• Title, Summary, Keyword: meiofauna

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The Community Structure of Meiofauna in Marian Cove, King George Island, Antarctica (남극 킹조지섬 마리안소만의 중형저서동물 군집구조)

  • Hong, Jung-Ho;Kim, Ki-Choon;Lee, Seung-Han;Back, Jin-Wook;Lee, Dong-Ju;Lee, Won-Choel
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.265-280
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    • 2011
  • The temporal dynamics of the meiofauna community in Marian Cove, King George Island, Antarctica were observed from March 7 to December 21 2007. Nine meiofauna taxa were found, with nematodes the most dominant group, making up 92.97% of the total meiofauna density, followed by harpacticoid copepods (3.18%). Meiofauna abundance ranged from 123 to 874 individuals per 10 $cm^2$ (mean 464 inds.10 $cm^{-2}$), which is lower than that found in some polar and temperate regions. The lowest meiofauna abundance was found in the 26th April sample (III) and the highest meiofauna abundance was found in the March 23rd sample (II). There was no correlation between meiofauna abundance and season. The seasonal changes were likely caused by meltwater runoff, and there were the physical disturbances on the bottom sediment by huge iceberg. Biomass of meiofauna varied between 20.36 and 101.02 ${\mu}gC{\cdot}10\;cm^{-2}$, and overall mean biomass was 54.17 ${\mu}gC{\cdot}10\;cm^{-2}$ during the study periods. More than 80% of meiofauna was concentrated in the upper 2 cm of the sediment, and density decreased with depth. The mean diversity index was 0.37, and the ratio between the abundance of nematodes: and harpacticoids (N/C) ratio ranged from 7.31 to 95.04 (mean 26.39). NMDS analysis divided the community into three groups: A (III, IV, V, VII, VIII), B (II, IX, XI, XII) and C (I, V, X). The results of ANOSIM and SIMPER analysis revealed significant differences in community structure among three groups and major contributed meiofauna taxon in grouping were nematodes and copepods. No significant correlations were observed between major meiofauna taxon and environmental factors. Thirteen species in 12 genera representing nine families of harpacicoids were recorded. Ancorabolidae was the most diverse family, and Heteropsyllidae was the most abundant. The correlation analysis between benthic harpacticoid copepods and environmental factors showed that some species were affected by water temperature, sediment temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a concentration, grain size of the sediments and heavy metal contents of the sediments. These data describe the usefulness of benthic harpacticoid copepods as biological indicator species in Antarctic regions.

Temporal Dynamics and Patterning of Meiofauna Community by Self-Organizing Artificial Neural Networks

  • Lee, Won-Cheol;Kang, Sung-Ho;Montagna Paul A.;Kwak Inn-Sil
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.237-247
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    • 2003
  • The temporal dynamics of the meiofauna community in Marian Cove, King George Island were observed from January 22 to October 29 1996. Generally, 14 taxa of metazoan meiofauna were found. Nematodes were dominant comprising 90.12% of the community, harpacticoid 6.55%, and Kinorhynchs 1.54%. Meiofauna abundance increased monthly from January to May 1996, while varying in abundance after August 1996. Overall mean abundance of metazoan meiofauna was $2634ind./10cm^2$ during the study periods, which is about as high as that found in temperate regions. Nematodes were most abundant representing $2399ind./10cm^2$. Mean abundance of harpacticoids, including copepodite and nauplius was $131ind./10cm^2$ by kinorhynchs $(26ind./10cm^2)$. The overall abundance of other identified organisms was $31ind./10cm^2$ Other organisms consisted of a total of 11 taxa including Ostracoda $(6ind./10cm^2)$, Polycheata $(7ind./10cm^2)$, Oligochaeta $(8ind./10cm^2)$, and Bivalvia $(6ind./10cm^2)$. Additionally, protozoan Foraminifera occurred at the study area with a mean abundance of $263ind./10cm^2$. Foraminiferans were second in dominance to nematodes. The dominant taxa such as nematodes, harpacticoids, kinorhynchs and the other tua were trained and extensively scattered in the map through the Kohonen network. The temporal pattern of the community composition was most affected by the abundance dynamics of kinorhynchs and harpacticoids. The neural network model also allowed for simulation of data that was missing during two months of inclement weather. The lowest meiofauna abundance was found in August 1996 during winter. The seasonal changes were likely caused by temperature and salinity changes as a result of meltwater runoff, and the physical impact by passing icebergs.

