study area were moderately to strongly polluted in terms of metallic elements.

Characteristics of Heavy Metallic Elements of PM10 for Yellow sand and Non-Yellow sand during Springtime of 2002 at Busan (2002년 부산지역 봄철 황사/비황사시 PM10 중의 중금속 농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2003
  • We collected and analyzed PM10 samples to account for the characteristics of heavy metallic elements for yellow sand and non-yellow sand during springtime of 2002 at Busan, The mean PM10 mass concentration for springtime of 2002 was $219.82{\mu}g/m^3$ with the maximum $787.50{\mu}g/m^3$ and the minimum $19.44{\mu}g/m^3$. The mean concentration of metallic elements contained in PM10 are shown as follows : Si>Ca>Fe>Al>Na, respectively. The ratio of mean PM10 mass concentration for yellow sand($362.7{\mu}g/m^3$) to that for non-yellow sand($48.3{\mu}g/m^3$) was 7.5, the significant positive correlation (P<0.05) was found between yellow sand and non-yellow sand. The metallic elements concentration ratios of yellow sand to the non-yellow sand were over 10 times for Al, Ca, Mg, 4~8 times for Fe, Si, Mn. But the concentration of Na, Cu, Zn for non-yellow sand was higher than those of yellow sand. The crustal enrichment factor of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, K, Mn, Na, Ni for yellow sand was higher that of non-yellow sand over 10 times, and concentration rate of soil particles of yellow sand was increased 2.3 times that of nonyellow sand.

Characteristics of the Springtime Weekday/Weekend on Mass and Metallic Elements Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Busan (부산지역 봄철 주중/주말의 PM10과 PM2.5 질량농도와 금속이온농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.777-784
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    • 2015
  • This study investigates weekday/weekend characteristics of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration and metallic elements in Busan in the springtime of 2013. $PM_{10}$ concentration on weekday/weekend were 77.54 and $67.28{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. And $PM_{2.5}$ concentration on weekday/weekend were 57.81 and $43.83{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. Also, $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ concentration ratio on weekdays/weekend was 0.75 and 0.65, respectively. The contribution rates of Na to total metallic elements in $PM_{10}$ on weekday/weekend were 38.3% and 38.9%, respectively. It would be useful in control effectively with management of urban fine particle to understand characteristics of fine particle concentration on weekday/weekend.

Geochemical Characteristics of Intertidal Surface Sediments along the Southwestern Coast of Korea (한국 서해남부 조간대 표층 퇴적물의 지화학적 특성)

  • Hwang, Dong-Woon;Ryu, Sang-Ok;Kim, Seong-Gil;Choi, Ok-In;Kim, Seong-Soo;Koh, Byoung-Seol
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.146-158
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    • 2010
  • In order to evaluate the characteristics of sediments and pollution by organic matter and metallic elements in intertidal sediments along the southwestern coast of Korea, we measured various geochemical parameters, including the mean grain size (Mz), water content (WC), ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (COD), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and metallic elements (Al, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mn, Hg, As), in intertidal surface sediments. The Mz of the surface sediments ranged from 2.1 to 8.3$\phi$, indicating that the surface sediments consist of various sedimentary facies, such as sand, slightly gravelly mud, sandy mud, and silt. The IL and COD in surface sediment ranged from 0.8 to 5.5% (mean $2.9\pm1.2%$) and from 3.9 to $13.8\;mgO_2/g{\cdot}dry$ (mean $8.5\pm2.6\;mgO_2/g{\cdot}dry$), respectively, which were lower than the values for surface sediment in areas near fish and shellfish farms or industrial complexes. No AVS was detected at any sampling station, despite various sedimentary facies. Most of metallic elements in surface sediments showed relatively good positive correlations with Mz and IL, which imply that the concentrations of metallic elements are mainly controlled by grain size and the organic matter content. The concentrations of metallic elements, except As, at some stations were considerably lower than those in the Sediment Quality Guideline (Effect Range Low, ERL) proposed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the United States. Similarly, the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) class indicated that pollution by metallic elements in intertidal surface sediment, except As, was moderate or non-existent. Our results imply that the intertidal surface sediments along the southwestern coast of Korea are not polluted by organic matter and metallic elements and are healthy for benthic organisms.

Impact of Dust Transported from China on Air Quality in Korea -Characteristics of PM2.5 Concentrations and Metallic Elements in Asan and Seoul, Korea

  • Yang, Won-Ho;Son, Bu-Soon;Breysse, Patrick;Chung, Tae-Woong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.479-487
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    • 2007
  • [ $PM_{2.5}$ ], particulate matter less than 2.5 um in a diameter, can penetrate deeply into the lungs. Exposure to $PM_{2.5}$ has been associated with increased hospital visits for respiratory aliments as well as increase mortality. $PM_{2.5}$ is a byproduct of combustion processes and as such has a complex composition including a variety of metallic elements, inorganic and organic compounds as well as biogenic materials (microorganisms, proteins, etc). In this study, the average concentrations of fine particulates $PM_{2.5}$ have been measured simultaneously in Asan and Seoul, Korea, by using particulate matter portable sampler from September 2001 to August 2002. Sample collection filters were analyzed by ICP-OES to determine the concentrations of metallic elements (As, Ni, Fe, Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Si). Annual mean $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in Asan and Seoul were 37.70 and $45.83\;{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. The highest concentrations of $PM_{2.5}$ were found in spring season in both cities and the concentrations of measured metallic elements except As in Asan were higher than those in Seoul, suggesting that yellow dust in spring could affect $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in Asan rather than Seoul. The correlation coefficients of Pb and Zn were 0.343 for Asan and 0.813 for Seoul during non-yellow dust condition, suggesting that Pb and Zn were influenced with the same sources. The correlation coefficients between Si and Fe in the fine particulate mode were 0.999 (Asan) and 0.998 (Seoul) during yellow dust condition. It was suggested that these two elements were impacted by soil-related transport from China during the yellow dust storm condition.

