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The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma (간문부 담도암에서 수술 후 방사선 치료의 결과)

  • Lee, Yu-Sun;Park, Jae-Won;Park, Jin-Hong;Choi, Eun-Kyung;Ahn, Seung-Do;Lee, Sang-Wook;Song, Si-Yeol;Lee, Sung-Gyu;Hwang, Shin;Lee, Young-Joo;Park, Kwang-Min;Kim, Ki-Hun;Ahn, Chul-Soo;Moon, Deok-Bog;Chang, Heung-Moon;Ryu, Min-Hee;Kim, Tae-Won;Lee, Jae-Lyun;Kim, Jong-Hoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of postoperative radiotherapy in a case of perihilar cholagiocarcinoma by analyzing overall survival rate, patterns of failure, prognostic factors for overall survival, and toxicity. Materials and Methods: Between January 1998 and March 2008, 38 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent a surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. The median patient age was 59 years (range, 28 to 72 years), which included 23 men and 15 women. The extent of surgery was complete resection in 9 patients, microscopically positive margins in 25 patients, and a subtotal resection in 4 patients. The tumor bed and regional lymphatics initially received 45 Gy or 50 Gy, but was subsequently boosted to a total dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy in incompletely resected patients. The median radiotherapy dose was 59.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 30 patients. The median follow-up period was 14 months (range, 6 to 45 months). Results: The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression free survival rates were 30% and 8%, respectively. The median survival time was 28 months. A multivariate analysis showed that differentiation was the only significant factor for overall survival. The 3-year overall survival was 34% in R0 patients and 20% in R1 patients. No statistically significant differences in survival were found between the 2 groups (p=0.3067). The first site of failure was local in 18 patients (47%). No patient experienced grade 3 or higher acute toxicity and duodenal bleeding developed in 2 patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that adjuvant RT might be a significant factor in patients with a positive margin following a radical resection. However, there was still a high locoregional recurrence rate following surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Further study is necessary to enhance the effect of the adjuvant radiotherapy.

Prospective Study on Preoperative Evaluation for the Prediction of Mortality and Morbidity after Lung Cancer Resection (폐암절제술후 발생하는 사망 및 합병증의 예측인자 평가에 관한 전향적 연구)

  • Park, Jeong-Woong;Suh, Gee-Young;Kim, Ho-Cheol;Cheon, Eun-Mee;Chung, Man-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Joong;Kwon, O-Jung;Kim, Kwan-Min;Kim, Jin-Kook;Shim, Young-Mok;Rhee, Chong-H.;Han, Yong-Chol
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : This study was undertaken to determine the preoperative predictors of mortality and morbidity after lung cancer resection. Method: During the period from October 1, 1995 to August 31, 1996, a prospective study was conducted in 92 lung resection candidates diagnosed as lung cancer. For preoperative predictors of nonpulmonary factors, we considered age, sex, weight loss, hematocrit, serum albumin, EKG and concomitant illness, and for those of pulmonary factors, smoking history, presence of pneumonia, dyspnea scale(1 to 4), arterial blood gas analysis with room air breathing, routine pulmonary function test. And predicted postoperative(ppo) pulmonary factors such as PPO-$FEV_1$, ppo-diffusing capacity(DLco), predicted postoperative product(PPP) of ppo-$FEV_1%{\times}ppo$-DLco% and ppo-maximal $O_2$ uptake($VO_2$max) were also considered. Results: There were 78 men and 14 women with a median age of 62 years(range 42 to 82) and a mean $FEV_1$ of $2.37\pm0.06L$. Twenty nine patients had a decreased $FEV_1$ less than 2.0L. Pneumonectomy was performed in 26 patients, bilobectomy in 12, lobectomy in 54. Pulmonary complications developed in 10 patients, cardiac complications in 9, other complications(empyema, air leak, bleeding) in 11, and 16 patients were managed in intensive care unit for more than 48hours. Three patients died within 30 days after operation. The ppo-$VO_2$max was less than 10ml/kg/min in these three patients, but its statistical significance could not be determined due to small number of patients. In multivariate analysis, the predictor related to postoperative death was weight loss(p<0.05), and as for pulmonary complications, weight loss, dyspnea scale, ppo-DLco and extent of resection(p<0.05). Conclusions: Based on this study, preoperative nonpulmonary factors such as weight loss and dyspnea scale are more important than the pulmonary factors in the prediction of postoperative mortality and/or morbodity in lung resection candidates, but exercise pulmonary fuction test may be useful Our study suggests that ppo-$VO_2$max value less than 10ml/kg/min is associated with death after lung cancer resection but further studies are needed to validate this result.