Meiobenthic Community Structure on the Northeast Coastal Area of Jeju Island, Korea (제주 북동부 연안 조하대에 서식하는 중형저서동물 군집 변동 특성)

  • Kang, Teawook;Kim, Dongsung
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2020
  • We analyzed the characteristics of meiofaunal communities in the northern part of Jeju Island and the environmental factors affecting the meiofaunal communities. For the analysis of the communities, subtidal sediments containing meiofauna were collected from 6 sites (3 shallow sites and 3 deeper sites) on the northern coast of Jeju Island in April, June, August, and October 2017. The sediment samples were collected by SCUBA using a syringe. After isolating and counting meiofauna from the sediment using a series of sieves and centrifugation, the density of the meiofauna was expressed as individuals/10 ㎠. Density of meiofauna was lower in August compared to April and June, and the density determined in October was higher than August. During April and June, the meiofaunal communities at the shallow sites (i.e., ST 1, 2, and 3) were significantly different from the meiofaunal communities at deeper sites (ST 4, 5, and 6, p < 0.01). However, such spatial variation in the meiofaunal communities was not obvious in August and October. The most dominant meiofaunal taxa were harpacticoids, followed by nematodes and nauplius larvae. These three taxa accounted for 90% of the total meiofauna density. Abundance of harpacticoids and nematodes showed a significantly negative correlation with the water depth. BIO-ENV analysis indicated that the total organic nitrogen (TON) and the water temperature exerted a significant influence over the meiofaunal communities at the sampling sites.

Studies on the Optimal Conditions of Feeding and Light Supply for the Long-Term Cultivation of Meiofauna in the Laboratory (중형저서동물의 실험실 내 장기 배양을 위한 먹이 및 광원의 최적 조건 연구)

  • SHIN, AYOUNG;KIM, DONGSUNG;KANG, TEAWOOK;OH, JE HYEOK
    • The Sea
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.26-41
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    • 2020
  • In order to culture a life for the physiological and ecological research of the meiofauna, this study aimed to identify the most ideal condition in which the meiofauna can be cultured within a laboratory by setting various environmental conditions. The sediment deposits and seawater were collected from the intertidal zone in Mallipo of the west coast. A aquarium in which the internal environment can be controlled by constantly maintaining the temperature and humidity was fabricated and the culture experiments of the collected meiofauna were conducted together with the sea water and sediment deposits collected. The experiment 1 was conducted after establishing the similar environment as the collecting location. Under the same condition as the experiment 1, the experiment 2 verified a difference between when live foods were supplied and were not. In the experiment 3, the changes in the meiofauna colony were checked according to with or without light and live foods. In the results of culturing experiments, the habitat density and the number of appeared classification groups of the meiofauna colony were relatively higher both in the water tank with supplying the live foods and under the condition of having light in 12-hour cycle than those in the aquarium without live foods and under no light condition. In addition, the habitat density of meiofauna cultured within a laboratory exhibited relatively higher value than that under the natural state.

Study on the Community Structure of Sublittoral Meiofauna in the Barents Sea in Summer 2002, Arctic Ocean (2002년 하계 북극 바렌츠해 연안지역의 중형저서생물 군집 구조에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Kang Hyun;Chung Kyung-Ho;Kang Sung-Ho;Lee Wonchoel
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.257-268
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    • 2005
  • Meiofauna community was surveyed in the Arctic Ocean. Sediment samples were collected from six stations in the east Barents Sea and from five stations in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard during summer 2002. Eight taxa of meiofauna were identified in the Barents Sea. Meiofauna abundance ranged from 245 to 906 indiv.10 $cm^{-2}$ (mean 580 indiv.10 $cm^{-2}$) and total biomass varied from 23 and 404 ${\mu}gC10cm^{-2}$ (mean 184 ${\mug}C10cm^{-2}$) in the Barent Sea. Nematode predominated in meiofauna comprising $95.2\%$ of total abundance and $66.4\%$ of biomass. Copepods, polycheats and sarcomastigophonans were also dominant in the study area. Nine taxa of meiofauna were identified in Kongsfiorden. Meiofauna abundance ranged from 103 to 513 indiv.10 $cm^{-2}$ (mean 292 indiv.10 $cm^{-2}$) and biomass varied from 13 and 196{\mu}gC10\;cm^{-2}$ (mean 94{\mu}gC10\;cm^{-2}$) in the Kongsfiorden. Nematodes predominated in meiofauna, comprising $64.1\%$ of abundance and $64.3\%$ biomass. Copepods, polychaets, and kinorhyncha were also dominant in the study area. The meiofauna abundances from both the study areas well match with the previous reports from the various regions including the temperate areas. However the occurred taxa in the present study are only a half comparing with the reports from temperate zone. Meiofauna abundance, biomass, diversity index and species richness were much higher than in the coastal which were strongly affected by fresh water run off in the Barents Sea. The stations affected by chlorophyll had high abundance and biomass, but low diversity index and spices richness in Kongsfiorden.

