• Title, Summary, Keyword: melanoma cancer

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Genetic Alterations among Korean Melanoma Patients Showing Tumor Heterogeneity: A Comparison between Primary Tumors and Corresponding Metastatic Lesions

  • Lee, Si-Hyung;Kim, Jee Eun;Jang, Hong Sun;Park, Kyu Hyun;Oh, Byung Ho;Shin, Sang Joon;Chung, Kee Yang;Roh, Mi Ryung;Rha, Sun Young
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1378-1387
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    • 2018
  • Purpose Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous neoplasm, composed of subpopulations of tumor cells with distinct molecular and biological phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, to determine the genetic heterogeneity between primary and metastatic melanoma in Korean melanoma patients, we evaluated several well-known genetic alterations of melanoma. In addition, to elucidate the clinical relevance of each genetic alteration and heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesions, clinical features and patient outcome were collected. Materials and Methods In addition to clinical data, BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ/11 mutation and KIT amplification data was acquired from an archived primary Korean melanoma cohort (KMC) of 188 patients. Among these patients, 43 patients were included for investigation of tumor heterogeneity between primary melanoma and its corresponding metastatic lesions. Results Overall incidence of genetic aberrations of the primary melanomas in KMC was 17.6% of BRAF V600, 12.6% of NRAS mutation, and 28.6% of KIT amplification. GNAQ/11 mutation was seen in 66.6% of the uveal melanoma patients. Patients with BRAF mutation were associated with advanced stage and correlated to poor prognosis (p < 0.01). Among 43 patients, 55.8% showed heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesion. The frequency of BRAF mutation and KIT amplification significantly increased in the metastatic lesions compared to primary melanomas. GNAQ/11 mutation showed 100% homogeneity in uveal melanoma patients. Conclusion Our data demonstrated heterogeneity between primary melanomas and corresponding metastatic lesions for BRAF, NRAS mutation and KIT amplification. However, GNAQ/11 mutation was genetically homogeneous between primary and metastatic melanoma lesions in uveal melanoma.

Melanoma in Iran: a Retrospective 10-Year Study

  • Ferdosi, Samira;Saffari, Mojtaba;Eskandarieh, Sharareh;Alishahi, Raziyeh;Moghaddam, Mahsa Ghaffari;Ghanadan, Alireza;Shirkoohi, Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2751-2755
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    • 2016
  • Background: Melanoma, the most life-threatening type of skin cancer, is a malignant tumor initiating in melanocytes that rapidly metastasizes and causes death. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, samples were selected from patients' information files in our Cancer Institute in Tehran with a designed checklist. A total of 322 files were found from 2003 until 2012. Then the raw data were transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 and additional analysis was performed by Students t-test. The important variables were considered according to the available information from history of pathology including age, gender, occupation, stage and location of tumor. Results: Our data showed that incidence of melanoma has been different in the studied 10-year period according to age. Also, incidence of melanoma was higher in men than women. It was more common in lower limbs. More commonly housewives among women and farmers among men were affected by melanoma. Conclusions: Taken together the descriptive data clarified general aspects of this disease for further screening and interventions.

Desmoplastic melanoma of the oral cavity: diagnostic pitfalls and clinical characteristics

  • Min, Seung-Ki;Jeong, Joo Hee;Ahn, Kang-Min;Yoo, Chong Woo;Park, Joo Yong;Choi, Sung Weon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Desmoplastic melanoma of the oral cavity is an extremely rare condition that is often confused on initial diagnosis with non-melanotic benign lesion or spindle cell tumors. The purpose of this article was to raise awareness of the disease using a literature review. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 19 desmoplastic melanoma cases reported in the literature and added our experience. Data on clinical, histopathology, treatment, and survival were retrieved and analyzed. Survival analysis was by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Initial clinical and histopathological features were indistinctive, and a definite diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma at initial assessment was possible in only 23.5% of cases. Among tests, immunohistochemical studies for S-100 and vimentin were all positive. The 5-year disease-free survival rate for oral desmoplastic melanoma was 0%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 55.0%. Conclusion: Oral desmoplastic melanoma has a high percentage of initial misdiagnosis and propensity for local recurrence. Thus, careful initial diagnosis and adequate surgery may result in improved overall survival.

