• 제목, 요약, 키워드: metal catalyst

검색결과 747건 처리시간 0.039초

메탄의 부분산화반응에 미치는 Base metal의 영향 (Effects of Base Metal on the Partial Oxidation of Methane Reaction)

  • 오영삼;장보혁;백영순;이재의;목영일
    • 에너지공학
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 1999
  • 본 연구에서는 메탄의 부분산화반응에 미치는 base metal 의 영향을 살펴보기 위하여 6~l2wt%의 Mn, Cu, V, Co, Cr 그리고 Ba 등이 2 wt% Pt, 70 wt% Alumina, 28 wt% Ceria and Zirconia 와 함께 cordierite (2MgO.2Al$_2$O$_3$.5SiO$_2$)에 담지된 Pt-B/cordierite 촉매(B: base metal)를 사용하여 메탄의 부분산화반응 실험을 수행하였다. 메탄의 부분산화반응에 대한 활성은 Ba, Co그리고 Cr 담지 촉매는 Ni담지 촉매와 유사하게 Mn, Cu, V을 담지 했을 때 보다 우수한 것으로 나타났으나, 코크 생성에 대한 활성도 큰 것으로 나타났다. 또한 5wt% Ni/Al$_2$O$_3$촉매를 이용한 메탄의 부분산화반응 실험 후의 촉매에 대한 XRD 분석결과 Ni은 3가지 형태의 상으로 존재하는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며, 촉매층 전단에서는 주로 NiAl$_2$O$_4$와 NiO 형태로 존재하여 메탄의 산화반응이 일어나며, 그리고 촉매층 후단에서는 환원상태의 Ni로 존재는 것으로 보아 개질반응이 일어나는 것을 알 수 있었다.

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Effect of Triethylaluminum/Transition-Metal Ratio on the Physical Properties and Chemical Composition Distributions of Ethylene-Hexene Copolymers Produced by a $rac-Et(Ind)_2ZrCl_2/TiCl_4/MAO/SMB$ Catalyst

  • Park, Hai-Woong;La, Kyung-Won;Song, In-Kyu;Chung, Jin-Suk
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.221-224
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    • 2007
  • A silica-magnesium bisupport (SMB) was prepared by a sol-gel method for use as a support for a metal-locene/Ziegler-Natta hybrid catalyst. The prepared $rac-Et(Ind)_2ZrCl_2/TiCl_4$/MAO(methylaluminoxane)/SMB catalyst was applied to the copolymerization of ethylene with l-hexene using a variable triethylaluminum (TEA)/transition-metal (Ti) ratio and fixed MAO/transition-metal (Zr) ratio. The effect of the Al(TEA)/Ti ratio on the physical properties and chemical composition distributions (CCDs) of the ethylene-hexene copolymers produced by the hybrid catalyst was investigated. In the ethylene-hexene copolymers, two melting temperatures attributed to the metal-locene and Ziegler-Natta catalysts were clearly observed. The number of CCD peaks was increased from six to seven and the temperature region in which the peaks for the short chain branches of the ethylene-hexene copolymer were distributed became lower as the Al(TEA)/Ti ratio was increased from 300 to 400. Furthermore, the temperature regions corresponding to the lamellas in the copolymer became lower and those corresponding to the small lamellas in the copolymer became higher as the Al(TEA)/Ti ratio was increased from 300 to 400. In the copolymer produced with Al(TEA)/Ti = 500, however, only four CCD peaks were observed and the short chain branches were poorly distributed.

산업 발생 노르말헥산과 벤젠 증기의 저온 분해 (Low-Temperature Thermal Decomposition of Industrial N-Hexane and Benzene Vapors)

  • 조완근;이준엽;강정환;신승호;권기동;김모근
    • 한국환경과학회지
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.635-642
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    • 2006
  • Present study evaluated the low-temperature destruction of n-hexane and benzene using mesh-type transition-metal platinum(Pt)/stainless steel(SS) catalyst. The parameters tested for the evaluation of catalytic destruction efficiencies of the two volatile organic compounds(VOC) included input concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, and surface area of catalyst. It was found that the input concentration affected the destruction efficiencies of n-hexane and benzene, but that this input-concentration effect depended upon VOC type. The destruction efficiencies increased as the reaction time increased, but they were similar between two reaction times for benzene(50 and 60 sec), thereby suggesting that high temperatures are not always proper for thermal destruction of VOCs, when considering the destruction efficiency and operation costs of thermal catalytic system together. Similar to the effects of the input concentration on destruction efficiency of VOCs, the reaction temperature influenced the destruction efficiencies of n-hexane and benzene, but this temperature effect depended upon VOC type. As expected, the destruction efficiencies of n-hexane increased as the surface area of catalyst, but for benzene, the increase rate was not significant, thereby suggesting that similar to the effects of the re- action temperature on destruction efficiency of VOCs, high catalyst surface areas are not always proper for economical thermal destruction of VOCs. Depending upon the inlet concentrations and reaction temperatures, almost 100% of both n-hexane and benzene could be destructed, The current results also suggested that when applying the mesh type transition Metal Pt/SS catalyst for the better catalytic pyrolysis of VOC, VOC type should be considered, along with reaction temperature, surface area of catalyst, reaction time and input concentration.