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Pulmonary Resection in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (다제 내성 폐결핵환자의 폐절제술에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Eun-Soo;Ha, Hyun-Cheol;Hwang, Su-Hee;Lee, Hung-Yol;Park, Seung-Kyu;Song, Sun-Dae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1143-1153
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    • 1998
  • Background : Recent outbreaks of pulmonary disease due to drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in patients worldwide. We reviewed our experience to evaluate the effects of pulmonary resection on the management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Method : A retrospective review was performed of 41 patients undergoing pulmonary resection for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis between January 1993 and December 1997. We divided these into 3 groups according to the radiologic findings : (1) patients who have reasonably localized lesion (Localized Lesion Group ; LLG) (2) patients who have cavitary lesions after pulmonary resection on chest roentgenogram (Remained Cavity Group : RCG) (3) patients who have Remained infiltrative lesions postoperatively (Remained infiltrative group : RIG). We evaluated the negative conversion rate after resection and overall response rate of the groups. Then they were compared with the results of the chemotherapy on the multi drug-resistant tuberculosis which has been outcome by Goble et al. Goble et al reported that negative conversion rate was 65% and overall response rate, 56% over a mean period of 5.1 months. Results : Seventy five point six percent were men and 24.4% women with a median age of 31 years (range, 16 to 60 years). Although the patients were treated preoperatively with multidrug regimens in an effort to reduce the mycobacterial burden, 22 of 41 were still sputum culture positive at the time of surgery. 20 of 22 patients(90.9%, p<0.01) responded which is defined as negative sputum cultures within 2 months postoperative. Of 26 patients with the sufficient follow up data, 19 have Remained sputum culture negative for a mean duration of 25.7 months (73.1%, p<0.05). The bulk of the disease was manifest in one lung, but lesser amounts of contralateral disease were demonstrated in 15, consisted of 8 in RIG and 7 in RCG, of 41. 12 of 12 patients (100%, p<0.01) who were sputum positive at the time of surgery in LLG converted successfully. 14 of 15 patients (93.3%, p<0.05) with the follow up have completed treatment and not relapsed for a mean period of 25. 7 months. The mean length of postoperative drug therapy of LLG was 12.2 months. In RIG, postoperative negative conversion rate was 83.3% which was not significant statistically. There was a statistical significance in overall response rate (100%, p<0.05) of RIG for a mean period of 24.4 months with a mean length of postoperative chemotherapy, 11.8 months. In RCG a statistically lower overall response rate (14.3%, p<0.01) has been revealed for a mean duration of follow up, 24.2 months. A negative conversion rate of RCG was 75% which was not significant statistically. Conclusion : Surgery plays an important role in the management of patients with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Aggressive pulmonary resection should be performed for resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to avoid treatment failure or relapse. Especially all cavitary lesions on preoperative chest roentgenogram should be resected completely. If all of them could not be resected perfectly, you should not open the thorax.

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The study of food habit and degree of depression in nursing home and privite home living elderly (시설노인과 재가노인의 식습관과 정신건강 상태에 관한 실태조사)

  • Han, Myung-Joo;Koo, Sung-Ja;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.475-486
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    • 1998
  • The dietary habit, health condition and the cognition concerning the health food have been surveyed with the help of the 151 old people living in In-Cheon and Seoul. In this study, the old are classified as an institution for the aged and the old in their own home. The preference and mental health condition influenced on dietary habits have been surveyed as wall. Their dietary habits such s three meals a day and a regular meal time have show) that they have generally good eating habits. Psychologically, the old in an institution for the aged think their health condition is not so good in comparison with the old in their own home. The old in their own home have good condition in that they can go up the stairs, exercise often and walk relatively well. Moreover, men's health condition is better than women. The old generally like meats(especially beef) and prefer sesame oil, perilla oil, soy been oil to Western oil. They like sweat flavor the most and hot, salty taste in order. Thier favorite cooking method is a pot stew, soup and season. The difference between dietary habit and mental health based on an academic career, an allowance and a residential condition shows that the old who live alon have relatively terrible eating habit and the more learned, the better. The more pocket money they have, the better dietary habits they have. The old feel glommy in general and the old in an institution are more depressed and it is statistically significant.