Meiofauna Community from Sandy Sediments Near Taean in the Yellow Sea, Korea (서해 태안 사질 퇴적물에 서식하는 중형저서동물 군집구조 연구)

  • Back, Jin-Wook;Kim, Ki-Choon;Lee, Seung-Han;Lee, Kang-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Ju;Chae, Jin-Ho;Lee, Won-Choel
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.199-212
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    • 2009
  • The community structure of meiofauna was surveyed from six stations in sand mining area near around Sungapdo, Taean five times from April-December, 2007. Ten meiofaunal taxa in total, comprising 5-9 taxa per station were recovered. Nematodes were dominant from four stations in April and from five stations in May. In June, copepods were dominant from all stations except station two, from which sarcomastigophorans were predominant. Copepods were also dominant from three stations in October and four stations in December. The mean density of meiofauna per $10\;cm^{-2}$ was the highest in October (130 individuals) and lowest (68 individuals) in April. Meiofauna mean biomass per $100\;cm^{-2}$ was $3.80-75.26{\mu}gC$ from each station, with the monthly mean biomass being lowest in April ($11.97{\mu}gC$) and highest in October ($39.50{\mu}gC$). The highest biomass was recorded at station five in October ($75.26{\mu}gC$). Eleven families of harpacticoid copepods occurred Ameiridae and Ectinosomatidae were the most frequent. The mean diversity index was 1.21 from all the stations, 1.22 from the sand mining stations, and 1.19 from the reference stations. The nematode:copepod (N/C) ratio was 1.57 from the sand mining stations and 1.37 from the reference stations. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis divided the community into group A (station one, non-sand mining and reference area) and groups B and C in the sand mining area. The present study reports similar numbers of taxa but lower density and biomass of meiofauna compared to previous studies in Korean waters. The variability of the diversity index and N/C ratio may indicate large fluctuation of meiofauna depending on temporal and spatial conditions of the environment in the study area.

A Study on Meiofauna Community in the Subtidal Sediment outside of the Saemangeum Seadike in the West Coast of Korea (새만금 외해역 조하대 퇴적물에 서식하는 중형저서동물 군집에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo;Lee, Seunghan;Hong, Jung-Ho;Lee, Wonchoel;Park, Eun-Ok
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.209-223
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    • 2014
  • The community structure of benthic meiofauna was investigated from seasonal surveys at seventeen stations off the Saemangeum area, in 2007. Ten meiofaunal taxa were identified. Nematodes were the dominant faunal group in all seasons and harpacticoids were dominant only at a few stations. The mean density of meiofauna was 383 indiv. $10cm^{-2}$, highest in May and November (434 indiv. $10cm^{-2}$), lowest in February (284 indiv. $10cm^{-2}$). Meiofaunal mean biomass was $80.49{\mu}gC{\cdot}10cm^{-2}$, highest in November ($99.54{\mu}gC{\cdot}10cm^{-2}$), lowest in February ($51.56{\mu}gC{\cdot}10cm^{-2}$). Cluster analysis revealed that the study area was composed of three benthic meiofaunal communities. There were significant correlations between major meiofaunal groups and sediment composition and the concentrations of heavy metals. The abundance of harpacticoids are positively correlated with silt (0.559, p < 0.01) and clay (0.340, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with sand (-0.548, p < 0.01). Harpacticoids also showed positive correlations with heavy metals. The community structure of meiofauna in the study area varied seasonally in response to the change of sediment composition.

