• Title, Summary, Keyword: melamine phosphate

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Synthesis and Thermal Degradation of Poly(oxydiethylene adipate urethane) Composites Containing Cloisite 30B and Melamine Phosphate (Cloisite 30B와 멜라민포스페이트를 함유한 Poly(oxydiethylene adipate urethane) Composites의 합성과 열분해 특성)

  • Shin, Seung-Wook;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.643-650
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    • 2012
  • In order to improve the thermal stability of polyurethane, we synthesized poly(adipate urethane) (PAU) and three PAU composites, PAU/30B (2.7 wt% 30B), PAU/MP (2.2 wt% MP), PAU/30B/MP (2.2 wt% 30B and 2.2 wt% MP), from poly(oxydiethylene adipate)-diol (PAD), 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), Cloisite 30B (30B), and melamine phosphate (MP). 30B and MP were introduced into the reactant mixture at the initial stage of the esterification between adipic acid and diethylene glycol, so 30B and MP were evenly dispersed in the PAU composites for long period. At temperatures lower than $250^{\circ}C$, the PAU composites were degraded faster than pristine PAU, mainly due to the decomposition of 30B and MP. At higher temperatures, the 30B and MP enhanced the thermal stability of the PAU composites. Compared with the pristine PAU, the thermal decomposition rates of the PAU composites decreased by 13~17%. In air, the residual weights of PAU/30B, PAU/MP, and PAU/30B/MP were 2.4, 2.3, and 7.3 wt% at $700^{\circ}C$, respectively.

Evaluation of mechanical properties and non-flammability of Nylon6 using melamine-based halogen-free flame retardant (Melamine계 난연제를 이용한 Nylon6의 난연성 및 물리적 특성 평가)

  • Kim Dong-Hak;Ryu Kwan-Suk;Son Young-Gon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.743-748
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of Nylon6 by using melamine-based halogen-free flame retardants(melamine cyanurate:MC-100 and melamine phosphate:MP-100). We chose the UL-94 method for flame retardancy and measured the tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus by using UTM and impact strength by using Izod impact tester. We also tested the effect of nano-clay on flammability and mechanical properties. We obtained the V0 grade when the concentration of flame retardant was over 5 wt%. The tensile strength and flexural strength decreased and flexural modulus increased with the concentration of both flame retardant systems. The results showed that MC-100 system was better than MPP-100 system. Because of poor dispersion, we did not obtain the synergistic effect of nano-clay.

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Synthesis of Melamine Phosphate-Polyurethane Composite Foam Blown by Water and Characterization of Its Thermal Properties (H2O로 발포된 멜라민포스페이트-폴리우레탄폼 복합체 합성과 열적 특성 분석)

  • Park, Kyeong-Kyu;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.441-448
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    • 2014
  • Polyurethane/melamine phosphate composite foam (MP-PUF) was prepared from poly(adipate)diol/melamine phosphate composite (f=2), polyether-polyol (f=4.6), and PMDI (f=2.5). The thermal properties of MP-PUF such as morphology, closed-cell content, thermal conductivity, and thermal stabilities were characterized. Water was used as a blowing agent, and the composition of melamine phosphate (MP) was maintained at $1.43{\pm}0.3wt%$ of MP-PUF. As the content of water increased, the thermal conductivity of pure polyurethane foam (PUF) decreased, whereas the thermal conductivity of MP-PUF increased. The thermal stabilities of the PUF and the MP-PUF were maximized at 5 php $H_2O$, and then decreased at the higher $H_2O$ contents. The thermal stabilities of MP-PUF were greatly enhanced due to the synergetic effect of MP and urea, which was generated during the blowing process. The temperature of 50% residual mass of MP-PUF increased to $370{\sim}450^{\circ}C$ and the temperature of 30% residual mass exceeded over $700^{\circ}C$. Compared to the PUF, the temperature of 50% residual mass and 30% residual mass were higher than 25 and $70^{\circ}C$, respectively.

