• Title, Summary, Keyword: meju

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Changes in Microflora and Enzyme Activities of Traditional Meju during Fermentation at Sunchang Area (순창지역 메주 발효 중 미생물과 효소역가의 변화)

  • 유진영;김현규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.448-454
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    • 1998
  • Meju for doenjang and kochujang was prepared as a model at Sunchang areaand monitored with major changes. Kochujang meju was prepared on September 12 and doenjang meju on November 12, 1995. Kochjang meju was found to be naturally fermented at 80~90% RH, 15~2$0^{\circ}C$ and doenjang meju was at 80~90% RH and 0~5$^{\circ}C$. The shapes of kochujang meju and doenjang meju were doughnut-type and rectangular, respectively. Weight losses during fermentation were 48% and 28%, respectively. The pH drop and acip production of kochujang meju were negligible. However, pH of doenjang meju decreased from 6.29 to 5.88 and acidity increased from 0.08 to 0.23% as lactic acid. Protein in meju was found to be rapidly solubilized during the early stage of fermentation. Soluble protein cotents of kochujang meju after 7 days and 60 days were 8.23%, respectively. The doenjang mejus were 2.15% after 20 days and 5.72% after 60 days. Soluble suger content increased with the fermentation time. The soluble sugar content was higher in kochjang meju. Acidic protease was highly produced during meju fermentation. $\alpha$-Amylase and $\beta$-amylase were detected in the kochujang meju, of which glutinous rice consisted, but negligible in doenjang meju. Lipase was detected in kochujang meju, but was, negligible in doenjang meju. Microbial population increased drastically after 7 days of fermentation in kochujang meju and 20 days of fermentation in doenjang meju.

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Effects of mixture of improved Meju, Korean traditional Meju and Natto on soybean paste fermentation (재래 및 개량메주와 납두의 배합이 된장 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo, Hyun-Kyu;Oh, Kyun-Teak;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.286-293
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    • 1992
  • This study was investigated on the change of physico-chemical properties at various mixture ratio of improved Meju and Natto during the aging of soybean paste. pH was increased on the improved Meju with increasing the mixture ratio of Natto, but pH was decreased in Korean traditional Meju. Change of nitrogen compound was 3 times higher and aging was faster in increased ratio of Korean traditional Meju than that of improved Meju. Brown color was not changed as compared to the initial stage, however the value of brown color was higher in the Korean traditional Meju than that of other group. In sensory evaluation, the mixture ratio of improved Meju, Korean traditional Meju and Natto (48 : 48 : 5) was the best acceptables.

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Quality Analysis on the Size and the Preparation Method of Meju for the Preparation of Korean Traditional Soy Sauce (Kanjang) (한국 재래식 간장 제조를 위한 메주의 크기와 제조 방법에 따른 품질특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Gu;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Choung, Myoung-Gun;Kwon, O-Jun;Choi, Ji-Young;Im, Moo-Hyeog
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.205-211
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to acquire basic data for industrial production of Korean traditional kanjang (soy sauce). Five types of meju, $23{\times}11{\times}12$ ($L{\times}W{\times}H$, cm), $23{\times}11{\times}7$, $15{\times}11{\times}7$, $11{\times}11{\times}6$, $11{\times}11{\times}6$ (made a hole $\varphi$ 1.5 cm) were prepared. The temperature and humidity of meju preparation were $15{\sim}20^{\circ}C$ and 40~50% respectively. The smaller size of meju, the lower free amino acid and non-volatile organic acid content of that. And, two types of meju, conventional method (CM-meju, the temperature and humidity were prepared at $15{\sim}20^{\circ}C$ and 40~50% of relative humidity) and improved method(IM-meju, the temperature and humidity were prepared at $25{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ and 80~90% of relative humidity) for kanjang production were prepared. There was no difference of total nitrogen content and soluble nitrogen content in the size of meju. In total free amino acid content and total free sugar content, IM-meju was the higher than CM-meju. So, the quality of IM-meju was better than that of CM-meju.