Study on the Community Structure of Meiofauna in Marian Cove, King George Island, Antarctica (남극 King George Islands, Marian Cove의 중형저서생물 군집 구조에 관한 연구)

  • Bang Hyun Woo;Kang Sung-Ho;Lee Wonchoel
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2005
  • The community structure, vertical distribution and harpacticoids composition of the meiofauna community were observed from five stations in Marian Cove, King George Island and one station on the northeastern side of Nelson Island. Sample was taken by a free-fall corer in December 2002. Generally, 11 taxa of meiofauna were found, and meiofauna abundance ranged from 322 to 1575 indiv. $10cm^{-2}$ (mean 781 indiv. $10cm^{-2}$). Nematodes were the most dominant group, making up $89\%$ of total meiofauna, followed by harpacticoids $(6.8\%)$. Benthic harpacticoids appeared 19 species of nine families at all the stations, and most various taxa appeared at station B (13 species of seven families). For vertical distribution, more than $70\%$ of meiofauna was concentrated in the upper $0\~2cm$ sediment layers, and the density abruptly decreased with depth in all the stations. Total biomass of meiofauna varied between 41 and $360{\mu}gC\;10cm^{-2}$, and overall mean biomass was $205{\mu}gC\;10cm^{-2}$. Also nematodes had the highest percentage of total maiofauna biomass $(62.4\%)$. The analysis results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis between meiofauna community and sediment grain size showed that polychaets, oligochaets and cumaceans were influenced by silt&cray, and sand, granule and pebble had a influence on harpacticoids, kinorhynchs and ostracods respectively. But nematodes were not affected by sediment grain size.

Comparison of Meiobenthic Faunal Communities in Seagrass Bed and Adjacent Bare Sediment (해초지와 주변 퇴적물에 서식하는 중형저서동물 군집 특성 비교)

  • 민원기;김동성;최청일
    • The Sea
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2003
  • To investigate the community structure and meiofaunal density in seagrass/bare non-seagrass beds, a survey was conducted at three seagrass bed locations in Doomoojin of Baegryongdo, inner harbor of Eocheongdo in May 1999, and Yulim of Dolsando for every month from February to July 1999. Meiobenthic samples were collected from sediments within seagrass beds (SB) and non-seagrass bed (or adjacent to barren sand area, NSB). Nematodes were the most dominant group among representative 13 meiofaunal groups. The sub-dominant groups were benthic for-aminiferans, benthic harpacticoids, and annelids. The highest density of meiofauna was recorded at a seagrass bed of Yulim (7,244 ind/10 $\textrm{cm}^2$ in June), and lowest density was recorded at a non-seauass bed of Baegryoungdo (438 ind/ 10 $\textrm{cm}^2$ in May). For vertical distribution, the highest density of meiofauna was recorded at 0-2 cm depth, and the density abruptly decreased with depth in all stations. The density of meiofauna in size between 0.125 m and 0.25 mm was maximum. Sediment types for the study areas ranged from sandy to sandy mud by the Folk's classification. The density of total meiofauna, the number of taxa, and the density of the dominant groups (nematodes, benthic for-aminiferans, benthic harpacticoids, annelids) between SB and NSB were significantly different. The results clearly showed the importance of seagrass bed as suitable habitat for meiofauna.

The faunal composition of meiobenthic community in the deep-sea sediment, northeastern Pacific Ocean (북동 태평양 심해저퇴적물에 서식하는 중형저서생물의 군집조성)

  • Kim, Dong-Sung
    • The Sea
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate the faunal composition and distribution pattern of meiobenthic community in the deep sea sediments of northeastern Pacific Ocean. Faunal samples were collected at 10 stations using a multiple corer and a spade type box corer during May 1996. A total of 18 meiofaunal groups were found, and Sarcomastigophora was the most dominant group which accounted for 35.8% of total meiofaunal abundance. Nematoda (30.8%), Nauplius larvae of Crustacea (11.9%), Ciliophora (6.8%) and Harpacticoida (3.0%) which were also important components of the meiofaunal community. All of these five faunal groups comprised more than 90% of total meiofauna. The highest density of 195 ind./10 $cm^2$ was found at St. 4 (4960 m water depth), but the lowest one, 85 ind./10 $cm^2$ at St. 1 (4969 m water depth). The overall mean density of meiofauna was estimated as $1.34{\times}10^5\;ind./m^2$. The abundance of meiofauna showed a slow decreasing trend along the water depth. The highest density was observed in the upper 1 cm and density decreased drastically with increasing depth from the surface.

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