A Study on the Preparation of Halogen Free M-P Flame Retardant and Its Application to Composite Material (비할로겐 M-P 난연제 제조 및 복합재료 응용 연구)

  • Lee, Soon-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2009
  • In order to improve flame retardancy, the halogen free organic melamine phosphate(M-P) flame retardant was synthesized from melamine and phosphoric acid by the reaction of precipitation. The ignition test was carried out preparing hybrid flame retardant compound($H_bFRC$) consisting of organic M-P and inorganic Mg$(OH)_2$ as a flame retardant in the polyolefin resins. The flame retardancy and mechanical properties of flame retardant aluminum composite panel($H_bFRC$-ACP) were performed to investigate the possibility of the composite material, which was contained M-P, as a inner core for $H_bFRC$-ACP. For this study, the results of ignition test indicate that a char formation and drip suppressing effect, and combustion time reduced as the content of M-P increased. The limited oxygen index(LOI) values were measured 17.4vol% and 31.5vol% for LDPE only and $H_bFRC$-3(M-P content: 15wt%), respectively. And it was verified that the $H_bFRC$-3 was needed more oxygen quantity with the increase of M-P content when it combustion. Also, the results from thermogravimetric analysis were observed endothermic peak at $350^{\circ}C$ and $550^{\circ}C$, it was confirmed predominant thermal stability though the wide temperature range by the mixture of M-P and Mg$(OH)_2$. The LDPE-ACP (using only LDPE as a inner core), $35.13kW/m^2$ of heat release rate(HRR) and 13.43MJ/m2 of total heat release(THR) were measured while the $H_bFRC$-ACP, $10.44kW/m^2$ of HRR and 1.84MJ/m2 of THR were measured by results of cone calorimeter test. In case of $H_bFRC$-ACP, the average gas emission amount of CO and $CO_2$ could be decreased down to 25% and 20%, respectively, in comparison with LDPE-ACP. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, bending strength and adhesion strength of $H_bFRC$-ACP were revealed slightly high values $54N/mm^2$, $152N/mm^2$ and 120N/25mm, respectively, compared with LDPE-ACP. It was confirmed that flame retardancy was improved with the synergy effect because of char formation by M-P and hydrolysis by Mg$(OH)_2$. The result of this study suggest that $H_bFRC$ can be applied for an adequate halogen free flame retardant composite material as a inner core for ACP.

UV -curable Flame-retardant Finish of PET/Cotton Blend Fabrics (PET/면 혼방직물의 자외선 경화형 방염가공)

  • Koo, Gwang-Hoe;Jang, Jin-Ho
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2009
  • Flame retardation of PET/cotton(35/65) blend fabric was carried out via UV curing of Bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate(DMEP), triethanol amine(TEA), trimethylol propane triaerylate(TMPTA) and melamine phosphate(MP). Optimal TEA and TMPTA were found to be 5 and 10% on weight percentage of the monomer respectively. Particularly the addition of MP particles increased the flame retardancy of the blend fabric remarkably. The LOI of 25.9 was achieved by the UV coating of DMEP without MP addition. The highest LOI value of 28.1 was obtained with the addition of TEA and MP, which was durable to five laundering cycles. The obtained flame retardaney of UV-coated blend fabrics may result from a condensed phase mechanism as indicated by lowered thermal decomposition temperatures, higher carbonaceous char content with higher residue number, which reduces the generation of flammable materials by changing the pyrolysis path of the blend fabrics.

Thermal behavior of Flame Retardant Filled PLA-WF Bio-Composites

  • Choi, Seung-Woo;Lee, Byoung-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Joong;Kim, Hee-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the thermal stability of PLA-WF bio-composites. Wood flour (WF)-filled PLA bio-composites were reinforced with the flame retardants, Melamine pyrophosphate (MPP), resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) and zinc borate (ZB). The flame retardant was compounded with PLA and natural biodegradable filler. The thermal properties of the biodegradable polymer and bio-composites reinforced with the flame retardant were measured and analyzed by DSC, DMA and TGA. The results showed that the flame retardant-reinforced biodegradable bio-composite exhibited improved thermal properties.