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A Study on Risk Factors for Early Major Morbidity and Mortality in Multiple-valve Operations (중복판막수술후 조기성적에 영향을 미치는 인자에 관한 연구)

  • 한일용;조용길;황윤호;조광현
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 1998
  • To define the risk factors affecting the early major morbidity and mortality after multiple- valve operations, the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative informations were retrospectively collected on 124 consecutive patients undergoing a multiple-valve operation between October 1985 and July 1996 at the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Pusan Paik Hospital. The study population consists of 53 men and 71 women whose mean age was 37.9$\pm$11.5(mean$\pm$SD) years. Using the New York Heart Association(NYHA) classification, 41 patients(33.1%) were in functional class II, 60(48.4%) in class III, and 20(16.1%) in class IV preoperatively. Seven patients(5.6%) had undergone previous cardiac operations. Atrial fibrillations were present in 76 patients(61.3%), a history of cerebral embolism in 5(4.0%), and left atrial thrombus in 13(10.5%). The overall early mortality rate and postoperative morbidity was 8.1% and 21.8% respectively. Among the 124 cases of multiple-valve operation, there were 57(46.0%) of combined mitral valve replacement(MVR) and aortic valve replacement(AVR), 48(38.7%) of combined MVR and tricuspid annuloplasty(TVA), 12(9.7%) of combined MVR, AVR and TVA, 3(2.4%) of combined MVR and aortic valvuloplasty, 2(1.6%) of combined MVR and tricuspid valve replacement, and others. The patients were classified according to the postoperative outcomes; Group A(27 cases) included the patients who had early death or major morbidity such as low cardiac output syndrome, mediastinitis, cardiac rupture, ventricular arrhythmia, sepsis, and others; Group B(97 cases) included the patients who had the good postoperative outcomes. The patients were also classified into group of early death and survivor. In comparison of group A and group B, there were significant differences in aortic cross-clamping time(ACT, group A:153.4$\pm$42.4 minutes, group B:134.0$\pm$43.7 minutes, p=0.042), total bypass time(TBT, group A:187.4$\pm$65.5 minutes, group B:158.1$\pm$50.6 minutes, p=0.038), and NYHA functional class(I:33.3%, II:9.7%, III:20%, IV:50%, p=0.004). In comparison of early death(n=10) and survivor(n=114), there were significant differences in age(early death:45.2$\pm$8.7 years, survivor:37.2$\pm$11.6 years, p=0.036), sex(female:12.7%, male:1.9%, p=0.043), ACT(early death:167.1$\pm$38.4 minutes, survivor:135.7$\pm$43.7 minutes, p=0.030), and NYHA functional class(I:0%, II:4.9%, III:1.7%, IV:35%, p=0.001). In conclusion, the early major morbidity and mortality were influenced by the preoperative clinical status and therefore the earlier surgical intervention should be recommended whenever possible. Also, improved methods of myocardial protection and operative techniques may reduce the risk in patients with multiple-valve operation.

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Community Residents' Knowledge, Attitude, and Needs for Hospice Care (일부 지역주민들의 호스피스에 대한 인지와 태도 및 간호요구 조사)