Anti-Metastasis Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 in B16F10 Cells

  • Lee, Seul Gi;Kang, Young Jin;Nam, Ju-Ock
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1997-2006
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    • 2015
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 is a bioactive ginseng constituent that has been reported to have diverse pathological and physiological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic activities. Metastasis is one of the most important factors involved in patients with melanoma. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic activities of Rg3 in malignant melanoma cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we have evaluated that Rg3 effectively inhibits metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cancer cells. We found that Rg3 significantly suppresses the migration, invasion, wound healing, and colony-forming abilities of B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that Rg3 suppresses B16F10 cell metastasis by inhibiting MMP-13 expression. These results indicate that Rg3 suppresses the metastasis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells via MMP-13 regulation. Importantly, MMP-13 downregulation may influence the migration and invasion capabilities of melanoma cells and has been correlated with melanoma progression. Therefore, Rg3 is a potential therapeutic candidate that could be used to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.

Do Not Let to Be Late: Overview of Reasons for Melanoma Delayed Diagnosis

  • Gajda, Maksymilian;Kaminska-Winciorek, Grazyna
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.3873-3877
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    • 2014
  • Melanoma of the skin is a malignant tumor, which incidence is still increasing. It was estimated that in the United States one person died from this cause every hour. The major risk factor of this disease is exposure to ultraviolet radiation, especially associated with the occurrence of sunburns. Patients diagnosed with distant metastases have median survival of 6-9 months. The aim of this paper was to identify the causes of delayed diagnosis of melanoma as diagnosis at an early stage seems to be the key to improve the survival rates. For this purpose, a search of medical databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar and Cancer Registers was conducted and an analysis of the literature from the years 1979-2013 was conducted.

Relationships between Malignant Melanoma and Chromosome Damage in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

  • Narin, Abdullah;Tuncay, Orta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5229-5232
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    • 2012
  • The incidence of malignant melanoma increases with age. One significiant effect of aging processes is an accumulation of oxidative damage in the genetical material. In this study, the relationship between malignant melanoma and damage in chromosomes and proliferative effectiveness of human peripheral lymphocytes were investigated by the micronucleus (MN) technique. A total of 15 malignant melanoma patients and appropriately matching 15 healthy controls were involved in the study. MN frequencies and proliferative indexes (PI) after non toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide treatment were also measured to determine damaging effect of oxidative stress in genome in addition to measuring the spontenous levels of micronuclei and PI. The patient group had a significantly higher rate of spontaneous MN than the control group (p<0.01). After treatment with $H_2O_2$, MN frequencies in the patient group was significantly decreased (p<0.01) although there was no difference between the treated and untreated results of control group (p=0.29). There was also difference (p<0.01) between the MN frequencies of the patient and the control group either in the spontaneous levels or in the $H_2O_2$ treated groups. The same significant difference persisted when the PI values were compared between patient and control groups. Increase in the MN frequency in patients could mean the alterations in the chromosomal structure which may lead to the chromosome instability and therefore genetic susceptibility to cancer. This increased number of micronuclei can also be used for cytological marker in identifying high risk cases for malignant melanoma.

What Do Web Users Know about Skin Self-Examination and Melanoma Symptoms?

  • Kaminska-Winciorek, Grazyna;Gajda, Maksymilian;Wydmanski, Jerzy;Tukiendorf, Andrzej
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.3051-3056
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    • 2015
  • Background: Skin self-examination (SSE) may facilitate early diagnosis of melanoma at a potentially curable stage. Little data are available concerning the SSE frequency and knowledge about the symptoms of melanoma in non-patient populations. The aim of our study was to assess the performance of skin self-examination, recognition of potential melanoma symptoms as well as behavior related to sun exposure among web users in Poland. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among readers of a scientific portal. Invited respondents were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Finally, statistical analysis was conducted on 4,919 surveys towards potential clinical signs of melanoma and SSE performance. Results: Approximately 60% of respondents had ever performed SSE in their life. Only 18.4 % declared performance on a regular, monthly, basis. Factors promoting this activity were established to be bigger place of residence, higher education and sensitive skin phototype, higher level of knowledge concerning melanoma, safe tanning rules and, especially, past surgical excision of naevi. Declared longer use of tanning beds was linked to understanding better the importance of clinical features of melanoma. Awareness of hazardous behavior during sunbathing is associated with the attempts to change them. Conclusions: Regular SSE is not a common practice, whilst the knowledge about the clinical features of melanoma is varied. Therefore, constant pressure should be put on promotion of regular skin self-examination and teaching its proper techniques, including familiarity with the ABCD (asymmetry; border; color; diameter) rule and its extension of "EFG" (elevated, firm, progressive growth) criteria.