A Study on the Preparation of Powder Coatings Containing Halogen-Free Flame Retardant and Fire Safety (Halogen-Free 난연제를 포함하는 파우더 코팅소재 제조 및 화재안전성 연구)

  • Lee, Soon-Hong;Chung, Hwa-Young;Kim, Dae-In;Noh, Tae-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 2011
  • Halogen free intumescent flame retardants(IFRS), such as the mixture of melamine phosphate(MP) and char forming agents(pentaerythritol(PER), di-pentaerythritol(DiPER), tris(2-hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate(THEIC)), were prepared and characterized. Polypropylene(PP)/$IFR_S$ composites were also prepared in the presence of ethylene diamine phosphate(EDAP) as a synergist and used into flame retardant PP powder coatings. Thermoplastic PP powder coatings at 20 wt% flame retardant loading were manufactured by extruded and then mechanical cryogenic crushed to bring them in fine powder form. These intumescent flame retardant powder coatings($IFRPC_S$) were applied on mild steel surface for the purpose of protection and decorative. It is a process in which a $IFRPC_S$ particles coming in contact with the preheated mild steel surface melt and form a thin coating layer. The obtained MP flame retardant was analyzed by utilizing FTIR, solid-state $^{31}P$ NMR, ICP, EA and PSA. The mechanical properties as tensile strength, melt flow index(MFI) and the thermal property as TGA/DTA and the fire safety characteristics as limiting oxygen index(LOI), UL94 test, SEM were used to investigate the effect of $IFRPC_S$. The experimental results show that the presence of $IFR_S$ considerably enhanced the fire retardant performances as evidenced by the increase of LOI values 17.3 vol% and 32.6 vol% for original PP and $IFRPC_S$-3(PP/MP-DiPER/EDAP), respectively, and a reduction in total flaming combustion time(under 15 sec) in UL94 test of $IFRPC_S$. The prepared $IFRPC_S$-3 have good comprehensive properties with fire retardancy 3.2 mm UL94 V-0 level, LOI value 32.6%, tensile strength $247.3kg/cm^2$, surface roughness Ra $0.78{\mu}m$, showing a better application prospect. Through $IFRPC_S$-2(PP/MP-PER/EDAP) and $IFRPC_S$-3 a better flame retardancy than that of the $IFRPC_S$-1(PP/MP/EDAP) was investigated which was responsible for the formed more dense and compact char layer, improved synergy effect of MP and PER/DiPER.

Effects of Treatment Methods of Fire-retardant and Layup of Treated Veneers on the Performances of Plywoods (내화약제(耐火藥劑)의 처리방법(處理方法) 및 처리단판(處理單板)의 조판형태(調板形態)가 합판(슴板)의 성능(性能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Son, Jung-Il;Cho, Jae-Sung;Suh, Jin-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 1999
  • This research was carried out to investigate the development of fire-retardancy treatment technology and performance evaluation of fire-retardant treated plywoods. Radiata pine, keruing, dillenia, calophyllum and terminalia veneers were treated by normal(conventional) pressure soak(NPS) and vacuum-pressure-soak(VPS) using 20% water solution of diammonium phosphate. Then, 4.8mm thick, 3ply plywoods were fabricated with combination of fire-retardant treated, untreated or water-immersion types and several composition types of radiata pine and keruing veneers, i,e. the uniform and the mixed types in species composition, and the homogenious and the alternate layer types in veneer treatment. In composed species, the retention and the treatment effects of fire-retardant chemicals III radiata pine was still greater than those of keruing. The effect of VPS treatment was larger than that of NPS treatment, however, adhesive bonding strength and bending strength of plywoods treated by these two methods were not necessarily lowered, compared to those of untreated plywood. And also, fire endurance performance of the urea melamine resin-bonded plywood was greater than that of the phenol resin-bonded plywood. In result, the appropriate combination in veneer species and layer as well as alternate fire-retardant treatments would be more efficiently available in service.

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