  • Ro, You-Ja;Han, Sung-Suk;Ahn, Sung-Hee;Yong, Jin-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : The hospice movement began about 30 years ago in Korea. However, basic studies have seldom been conducted about the general public's knowledge concerning hospice care and their needs for it. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general public's knowledge of and attitude toward hospice, and their needs for hospice care, and to analyze the needs for hospice care in relation to their knowledge and attitude in residents from a specific community. Methods : The survey was conducted with 924 people randomly selected from a district in Seoul. The data were collected through a self-reporting questionnaire constructed by the authors. With 30 items given in the questionnaire, the level of hospice needs showed Cronbach's alpha .89 in a pilot study and .92 in this study and the items were classified into four areas by a factor analysis. The data collected were analyzed by means of t-test and ANOVA. Results : 1) The average age of the respondents was 38. The majority of the respondents were well-educated. 2) Regarding awareness of hospice care, 54%(501 people) indicated they have heard of hospice. About 74% thought that people should be able to prepare for death in advance. About 83% wanted to be informed when they have life threatening illnesses such as terminal cancer. Also, about 63% responded that patients with terminal diseases should be provided with physical, spiritual, and psychological care for minimizing pain and peaceful death. Regarding the attitude toward hospice care, 74% responded that they would use hospice care if needed. The number of the respondents who preferred home visitation by the hospice team to care for the terminally ill ranked first with 34%. Concerning needs for hospice care : 1) By needs area, physical need showed highest mean(M=4.37), followed by social need(M=3.96), emotional need(M=3.87), and the spiritual need(M=3.79). The overall need level showed the mean value of 4.00 which reflects a considerable need for hospice care. 2) By demographic characteristics, people age over 50, the married, and the unemployed indicated higher level of needs for hospice care. Women showed higher level of needs than did men, and Catholics demonstrated higher level of needs than believers of other religion(P<0.0001). 3) As for the knowledge of and attitude toward hospice rare, the level of hospice care needs was significantly higher in the following groups: those who have heard of hospice, those who are aware of death preparation, those who want information on terminal diseases, those who want to use every method to sustain life, and those who are aware of hospice needs(P<0.001). Conclusion : It is assumed that the findings of this study on the knowledge, attitude, and needs for hospice care in the public can contribute to planning a successful hospice care program. Furthermore, the findings of this study will serve as useful data for the promotion of home hospice care to improve the quality of life of community residents, and contribute to the development of hospice care as a whole.

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Postoperative Clinical Courses According to the Length of Preoperative Drug Therapy in Pulmonary Tuberculosis (폐결핵 환자의 수술전 항결핵제 투여기간에 따른 수술후 임상경과)

  • Kwon, Eun-Su;Kim, Dae-Yun;Park, Seung-Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.775-785
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    • 1999
  • Background : Though surgery plays an important role in the management of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, there is little information regarding the timing of resection. We tried to find out the ideal timing of operation. Method: A retrospective review was performed in 69 patients underwent pulmonary resection for pulmonary tuberculosis between January 1993 and December 1997. They were categorized into various groups according to the length of preoperative specific drug therapy. The rates of treatment failure, realpse and complication in each group were compared statistically by $x^2$-test. Results: Eighty one point two percent were men and 18.8 % women with a median age of 33 years(range, 16 to 63 years). The mean number of resistant drugs was 3.l(range, 0 to 9). Patients were treated preoperatively with multidrug regimens, which mean number of preoperative specific drugs was 4.6, in an effort to reduce the mycobacterial burden with the mean length of preoperative drug therapy, 5.0 months. Postoperative treatment was conducted for a mean period of 13.0 months with a mean number of postoperative specific drugs, 4.4. Postoperative treatment failures were confirmed in 8 among 69 patients(11.6%). 2 of these 8 patients were showed up in the preoperative 3 to 4 months medication group and each of the rest was occurred in the preoperative 2 to 3, 5 to 6, 6 to 7, 12 to 13, 17 to 18 months, less than one month medication group, respectively. 59 of 69 patients were available for evaluation of the relapse rate with the mean duration of the postoperative follow-up, 19.8 months. In 4 patients bacterial relapse was confirmed(6.8%). Each of these 4 was in the preoperative 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 5 to 6 months medication group. Categorized into various groups according to the length of preoperative specific therapy, there were no statistical significances of the treatment failure rate, relapse rate and complication rate in the groups. There were seven treatment failures of 28 who were AFB culture positive until the time of operation(25%, p<0.01). Categorized the preoperative AFB culture positive group into various groups according to the length of preoperative drug therapy, there were no statistical significances, either. Conclusion: We believe that operation plays an important ancillary role in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Our results indicate that the timing of resection according to the length of preoperative drug therapy may not cause trouble.