화염을 이용한 탄소나노튜브와 나노섬유의 합성에 미치는 촉매금속 및 기판온도의 영향 (Effects of Catalyst Metal and Substrate Temperature on a Flame Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials)

  • 이교우;정종수;황정호
    • 한국연소학회지
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2003
  • Synthesis of carbon nanomaterials on a metal substrate by an ethylene fueled inverse diffusion flame was illustrated. Stainless steel plates were used for the catalytic metal substrate. The effects of catalyst metal particles were investigated through $Fe(NO_3){_3}$ (ferric nitrate, nonahydrate) and $Ni(NO_3){_2}$ (nickel nitrate, hexahydrate). Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers with diameters of $30{\sim}70nm$ were found on the substrate for the case of using SUS304 substrates only and using them with metal nitrates. In case of using metal nitrates, due to the easy activation of the metal particles, the formation and growth of carbon nanomaterials were occurred in the lower temperature region than that of using SUS304 substrates only.

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졸-겔법에 의한 CuO-CeO2 복합 산화물 촉매의 제조 및 CO의 선택적 산화반응에 응용 (Preparation of CuO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalyst by sol-gel method and its application to preferential oxidation of CO)

  • 황재영;함현식
    • 한국응용과학기술학회지
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.883-891
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    • 2017
  • 고분자 전해질 연료전지의 연료에 포함된 일산화탄소의 선택적 산화를 위하여, 귀금속 촉매를 대체하기 위한 CuO-$CeO_2$ 복합 산화물 촉매를 졸-겔법과 공침법으로 제조하였다. 졸-겔법으로 촉매 제조 시 Cu/Ce의 비와 가수분해 비를 변화시켰다. 제조한 촉매의 활성은 귀금속 촉매($Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$)와 비교하였다. Cu/Ce의 비를 변화시키면서 제조한 촉매 중 Cu/Ce의 비가 4:16인 촉매가 가장 높은 CO 전환율(90%)과 선택도(60%)를 나타내었다. 촉매의 제조에서 가수분해 비가 증가할수록 촉매 표면적이 증가하였고, 아울러 촉매 활성 또한 증가하였다. 공침법으로 제조한 촉매와 1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ 촉매의 가장 높은 CO 전환율은 각각 82% 및 81%인 반면, 졸-겔법으로 제조한 촉매의 경우는 90%가 얻어졌다. 이는 졸-겔법으로 제조한 촉매가 공침법으로 제조한 촉매나 귀금속 촉매보다 더 높은 촉매활성을 보임을 의미한다. CO-TPD 실험을 통하여, 낮은 온도($140^{\circ}C$)에서 CO를 탈착하는 촉매가 본 반응에서 더 높은 촉매활성을 보임을 알 수 있었다.

이중층 워시코트 Rh-Pd-Pt 삼원촉매의 열적 열하에 따른 반응 특성 (Characteristics of Rh- Pd- Pt Three-Way Catalysts with Double-Layer Washcoat on the Hydrothermal Aging)

  • 최병철;정종우;손건석;정명근
    • 한국자동차공학회논문집
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2006
  • The research was conducted to characterize of Rh-Pd-Pt TWC with a double-layer washcoat for gasoline vehicle. The physical characteristics on surface of catalyst were inspected by BET, SEM and TEM. The characteristics of catalytic reaction were examined by the TPD/TPR and CO-pulse chemisorption. The catalyst $6Hx(0.35\times11\times3)$ showed superior conversion performance after hydrothermal aging process, which was due to small difference of the surface area between. the fresh and the aged catalyst. The CO-chemisorption and surface area were superior in the 600 cpsi catalyst than other catalysts, this catalyst also shown the higher conversion efficiency of the exhaust emissions. From the TPR test, the conversion performance of the aged catalyst was decreased by the agglomeration and sintering of the PM and metal oxides. From the TPD result, it was found that the NO chemisorption was happed on the bottom-layer washcoat with Pd, and the NO chemisorption was re-happened on the upper-layer washcoat with Pt and Rh in the desorption process.