Properties of Meju Fermented with Multiple Starters (복합종균을 접종하여 발효한 메주의 특성)

  • Cho, Min Jeong;Shim, Jae Min;Lee, Jae Yong;Lee, Kang Wook;Yao, Zhuang;Liu, Xiaoming;Kim, Jeong Hwan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2016
  • A test meju (meju 1) was prepared by inoculating two strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (EMD17, MJ1-4), Pichia farinosa SY80, and Rhizopus oryzae into cooked soybeans. A control (meju 2) was prepared by inoculating Bacillus subtilis KACC16450 and Aspergillus oryzae. Another control (meju 3) was prepared using rice straw as the source of microorganisms. Three different mejus were fermented for 56 days outdoors. Meju 1 and meju 2 showed higher pH values than meju 3, whereas meju 3 showed higher titratable acidity than meju 1 and meju 2. Meju 1 showed the highest fibrinolytic activity. Bacillus cereus was not detected in any mejus, but various microorganisms were detected in meju 2 and 3. Histamine was detected in meju 2 and tyramine in meju 3 at lower concentration, which were not detected in meju 1. It was concluded that microbially safe, fermented soybean products could be produced from meju fermented with starters such as B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17 and B. amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4.

The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

  • Kim, Dae-Ho;Kim, Sun-Hwa;Kwon, Soon-wo;Lee, Jong-Kyu;Hong, Seung-Beom
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.258-265
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    • 2015
  • The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms.

Effects of Alternatively Prepared Meju Methanolic Extracts on Dietary Lipid Digestion

  • Kang, Hee-Jung;Nam, Dae-Hwan;Kim, Jong-Sang
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 2010
  • We examined the effect of extracts of meju prepared with traditional and standardized methods on pancreatic lipase and the absorption of dietary lipid. Aqueous methanolic (80%, v/v) extracts of meju dose-dependently inhibited the activities of porcine pancreatic lipase. The plasma triglyceride levels in Imprinting Control Region mice after a single oral administration of lipid emulsion containing aqueous methanolic extracts from meju made by the standardized methods were lower than that of the group given a lipid emulsion containing the extracts of meju made by traditional methods. The inhibitory activity of the meju extract on dietary lipid digestion appears to be more closely associated with aglycone forms of phenolic compounds such as free isoflavones than with glycosides, since meju samples with higher total phenolic or free isoflavone content showed the stronger inhibition against pancreatic lipase. Furthermore, the data suggest that meju made using the standardized method, which contains higher levels of total isoflavones relative to traditionally prepared meju, could effectively suppress digestion of dietary lipids and therefore have the potential to help ameliorate hyperlipidemia and obesity.

The Origin of Meju Fungi - Fungal Diversity of Soybean, Rice Straw and Air for Meju Fermentation

  • Kim, Dae-Ho;Lee, Jong-kyu;Hong, Seung-Beom
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.32-32
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    • 2014
  • Meju is a brick of dried fermented soybeans and is the core material for Jang such as Doenjang and Ganjang. Jang is produced by addition of salty water to Meju and is considered the essential sauces of authentic Korean cuisine. Meju is fermented by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts. It is known that fungi play an important role in the Meju fermentation and they degrade macromolecules of the soybeans into small nutrient molecules. In previous study, 26 genera and 0 species were reported as Meju fungi. However, it is not comprehensively examined where the fungi present on the Meju are originated. In order to elucidate the origin of the fungi present on the Meju, the mycobiota of 500 samples soybean kernels, 296 rice straw pieces and air samples of Jang factories was determined in 0, 2 and 7 Jang factories respectively. Forty-one genera covering 86 species were isolated from the soybeans and 33 species were identical with the species from Meju. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Fusarium fujikuroi, Aspergillus oryzae/flavus and Penicillium steckii were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium herbariorum, E. repens and Cladosporium tenuissimum were the predominant species. Of the 4 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 3 genera and 33 species were also found in Meju. Thirty-nine genera and 92 species were isolated from the rice straws and 40 species were identical with the species from Meju. Fusarium asiaticum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus tubingensis, A. oryzae, E. repens and Eurotium chevalieri were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study, were also isolated from Meju. Especially, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum and Penicillium polonicum that are abundant species in Meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum and P. polonicum that are abundant in low temperature fermentation process of Meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at $5^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$, while A. oryzae, E. repens and E. chevalieri that are abundant in high temperature fermentation process of Meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at $25^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw have a large influence in mycobiota of Meju. Thirty-nine genera and 92 species were isolated from the air of Jang factories and 34 species were identical with the species from Meju. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp. Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, A. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., C. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., C. tenuissimum, A. niger, E. herbariorum, A. sydowii, and E. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genus Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this results, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, A. oryzae, P. polonicum, E. repens, P. solitum, and E. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genus Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms.