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A Study on the Expressed Desire at Discharge of Patients to Use Home Nursing and Affecting Factors of the Desire (퇴원환자의 가정간호 이용의사와 관련 요인)

  • Lee, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Young-Eun;Lee, Myung-Hwa;Sohn, Sue-Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.257-270
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate factors related to the intent of using home nursing of chronic disease patients who got out of a university hospital. For the purpose, the study selected 153 patients who were hospitalized and left K university hospital with diagnoses of cancer, hypertension, diabetes and cerebral vascular accident and ordered to be discharged and performed interviews with them and surveys on their medical records to obtain the following results. For this study a direct-interview survey and medical record review was conducted from June 28 to Aug. 30, 1998. The frequency and mean values were computed to find the characteristics of the study subjects, and $X^2$-test, t-test, factor analysis and multiple logistic regession analysis were applied for the analysis of the data. The following results were obtained. 1) When characteristics of the subjects were examined, men and women occupied for 58.8% and 41.2%, respectively. The subjects were 41.3 years old in aver age and had the monthly aver age earning of 0.99 million won or below, which was the most out of the total subjects at 34.6%. Among the total, 87.6% resided in cities and 12.4 in counties. The most left the hospital with diagnosis of cancer at 51.6%, followed by hyper tension at 24.2%, diabetes at 13.7% and cerebral vascular accident at 7.2%. 2) 93.5% of the selected patients had the intent of using home nursing and 6.5%, didn't. Among those patients having the intent, 85.6% had the intent of paying for home nursing and 14.4%, didn't. The subjects expected that the nursing would be paid 9,143 won in aver age and 47.7% of them preferred national authorities as the main servers. 86.3% of the subjects thought that home nursing business had the main advantage of making it possible to learn nursing methods at home and thereby contributing to improving the ability of patients and their facilities to solve health problems. 3) Relations between the intent of use and characteristics of the subjects such as demography-related social, home environment, disease and physical function characteristics did not show statistically significant differences among one another. Compared to those who had no intent of using home nursing, the group having the intent had more cases of male patients, the age of 39 or below, residence in cities, 5 family member s or more, no existence of home nursing servers, leaving the hospital from a non-hospitalized building, disease development for five months or below, hospitalization for ten days or more, non-hospitalization with in the recent one month, two times or over of hospitalization, leaving the hospital with no demand of special treatment, operation underwent, poor results of treatment, leaving the hospital with demand of rehabilitation services, physical disablement and high evaluation point of daily life. 4) Among those patients having the intent of using home nursing, 47.6% demanded technical nursing and 55.9%, supportive nursing. As technical nursing,' inject into a blood vessel ' and 'treat pustule and teach basic prevention methods occupied for 57.4%, respectively, topping the list. Among demands of supportive nursing, 'observe patients 'status and refer them to hospitals or community resources as available, if necessary' was the most with percent age point of 59.5. Regarding the intent of paying for home nursing, 39.2% of those patients wishing to use the nursing responded paying for technical services and 20.2, supportive services. In detail, 70.0% wanted to pay for a service stated as 'inject into a blood vessel', highest among the former services and 30.7%, a service referred to as 'teaching exercises needed to make the body of patients move', highest among the latter. When this was analyzed in terms of a relation between the need(the need for home nursing) and the demand(the intent of paying for home nursing), The rate of the need to the demand was found two or three times higher in technical nursing(0.82) than in supportive nursing(0.35). In aspects of tech ical nursing, muscle injection(1.26, the 1st rank) was highest in the rate while among aspects of supportive nursing, a service referred to as 'teach exercises needed for making patients move their bodies normally'(0.58, the 1st rank). 5) factors I(satisfaction with hospital services), II(recognition of disease state), III(economy) and IV(period of disease) occupied for 34.4, 13.8, 11.9 and 9.2 percents, respectively among factors related to the intent by the subjects of using home nursing, totaled 59.3%. In conclusion, most of chronic disease patients have the intent of using hospital-based home nursing and satisfaction with hospital services is a factor affecting the intent most. Thus a post-management system is needed to continue providing health management to those patients after they leave the hospital. Further, supportive services should be provided in order that those who are satisfied with hospital services return to their community and live their in dependent lives. Based on these results, the researcher would make the following recommendation. 1) Because home nursing becomes more and more needed due to a sharp increase in chronic disease patients and elderly people, related rules and regulations should be made and implemented. 2) Hospital nurses specializing in home nursing should be cultivated.