Polymeric Material Application for The Production of Ceramic Foam Catalyst

  • Sangsuriyan, Anucha;Yeetsorn, Rungsima;Tungkamani, Sabaithip;Sornchamni, Thana
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2015
  • Ceramic foams are prepared as positive images corresponding to a plastic foam structure which exhibits high porosities (85-90%). This structure makes the ceramic foams attractive as a catalyst in a dry reforming process, because it could reduce a high pressure drop problem. This problem causes low mass and heat transfers in the process. Furthermore, the reactants would shortly contact to catalyst surface, thus low conversion could occur. Therefore, this research addressed the preparation of dry reforming catalysts using a sol-gel catalyst preparation via a polymeric sponge method. The specific objectives of this work are to investigate the effects of polymer foam structure (such as porosity, pore sizes, and cell characteristics) on a catalyst performance and to observe the influences of catalyst preparation parameters to yield a replica of the original structure of polymeric foam. To accomplish these objectives industrial waste foams, polyurethane (PU) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foams, were used as a polymeric template. Results indicated that the porosity of the polyurethane and polyvinyl alcohol foams were about 99% and 97%. Their average cell sizes were approximate 200 and 50 micrometres, respectively. The cell characteristics of polymer foams exhibited the character of a high permeability material that can be able to dip with ceramic slurry, which was synthesized with various viscosities, during a catalyst preparation step. Next, morphology of ceramic foams was explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and catalyst properties, such as; temperature profile of catalyst reduction, metal dispersion, and surface area, were also characterized by $H_2-TPR$ and $H_2-TPD$ techniques, and BET, respectively. From the results, it was found that metal-particle dispersion was relatively high about 5.89%, whereas the surface area of ceramic foam catalysts was $64.52m^2/g$. Finally, the catalytic behaviour toward hydrogen production through the dry reforming of methane using a fixed-bed reactor was evaluated under certain operating conditions. The approaches from this research provide a direction for further improvement of marketable environmental friendly catalyst production.

촉매제어를 통한 촉매화학기상증착법으로 성장시킨 탄소나노튜브의 특성분석 (The characteristics of grown carbon nanotubes by controlled catalyst preparation at the catalytic chemical vapor deposition)

  • 김종식;김관하;김창일
    • 대한전기학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1378-1379
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    • 2006
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with few defects and very small amount of amorphous carbon coating have been synthesized by catalytic decomposition of acetylene in $H_2$ over well-dispersed metal particles supported on MgO. The yield, quality and diameters of CNTs were obtained by control of catalyst metal compositions to be used. The optimization condition of carbon nanotubes with high yield is when Co and Mo are in a 1:1 ratio and Fe metal contents to Co is increased on magnesium oxide support. It is also found that the diameter of the as-prepared CNTs can be controlled mainly by adjusting the molar ratio of Fe-Mo, Co-Fe, and Co-Mo versus the MgO support. Our results indicated that desired diameter distribution of CNTs is obtained by choosing or combining the catalyst to be employed.

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유기금속 촉매를 사용한 Succinic Acid과 1,4-butanediol의 에스테르화반응에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Esterification Reaction of Succinic Acid and 1,4-butanediol Using an Organic Metal Catalysts)

  • 박근호
    • 한국응용과학기술학회지
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.415-421
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    • 2009
  • Esterification reaction between succinic acid[SA] and 1,4-butanediol [BD} was kinetically investigated in the presence of organic metal catalysts (alkyl-silver oxide(ASO),CAT 100E) at $150{\sim}190^{\circ}C$. The reaction rates measured by the amount of distilled water from the reaction vessel. The esterification reaction was carried out under the first order kinetics with respect to the concentration of reactants and catalyst, respectively. The overall reaction order was 2nd. From the examination of relationship between apparent reaction rate constants and reciprocal absolute temperature, the activation energy has been calculate as 146.70 kJ/mol with ASO catalyst and 43.04 kJ/mol with CAT 100E catalyst.

Vapor-phase Oxidation of Alkylaromatics over V/TiO2 and VSb/Al2O3 Catalysts: Effect of Alkali Metals

  • Yoon, Ji-Woong;Jhung, Sung-Hwa;Chang, Jong-San
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.2405-2408
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    • 2007
  • Oxidation of alkylaromatics including toluene and p-methoxytoluene has been carried out over alkali metal (AM)-containing catalysts such as AM-V/TiO2 and AM-VSb/Al2O3 in vapor-phase using oxygen as an oxidant. The selectivity for partial oxidations increases with incorporation of an alkali metal or with increasing the basicity of alkali metals (from Na to Cs), irrespective of the supports or reactants. However, the conversion is nearly constant or slightly decreasing with the addition of alkali metals in the catalyst. The increased selectivity may be related with the decreased acidity even though more detailed work is necessary to understand the effect of alkali metals in the oxidation. The AM-VSb/Al2O3 may be suggested as a potential selective catalyst for vapor-phase oxidations.