Distributions of Metallic Elements in the Sediment Cores from Several Shellfish-Farming Bays in Korea

  • Hwang, Dong-Woon;Yang, han-Soeb
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2003
  • We report the distribution of $^{210}$ Pb and various metallic elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Mn, Sr, Ba, Zn, V, Cr, Zr, Ni, Cu, and Y) in the sediment cores from six shellfish-farming bays in the South Sea of Korea. The $^{210Pb}$ inventories in Deukryang, Gwangyang, and Goseong Bay cores were comparable to those expected from the known fallout input. However, the $^{210}$ Pb inventories were two times higher in Jinju, Gangjin, and Hansan-Koeje Bay cores, suggesting an important role of other sources such as fluvial inputs. Based on the enrichment factor analyses, non-detrital fractions of all the measured elements were found to be insignificant. The Mn was highly enriched only in the surface sediments of the Jinju and Goseong Bay, which implies that the surface-sediment environment of these bays is efficiently oxidizing Mn remobilized from either pore waters or bottom seawaters. These data set provides the sources of heavy metal in sediment around shellfish farms and the current level of metallic elements for the future monitoring.

The Metallic Elements of PM10 and PM2.5 in Western Region of Busan in the Springtime of 2005 (2005년 봄철 부산 서부지역 PM10, PM2.5의 금속성분 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.327-340
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    • 2007
  • The $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ aerosols were collected at Busan from March to May, 2005, and the concentrations of some metallic elements were analysed to study their characteristics. The mean concentration of $PM_{10}$ was $66.5{\pm}23.0{\mu}g/m^3$ with a range of 22.2 to $118.1{\mu}g/m^3$. The mean concentration of $PM_{2.5}$ was $46.1{\pm}17.2{\mu}g/m^3$ with a range of 9.7 to $83.3{\mu}g/m^3$. The ratio of $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ was 0.69 at Busan. The distribution of metallic elements for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ were Cd${\ldots}$ ${\ldots}$ $PM_{10}$ were $94.9{\mu}g/m^3$ and $63.7{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. And The mean mass concentrations of Asian dust and non Asian dust in $PM_{2.5}$ were $56.9{\mu}g/m^3$ and $45.1{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. The mean values of crustal enrichment factors for five elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, V and Zn) were all higher than 10, possibly suggesting the influence of anthropogenic sources. The soil contribution ratios for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ were 20.5% and 19.4, respectively.

Spatial Distribution Analysis of Metallic Elements in Dustfall using GIS (GIS를 이용한 강하분진 중 금속원소의 공간분포분석)

  • 윤훈주;김동술
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.463-474
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    • 1997
  • Metallic elements in dustfall have been known as notable air pollutants directly or indirectly influencing human health and wealth. The first aim of this study was to obtain precise spatial distribution patterns of 5 elements (Pb, Zn, K, Cr, and Al) in dustfall around Suwon area. To predict isometric lines of metal fluxes deposited on unsupervised random sites, the study has applied both spatial statistics as a receptor model and a GIS (geographic information system). Total of 31 sampling sites were selected in the study area (roughly 3 by 3 km grid basis) and dustfall samples were then collected monthly basis by the British deposit gauges from Dec., 1995 to Nov., 1996. The metallic elements in the dustfall were then analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). On the other hand, a base map overlapped by 7 layers was constructed by using the AutoCAD R13 and ARC/INFO 3.4D. Four different spatial interpolation and expolation techniques such as IDW (inverse distance weighted averaging), TIN (triangulated irregular network), polynomial regression, and kriging technique were examined to compare spatial distribution patterns. Each pattern obtained by each technique was substantally different as varing pollutant types, land of use types, and topological conditions, etc. Thus, our study focused intensively on uncertainty analysis based on a concept of the jackknife and the sum of error distance. It was found that a kriging technique was the best applicalbe in this study area.

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Characteristics of $PM_{10}S$ and Air-borne Metallic Elements in Asan and Seoul (아산 및 서울 일부 지역의 대기 중 $PM_{10}S$의 농도 및 금속원소 성분의 특성 연구)

  • 양원호;손부순;김윤신;최경호;손종렬;이종대
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.123-132
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize background mass concentration of PM$_{10}$ and metallic composition from September 2001 to August 2002 in comparison with Asan and Seoul. Annual mean of PM$_{10}$ concentrations in Asan and Seoul were 47.98 and 75.33$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥, respectively. The concentrations of PM$_{10}$ were highest in spring season in both cities. The concentrations of measured metals except for As and Pb in Asan were higher than those in Seoul. Yellow dust could affect the mass and metals concentrations of measured PM$_{10}$ in Asan and Seoul. Relationship between measured metals concentrations showed that Si and Fe were associated with natural sources such as soil. Pb, Cu and Zn were closely related to urban anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion. Especially, relationship between metals showed different association during yellow dust. Proper management for PM$_{10}$ will need in Asan, considered the concentrations of metallic elements in PM$_{10}$ in Asan were relatively higher than those in Seoul.se in Seoul.