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A Study on the 'Zhe Zhong Pai'(折衷派) of the Traditional Medicine of Japan (일본(日本) 의학醫學의 '절충파(折衷派)'에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Hyun-Kuk;Kim, Ki-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.121-141
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    • 2007
  • The outline and characteristics of the important doctors of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai'(折衷派) are as follows. Part 1. In the late Edo(江戶) period The 'Zhe Zhong Pai', which tried to take the theory and clinical treatment of the 'Hou Shi Pai (後世派)' and the 'Gu Fang Pai (古方派)' and get their strong points to make treatments perfect, appeared. Their point was 'The main part is the art of the ancients, The latter prescriptions are to be used'(以古法爲主, 後世方爲用) and the "Shang Han Lun(傷寒論)" was revered for its treatments but in actual use it was not kept at that. As mentioned above The 'Zhe Zhong Pai ' viewed treatments as the base, which was the view of most doctors in the Edo period, However, the reason the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' is not valued as much as the 'Gu Fang Pai' by medical history books in Japan is because the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' does not have the substantiation or uniqueness of the 'Gu Fang Pai', and also because the view of 'gather as well as store up' was the same as the 'Kao Zheng Pai', Moreover, the 'compromise'(折衷) point of view was from taking in both Chinese and western medical knowledge systems(漢蘭折衷), Generally the pioneer of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' is seen as Mochizuki Rokumon(望月鹿門) and after that was Fukui Futei(福井楓亭), Wadato Kaku(和田東郭), Yamada Seichin(山田正珍) and Taki Motohiro(多紀元簡), Part 2. The lives of Wada Tokaku(和田東郭), Nakagame Kinkei(中神琴溪), Nei Teng Xi Zhe(內藤希哲), the important doctors of the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', are as follows First. Wada Tokaku(和田東郭, 1743-1803) was born when the 'Hou Shi Pai' was already declining and the 'Gu Fang Pai' was flourishing and learned medicine from a 'Hou Shi Pai' doctor, Hu Tian Xu Shan(戶田旭山) and a 'Gu Fang Pai' doctor, Yoshimasu Todo(吉益東洞). He was not hindered by 'the old ways(古方), and did not lean towards 'the new ways(後世方)' and formed a way of compromise that 'looked at hardness and softness as the same'(剛柔相摩) by setting 'the cure of the disease' as the base, and said that to cure diseases 'the old way' must be used, but 'the new way' was necessary to supplement its shortcomings. His works include "Dao Shui Suo Yan", "Jiao Chiang Fang Yi Je" and "Yi Xue Sho(醫學說)" Second. Nakagame Kinkei(中神琴溪, 1744-1833) was famous for leaving Yoshirnasu Todo(吉益東洞) and changing to the 'Zhe Zhong Pai', and in his early years used qing fen(輕粉) to cure geisha(妓女) of syphilis. His argument was "the "Shang Han Lun" must be revered but needs to be adapted", "Zhong jing can be made into a follower but I cannot become his follower", "the later medical texts such as "Ru Men Shi Qin(儒門事親)" should only be used for its prescriptions and not its theories". His works include "Shang Han Lun Yue Yan(傷寒論約言) Third. Nei Teng Xi Zhe(內藤希哲, 1701-1735) learned medicine from Qing Shui Xian Sheng(淸水先生) and went out to Edo. In his book "Yi Jing Jie Huo Lun(醫經解惑論)" he tells of how he went from 'learning'(學) to 'skepticism'(惑) and how skepticism made him learn in 'the six skepticisms'(六惑). In the latter years Xi Zhe(希哲) combines the "Shen Nong Ben Cao jing(神農本草經)", the main text for herbal medicine, "Ming Tang jing(明堂經)" of accupuncture, basic theory texts "Huang Dui Nei jing(黃帝內徑)" and "Nan jing(難經)" with the "Shang Han Za Bing Lun", a book that the 'Gu Fang Pai' saw as opposing to the rest, and became 'an expert of five scriptures'(五經一貫). Part 3. Asada Showhaku(淺田宗伯, 1815-1894) started medicine at Zhong Cun Zhong(中村中倧) and learned 'the old way'(古方) from Yoshirnasu Todo and got experience through Chuan Yue(川越) and Fu jing(福井) and received teachings in texts, history and Wang Yangmin's principles(陽明學) from famous teachers. Showhaku(宗伯) meets a medical official of the makufu(幕府), Ben Kang Zong Yuan(本康宗圓), and recieves help from the 3 great doctors of the Edo period, Taki Motokato(多紀元堅), Xiao Dao Xue GU(小島學古) and Xi Duo Cun Kao Chuang and further develops his arts. At 47 he diagnoses the general Jia Mao(家茂) with 'heart failure from beriberi'(脚氣衝心) and becomes a Zheng Shi(徵I), at 51 he cures a minister from France and received a present from Napoleon, at 65 he becomes the court physician and saves Ming Gong(明宮) jia Ren Qn Wang(嘉仁親王, later the 大正犬皇) from bodily convulsions and becomes 'the vassal of merit who saved the national polity(國體)' At the 7th year of the Meiji(明治) he becomes the 2nd owner of Wen Zhi She(溫知社) and takes part in the 'kampo continuation movement'. In his latter years he saw 14000 patients a year, so we can estimate the quality and quantity of his clinical skills Showhaku(宗伯) wrote over 80 books including the "Ju Chuang Shu Ying(橘窓書影)", "WU Wu Yao Shi Fang Han(勿誤藥室方函)", "Shang Han Biang Shu(傷寒辨術)", "jing Qi Shen Lun(精氣神論)", "Hunag Guo Ming Yi Chuan(皇國名醫傳)" and the "Xian Jhe Yi Hua(先哲醫話)". Especially in the "Ju Chuang Shu Ying(橘窓書影)" he says "the old theories are the main, and the new prescriptions are to be used"(以古法爲主, 後世方爲用), stating the 'Zhe Zhong Pai' way of thinking. In the first volume of "Shung Han Biang Shu(傷寒辨術) and "Za Bing Lun Shi(雜病論識)", 'Zong Ping'(總評), He discerns the parts that are not Zhang Zhong Jing's writings and emphasizes his theories and practical uses.

