The purpose of this study is to examine the recent various developments of men's fashion by analyzing how exotic tastes were presented in men's modern fashion from 2001 to 2010. For this purpose, a researcher reviewed relevant studies to identify the styles of exotic tastes that were reflected in men's modern fashion specifically in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, East Asian, American, North American and South American styles. Findings of this study is summarized as follows. Main examples of men's modern fashion were found in Chinese-style apparel such as the magwae, queue, coolie hat and the Mao jacket. The Kimono and the samurai robe, both of which best represent Japanese apparel and the Japanese traditional patterns also had an influence on men's modern fashion Indian style clothing such as dhoti, veshti and lungi which cover the lower body, vajani as loose trousers, kurta of full-over tunic form and turban also had an effect as well. The men's modern fashion is also impacted by Middle Asian styles that includes the thobe, sirwaal, futah, which is sort of a skirt that is long enough to cover the calf and whose front parts overlap each other, turbans and the hempen hood which is fixed with the agal. Exotic elements such as animal skins, body painting, tattoos and head dresses found in African styles can also be found in men's modern fashion. Parts of North American style influence come from the applications of Indians' costume and head dress. The surveyed men's modern fashion of the South America style was represented by the applications of natives' costume and Andean tunic, loincloth and shawl. In all of the exotic styles found in men's modern fashion, historicity, eclecticism, aestheticism and nature-orientation are implied. They are the source of inspirations that promote changes and diversity in men's modern fashion.
The purpose of this study is to examine how to sew the hem of men's coat which were excavated from the Yeosan Song Clan's tombs that are thought to be formed between the late 15th and the late 16th centuries, findings of the study can be summarized as follows. 1. Andan, or inside facing was used to prevent the hem from being worn or swollen or to make the hem properly arranged. It was generally used for single-layered and cotton-quilted coat for men. Deotdan was used mainly for men's coat having oblique cutting lines and jemuldan for those having straight cutting lines. In single-layed coat for men, the width of andan was widened a little as the times moved from the late 15th to the late 16th century, but in cotton-quilted ones, the width was not significantly changed. 2. Fixing the lining and the upper was used as a method to prevent the lining of men's coat from being pushed out or the hem of the clothes from being swollen. The method was generally used for double-layered, cotton and cotton-quilted coat for men. The double back-stitching was usually used for double-layered and cotton coat for men and the broad-stitching for Cotton-quilted ones. 3. Among men's coat, those whose siding was partially opened were less spare in the lower end than those whose siding was wholly opened. For this reason, the former clothes were more likely to have the tip of the siding easily torn. To solve this problem, overhand knotting 1, overhand knotting 2 and lotus-flower knotting strings were used for men's coat whose siding was partially opened. Among the three types, lotus-flower knotting was most elaborate in form. For men's coat, overhand knotting became gradually replaced by lotus-flower knotting as the times moved from the late 15th to the late 16th century.
The purpose of this study is to classify the types of men's back and chest through the criteria which represent the characteristic of men's back and chest. We have the following conclusions based on our sample size of 291 men's back and chest. The result of factor analysis concerned with men's back indicates that six factors are extracted and they are consist of 80.6% of total variance. We divide the shape of back into three categories: bent, protrusion of the scapula, and breadth. Each category is divided into subcategories. According to the frequency based on our data entries of 291 men's back, we introduce five new types of men's back. 83.8% of examined men's back belong to one of these five types: (i) 15.5% of protrudent and lordotic type; (ii) 6.5% of flat and lordotic type; (iii) 22.7% of protrudent and normal type; (iv) 34.4% of flat and normal type; (v) 4.8% of flat and bent type. The result of factor analysis related to with men's chest shows that six factors are extracted and they are consist of 76.0% of total variance. We divide the shape of chest into three categories: thickness, breadth, and protrusion of the breast. Each category is divided into subcategories. According to the frequency based on our data entries of 291 men's chest, we introduce four new types of men's chest. 65.0% of examined men's chest belong to one of these four types: (i) 7.2% of full and well-developed type; (ii) 24.1% of full and developed type; (iii) 25.8% of flat and developed type; (iv) 7.9% of flat and under-developed type. In order to consider the shape of the upper body as a whole, the back and the chest types should be corresponded.