A Case of Malignant Melanoma Patient Treated with Allergen-removed Rhus Verniciflua Stokes (알러젠 제거 옻나무 추출물 투여로 호전된 악성흑색종(惡性黑色腫) 환자 1례)

  • Jeong, Jong-Soo;Kim, Kyung-Suk;Park, Jae-Woo;Jung, Hyun-Sik;Yoon, Seong-Woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.655-661
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    • 2007
  • Malignant melanoma is rare in Asians and one of the poorer prognostic diseases. Malignant melanoma accounts for only a small ratio of all skin cancers, but it causes the greatest number of skin cancer - related deaths worldwide. Melanoma incidence has continued to increase worldwide and in Korea, like other countries, the number of patients has increased compared with previous cancer incidence data. In this case report, we describe a case of a malignant melanoma patient who showed neck node metastasis (right supraclavicular area) after wide excision of facial melanoma 2 years before the diagnosis of relapse. The patient refused to get conventional western medical treatment including chemotherapy and the size of cancer increased over the 5 months of clinical follow-up. After 4 months of traditional Korean medical treatment using allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes(A-RVS), however, the size of cancer mass decreased and the patient showed no side effects. Further study will be needed in order to determine the long-term effect of allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes on patients with malignant melanoma.

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Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Breast

  • Koh, Jiwon;Lee, Jihyeon;Jung, So Youn;Kang, Han Sung;Yun, Tak;Kwon, Youngmee
    • Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2019
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the breast (PMMB) is a rare tumor with only a few case reports available in the literature. We report two cases of PMMB, one derived from the breast parenchyma and the other from the breast skin. The first case consisted of atypical epithelioid cells without overt melanocytic differentiation like melanin pigments. The tumor cells showed diffuse positivity for S100 protein, tyrosinase, and BRAF V600E. However, the tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HMB-45. The second case showed atypical melanocytic proliferation with heavy melanin pigmentation. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein, HMB-45, tyrosinase, and BRAF V600E. These two cases represent two distinct presentations of PMMB in terms of skin involvement, melanin pigmentation, and HMB-45 positivity. Although PMMB is very rare, the possibility of this entity should be considered in malignant epithelioid neoplasms in the breast parenchyma.

The Comparison Consideration on Experimental Articles about Melanoma Published in Journals of Korean Medicine (국내 한의학계에 보고된 흑색종 관련 실험적 연구들의 비교 고찰)

  • Kwon, Kang;Kim, Nam-Kwen;Kim, Sung-Young;Lee, Dong-Jin;Kim, Chul-Yun;Seo, Hyung-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.30-47
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    • 2015
  • Objective : Melanoma is a very critical and devastating disease. Although many people have depended on surgical operation in melanoma treatment, they have placed importance on non-invasive methods constantly. So we planned to establish a research methodology by analysing existing articles containing conservative melanoma treatments in Journals of Korean Medicine published in Korea.Methods : Using search words of anti-cancer, B16, cancer, lung metastasis, melanoma, metastasis, S-100, SK-MEL, tumor, tyrosinase, we collected 26 articles by searching internet portal sites as following;Using search words of anti-cancer, B16, cancer, lung metastasis, melanoma, metastasis, S-100, SK-MEL, tumor, tyrosinase, we collected 26 articles by searching internet portal sites as followinghttp://oasis.kiom.re.kr,http://www.koreantk.com,http://www.riss.kr,http://www.dbpia.co.kr,http://www.ndsl.kr,http://kiss.kstudy.com,http://www.naver.com,http://www.google.com.Result : The number of articles is 26 and in the year of 2003, 2004 is ranked the highest number in publication. The journal of acupuncture & moxibustion society ranked the highest(30.8%). 2 and 4 authors ranked the highest(26.9%) in number of authors. T-test ranked the highest(58.1%) in statistics methods. P.O. med indicated in 11 articles and Pharmacopuncture in 15 articles. B16 murine melanoma cell was indicated in 25 articles by cancer-induced methods. In measurement, T cell activity was indicated in 14 articles, NK activity in 4 articles, IL-2 in 6 articles, apoptosis in 1 article, lung metastasis in 14 articles.Conclusion : Considering overall results, it is necessary to diversify cancer-induced methods and measurement methods in experimental melanoma research.