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Effect of Rice Addition on Enzyme Activities of Soybean Meju Fermented by Monascus spp. (Monascus spp.를 이용한 콩 메주의 효소활성에 미치는 쌀 첨가효과)

  • 박미자;김일두;김순동
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.405-411
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice powder m tile enzyme (protease, $\alpha$-amylase, $\beta$-amylase and glucoamylase) activities of soybean meju fermented by Monascus prepureus and Monascus pilosus. The activities of the enzyme in the rice meju and the soybean meju fermented by M. pilosus were higher than those by M. perpureus. Protease activity of powdered rice meju was higher than that of granular rice meju, while $\alpha$-amylase, $\beta$-amylase and glucoamylase activities were higher in granular rice meju. Protease activity in soybean meju fermented by adding of the cultured medium of Monascus strains(CMM) as a seed inocula were higher than those of the rice powder meju, while $\alpha$-amyulase, $\beta$-amylase and glucoamylase activiities were lower than those of soybean meju by CMM. The concentration of rice powder to show maximum protease activity in soybean meju was also 10% against steamed soybean. But $\alpha$-amylase activity of soybean medju by the CMM added 2% powdered rice showed lower but the activity increaed with an increase in powdered rice, whereas $\beta$-amylase and glucoamylase activiities decreased with an increase in powdered rice. Protease activity of soybean meju fermented by 10% rice meju fermented by M. pilo년 as a seed inocula was higher than that of the meju fermented by Aspergillus oryzae, whereas $\beta$-amylase and glucoamylase activities of the soybean meju showed less than 50%.

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Studies on the Shelf-life of the Brick Shape Improved Meju (벽돌형 개량메주의 품질수명)

  • Park, Choong-Kyun;Nam, Joo-Hyun;Song, Hyung-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.82-87
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    • 1990
  • To investigate the shelf-life of the brick share improved Meju, the effect of the storage time and packaged storage on the quality of Meju and soy sauce were studied during 90 days storage at $30^{\circ}C$. During the storage period, pretense activity was rapidly increased, and it reached the maximum value after 30 days of storage and then decreased gradually with storage time. By the sensory evaluation, the soy sauce from Meju which was longer storage was increased its brown color but less sensory quality on taste and flavor. The sensory evaluation score of soy sauces were closely related to the value of protease activity of Meju, So, it was shown that the protease activity was also the major index component on the quality control for the brick shape improved Meju. The protease activity of brick shape Meju was lower during Meju making but decreased slowly during storage period than that of grain shape meju. The values of protease of Meju after 30 days storage were 359 (O.D. at 660 nm/g) in non-packaged, 349 in packaged Meju and after 180 days storage were 207,205, respectively. It was shown that the shelf-life of the brick shape improved Meju was about 180 days by the basis (protease activity: 200 O.D. at 660nm/g) for quality control from the grain shape Meju, and it was longer than that of grain shape Meju. It was also shown that the packaged storage did not prolong the shelf-life of the brick shape improved Meju.

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Antioxidative Materials in Domestic Meju and Doenjang 1.Lipid Oxidation and Browning during Fermentation of Meju and Doenjang (재래식 메주 및 된장중의 항산화성 물질에 관한 연구 1. 메주 발효 및 된장 숙성중의 지질산화와 갈변)

  • 이종호;김미혜;임상선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.148-155
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    • 1991
  • Lipid oxidation and browning during fermentation of domestic Meju and Doenjang were examined in order to elucidate the antioxidative effects of browning products and phenol compounds from Meju and Doenjang. Peroxide values of lipids from Meju were detectable and slightly increased until 3 weeks of fermentation, but started to be decreased after 3 weeks of fermentation and notdetectable after 6 weeks. Peroxides were not detected in Doenjang during the whole fermentation, but started to be decreased after 3 weeks of period of 22 weeks fermentation. Carbonyl value were increased during the whole period of Meju fermentation, but started to be decreased at the early stage of Doenjang fermentation. Hydrophilic fraction of browning products from Meju was much higher than lipophilic fraction and the former fraction was dramatically increased at the early stage of the fermentation. But the both fractions maintained high values during Doenjang fermentation. Hydrophilic browning products and phenol and phenol compound in Meju showed strong antioxidative against linoleic acid.

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