This study was performed to assess the physical activity, food habit and nutrient intakes by gender and age groups in 193 adults aged 20-59 years (84 men and 109 women) in Pusan. Data for physical activity and dietary survey was assessed by a questionnaire and 24hr recall method. The mean BMIs of men and women were 24.0 and 22.2 respectively and BMI of women in the 20-29 years group (20.9) was significantly lower than that of women in the 30-49 and 50-59 years group (22.7, 23.2) (p < 0.01). 56.0% for men and 44.0% for women exercised regularly. The mean exercise duration per once of men (69.7 minutes) was significantly higher than that of women (52.4minutes) (p < 0.01). The mean exercise duration per day was 36.0 minutes for men and 29.9 minutes for women. 67.9% for men and 78.0% for women often skipped meals and 68.4% for men and 69.4% for women skipped breakfast in the main. The mean energy intake of men was 2067.2 kcal and that of women was 1783.1 kcal comprised of 87.2% and 92.1% of the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER). The mineral intakes of men and women were over Recommended Intake (RI) and Adequate Intake (AI) except calcium and potassium. The mean calcium intake was 88.3% for men and 84.0% for women of RI. The mean potassium intake was 63.3% for men and 59.2% for women of AI. The mean vitamin intakes of men and women were over RI and AI except vitamin C and folic acid. The mean vitamin C intake was 92.5% for men and 85.6% for women of RI. The mean folic acid intake was 76.6% for men and 70.0% for women of RI. The mean energy, protein, sodium and zinc intakes of men were significantly higher than those of women (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). The mean vitamin $B_6$, vitamin C and folic acid intakes of men in the 20-29 years group were significantly lower than those of men in the 30-49 and 50-59 years group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). For energy, proportions of subjects with intake levels less than 90% EER were 64.3% for men and 56.0% for women. For calcium, proportions of subjects with intake levels less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) were 52.4% for men and 59.6% for women. For folic acid, proportions of subjects with intake levels less than EAR were 78.6% for men and 83.5% for women. For iron and phosphorus, proportions of women (36.7%, 14.7%)with intake levels less than EAR were significantly higher than those of men (6.0%, 1.2%) (p < 0.01, p < 0.001). For men, age was positively correlated with intakes of potassium, vitamin $B_6$, vitamin C and folic acid (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01). For men, weight showed significantly negative correlations with intakes of carbohydrate, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, vitamin $B_6$ and folic acid (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01) and BMI showed significantly negative correlations with protein, lipid, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, vitamin E and folic acid (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05) For men, exercise duration per once showed significantly positive correlations with intakes of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, vitamin C and folic acid (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.05). Therefore, nutritional education for adult health management is needed by gender and age groups.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of modern Korean men's pants design from 1962 to 1998 by reviewing fashion magazine advertisements and pictorials. For theoretical study, the characteristics and the importance of apparel advertisements and the changes of modern Korean men's fashion trend were reviewed. For sample selection, first, 932 pictorials of men';s wear designs from Joongang Magazine, Shin Dong-A, Bokjangwolbo, Meot, Men's Life, WWD, and SFAA's photograph album, published from 1962 to 1998 were selected and then excluded some samples that could not clearly identify the pants design. Content analysis method was used to analyze the content of magazines and pictorials. The final samples are classified into pattern, color, length, silhouette, and existence or non-existence of turn-up. Frequency and $x^2$-test were conducted using a SAS statistics package to analyse the data. The results were as follows. ; (1) Solid pattern was the most prevailed throughout the last four decades and followed by stripe, check, the others, abstract, dot and floral. There is no significant difference in the type of men's pants pattern between each decade. (2) It showed a significant difference in colors of men's pants between decades. The colors in men's wear are divided into nine categories and the order of occurrence are as follows; multi-color is the most frequently shown and followed by brown, gray, blue, black, green, pink, yellow, and red. More various colors appeared over the period, however, multi color was the most popular in all decades but in the 60s. (3) Full length of pants style occupied more than 96% throughout all four decades. Due to the popularity of sports wear in men's fashion during the 90s, the shorts style appeared not only in sports wear and casual wear but also in suit style. (4) There is a significant difference in silhouette of men's pants between decades. The silhouette of men's pants were divided into four types and their order of occurrence are as follows; basic, baggy, fitted, and loose silhouette. Basic silhouette was the most prevailed throughout the whole four decades. (5) A significant difference was shown in the existence or non-existence of turn-up of men's pants between decades. Non-existence of turn-up of men's pants was the most prevailed throughout the whole four decades.
Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effects of middle-aged men's family functionality and self-efficacy on their retirement anxiety, in order to produce methods to alleviate this anxiety, including providing basic information for devising programs that help middle-aged men get better adjusted to and increase their awareness about retirement. Methods: For data collection, the study surveyed 364 middle-aged men who were residing in B Metropolitan City from February. 10 to 25, 2017. Results: This study found that the primary factor influencing middle-aged men's retirement anxiety is self-efficacy, for which the explanatory power for the surveyed men's retirement anxiety was 52.0%. In contrast, family functionality had no effect on retirement anxiety. Conclusions: To make middle-aged men less anxious about retirement, a variety of programs must be created and implemented that help them improve their self-efficacy prior to retirement. Furthermore, these men should be provided with educational and intervention programs that facilitate their adjustment to retirement and increase their awareness about retirement.
Purpose: This study aimed to identify the effect of the level of alcohol drinking and smoking period on the occurrence of lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis in men aged 50 years and over. Methods: This study analyzed the data of 1,410 men based on results of a National Survey on Nutritional Health for the period 2010-2012. Complex sample multi-variate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether alcohol drinking and smoking period were associated with osteoporosis in men aged 50 years older. Results: The risk of osteoporosis in the femoral neck was 3.43 times (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.15~10.29) higher in men who consumed less alcohol and smoked for a long time compared to men who smoked more than 40 years and consumed much alcohol at once. The risk of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine was 3.45 times (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69~7.04) higher respectively. Men who consumed much alcohol at a time and smoked less than 40 years were 1.54 (1/0.65) times (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.45~0.93) more likely to be classified as normal than the men who consumed much alcohol and had a long smoking period. Conclusion: The interaction of excessive drinking and smoking has a more detrimental effect on bone mineral density.
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles Vol. 20, No. 1 (1996) p. 87∼9'F The purpose of this study was to identify the change and chracteristics of 20th men's fashion under the influences of America. The result of the study as follows: 1. England had led men's fashion and introduced new styles of men's fashion such as oxford bags, plus fours, drape cut etc. in the early of 20th century. But America, which had the strongest Political and financial power after World War I, II, proposed Americans cut, soot sit, bold look. 2. In the first half of 20th century men's fashion was no longer created by imitation royalty and students of private school. American movies exerted tremendous influences on the clothing styles. Genereal public adopted the dress of movie stars and American men's fashion magazines inspired the new fashion and generated sales. So America made a contribution towards democratization of men's fashion. 3. Automobile industry and leisure living of America changed American life styles and clothing styles. The wealthy made fashionable tours to foreign country and European beach resorts. So their casual styles, summer business suits and dinner jackets effected 20th men's fashion. Therefore America played an important role in casualization of men's fashion.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the married middle-aged married men and women describe their own gender-role attitude, mid-life crisis and psychological adjustment, including search components as both middle-aged men and women's income, and education with occupation. Psychological adjustment was composed of mid-life crisis, depression, and perceived happiness, These data were collected from 397 married, middle aged men and women from 40 years to 59 years-old by using self-administered questionnaire method, The summarized results of the study are as follows: First of all, the middle-aged men's gender-role attitudes were more traditional gender-role attitudes 'than of women's. Second, in general characteristic, the men were different according to education, However, the women's gender-role attitudes were different according to ages, a period of marriage, education, income, and occupation. Third, in psychological adjustment, the men had significant differences in income. And, the women had significant differences in ages, a period of marriage, education, income, and occupation. Finally, the men and women's gender-role attitudes were positively correlated with mid-life crisis and depression, and were negatively correlated with happiness. And, the women's gender-role attitudes were positively correlated with psychological adjustment.
Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
The purpose of this study is to suggest new designs and patterns for men's coat by deconstructing and restructuring 18th and 19th century men's coat. In the postmodern society, the reinterpretation of the past fashion trends or items through extensive historical investigation has been frequently used as new design motifs and the new source of creative fashion design. Especially in the contemporary society, as multifarious forms and presentations are emphasized even in the men's fashion, it is urgently required more than ever to do thorough and extensive research for the design and structure of men's fashion. Therefore, through historical research on men's fashion, the 18th and 19th century men's coat, which is generally considered to be the most developed one in the concept and shape of 'coat,' has been reinterpreted and deconstructed to make new design for men's coat which corresponds to the trends and sensibility of contemporary fashion. In addition to this, to facilitate practical use of this new design by fashion public, the plane patterns for the actual production of these coat designs were presented.
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