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Clinical Experiences for Cardiac Myxomas (심장 점액종의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Geun-Dong;Lee, Jae-Won;Jung, Jae-Seung;Jung, Sung-Ho;Je, Hyoung-Gon;Choo, Suk-Jung;Song, Hyun;Chung, Cheol-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.703-709
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    • 2008
  • Background: Diagnosis and treatment are often successful in the setting of cardiac myxomas. However, cardiac myxomas can lead to catastrophic complications, due to intracardiac obstruction and embolism preoperatively, and can recur postoperatively. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and recurrence data of 85 patients who underwent cardiac myxoma surgery at Asan Medical Center between November 1994 and June 2007. We analyzed the morphologic characteristics of 58 patients with left atrial myxomas and determined the development of functional mitral valve stenosis and systemic embolism through reviewing the results of preoperative echo-cardiograms to find potential preoperative risk factors. Result: Twenty-seven (31.8%) patients were men, and 58 (68.2%) were women. The mean patient age was $54.5{\pm}14.3$ years. Preoperative symptoms included obstructive symptoms in 41 (48.2%) patients, signs of embolism in 19 (22.4%), constitutional symptoms in 8 (9.4%), and no symptoms in 19 (20.0%). Among the 58 patients with left atrial myxomas, the mean maximal tumor diameter was $4.3{\pm}1.8$ (range $1.1{\sim}8\;cm$)cm. Twenty-six (44.8%) patients had a prolapsing type, defined as a tumor mobile enough to move down. to the mitral. annular plane during diastole, and 32 (55.2%) had villous type, defined as a tumor consisting of multiple fine villous extensions on the surface. Twelve (20.7%) patients had severe functional mitral valve stenosis, and 15 (25.9%) had systemic embolism preoperatively. The incidence of severe functional mitral valve stenosis was significantly higher in patients with the prolapsing type than in those with the non-prolapsing type (p=0.001). The mean maximal tumor diameter in patients with severe functional mitral valve stenosis was $5.1{\pm}1.0\;cm$, significantly larger than that seen in patients without severe functional mitral valve stenosis (p=0.041). The incidence of systemic embolism was significantly higher in patients with the villous type than in those with the smooth type (p=0.006). Postoperative complications were noted in 6 (7.1%) patients, and early mortality was noted in 1 (1.2%). The mean postoperative follow-up duration was $36.2{\pm}37.5$ months, with recurrence reported in 2(2.4%) patients during the follow-up period. The disease free interval were 48, 12 months, respectively. Conclusion: Surgical treatment for cardiac myxomas was performed safely, and long-term prognosis was good. In patients with left atrial myxoma, close attention should be maintained and surgery should be performed promptly in those of prolapsing type, those with large maximal diameter in order to prevent severe functional mitral valve stenosis, and those of villous type in order to prevent systemic embolism. Echocardiography should be followed serially in order to detect recurrence.