• Title, Summary, Keyword: mechanisms of action

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Evaluation of Conversion Action Data Mechanisms in Cost-Per-Action Advertising

  • Tian, Li;Lee, Kyoung-Jun
    • 한국경영정보학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.428-433
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    • 2008
  • The online advertising industry's business model undertakes the change from CPM (cost-per-mille)-based to CPC (cost-per-click)-based. However, due to the problem of 'Click Fraud', CPA (cost-per-action) has been regarded as a new step. For CPA, publishers need to get information after a user clicks an advertisement. Therefore, in CPA, the key is to get Conversion Action Data (CAD). This paper introduces two existing mechanisms for getting CAD, compare their characteristics, and analyze their limitations. Then the two new mechanisms are introduced and their requirements and feasibility are analyzed. Lastly, we compare the existing two and the new two mechanisms, and point out each mechanism's business possibility, value and Application Area. This paper will help publishers choose the most appropriate mechanism on the basis of their situation.

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Evaluation of Conversion Action Data Mechanisms in Cost- Per-Action Advertising (Cost-Per-Action 광고 방법을 이용한 Conversion Action Data 메커니즘의 평가)

  • Li, Tian;Lee, Kyoung-Jun
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.123-135
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    • 2008
  • The online advertising industry's business model undertakes the change from CPM (cost-per-mille)-based to CPC(cost-per-click)-based. However, due to the problem of 'Click Fraud', CPA (cost-per-action) has been regarded as a new step. For CPA, publishers need to get information after a user clicks an advertisement. Therefore, in CPA, the key is to get Conversion Action Data (CAD). This paper introduces two existing mechanisms for getting CAD, compare their characteristics, and analyze their limitations. Then the two new mechanisms are introduced and their requirements and feasibility are analyzed. Lastly, we compare the existing two and the new two mechanisms, and point out each mechanism's business possibility, value and Application Area. This paper will help publishers choose the most appropriate mechanism on the basis of their situation.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of bisphenol A action in spermatozoa

  • Rahman, Md Saidur;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2019
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is capable of interfering with the normal function of the endocrine system in the body. Exposure to this chemical from BPA-containing materials and the environment is associated with deleterious health effects, including male reproductive abnormalities. A search of the literature demonstrated that BPA, as a toxicant, directly affects the cellular oxidative stress response machinery. Because of its hormone-like properties, it can also bind with specific receptors in target cells. Therefore, the tissue-specific effects of BPA mostly depend on its endocrine-disrupting capabilities and the expression of those particular receptors in target cells. Although studies have shown the possible mechanisms of BPA action in various cell types, a clear consensus has yet to be established. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of BPA action in spermatozoa by compiling existing information in the literature.

Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Blended Cement Concrete using Seawater (해수를 사용한 혼합시멘트계 콘크리트의 동결융해 저항성)

  • 문한영;김성수;이승태;김종필;박광필
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.725-730
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    • 2002
  • The durability of concrete involves resistance to freeze-thaw action, corrosion, permeation, carbonation, chemical attack and so on. Generally, properties of concrete have been well understood under the separate action of these deterioration mechanisms. However, in practice, the degradation of concrete usually is the result of combined action of physical and chemical attack and can be accelerated by the combined action of several deterioration mechanisms. In the present study, to evaluate the combined deterioration by freeze-thaw action and seawater attack, ground granulated blast-furnace slag or silica fume concrete with water or seawater as mixing water was exposed to 210 cycles of freeze-thaw action. Tests were conducted to determined the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. Furthermore, The XRD, SEM and EDS analysis were performed on the deteriorated part of concrete due to freeze-thaw action and seawater attack.

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Freeze-Thaw Resistance and Void Characteristic of Blended Cement Concrete using Seawater (해수를 사용한 혼합시멘트계 콘크리트의 동결융해 저항성 및 공극특성)

  • Kim, Seong-Soo;Lee, Seung-Tae;Jung, Ho-Seop;Park, Kwang-Pil
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.589-592
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    • 2006
  • The durability of concrete involves resistance to freeze-thaw action, corrosion, permeation, carbonation, chemical attack and so on. Generally, properties of concrete have been well understood under the separate action of these deterioration mechanisms. However, in practice, the degradation of concrete usually is the result of combined action of physical and chemical attack and can be accelerated by the combined action of several deterioration mechanisms. In the present study, to evaluate the combined deterioration by freeze-thaw action and seawater attack, ground granulated blast-furnace slag or silica fume concrete with water or seawater as mixing water was exposed to 300 cycles of freeze-thaw action. Tests were conducted to determined the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. Furthermore, The MIP analysis were performed on the deteriorated part of concrete due to freeze-thaw action and seawater attack.

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Rediscovery of Nefopam for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain

  • Kim, Kyung Hoon;Abdi, Salahadin
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2014
  • Nefopam (NFP) is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, centrally acting analgesic drug that is derivative of the nonsedative benzoxazocine, developed and known in 1960s as fenazocine. Although the mechanisms of analgesic action of NFP are not well understood, they are similar to those of triple neurotransmitter (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) reuptake inhibitors and anticonvulsants. It has been used mainly as an analgesic drug for nociceptive pain, as well as a treatment for the prevention of postoperative shivering and hiccups. Based on NFP's mechanisms of analgesic action, it is more suitable for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Intravenous administration of NFP should be given in single doses of 20 mg slowly over 15-20 min or with continuous infusion of 60-120 mg/d to minimize adverse effects, such as nausea, cold sweating, dizziness, tachycardia, or drowsiness. The usual dose of oral administration is three to six times per day totaling 90-180 mg. The ceiling effect of its analgesia is uncertain depending on the mechanism of pain relief. In conclusion, the recently discovered dual analgesic mechanisms of action, namely, a) descending pain modulation by triple neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition similar to antidepressants, and b) inhibition of long-term potentiation mediated by NMDA from the inhibition of calcium influx like gabapentinoid anticonvulsants or blockade of voltage-sensitive sodium channels like carbamazepine, enable NFP to be used as a therapeutic agent to treat neuropathic pain.

Mechanisms of herbicide resistance in weeds

  • Bo, Aung Bo;Won, Ok Jae;Sin, Hun Tak;Lee, Jeung Joo;Park, Kee Woong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2017
  • In major field crops, synthetic herbicides have been used to control weeds worldwide. Globally, herbicide resistance in weeds should be minimized because it is a major limiting factor for food security. Cross resistance can occur with herbicides within the same or in different herbicide families and with the same or different sites of action. Multiple resistance refers to evolved mechanisms of resistance to more than one herbicide (e.g., resistance to both ALS-inhibitors and ACCase-inhibitors) and this resistance was brought about by separate selection processes. Target site resistance could occur from changes at the biochemical site of action of one herbicide. Non target site resistance occurs through mechanisms which reduce the number of herbicide molecules that reach the herbicide target site. There are currently 480 unique cases (species ${\times}$ site of action) of herbicide resistance globally in 252 plant species (145 dicots and 105 monocots). To date, resistance in weeds has been reported to 161 different herbicides, involving 23 of the 26 known herbicide sites of action. Finally, it can be concluded that we can protect crops associated to herbicide resistant weeds by applications of biochemical, genetic and crop control strategies.

Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) with Dual Mechanisms: Membrane Disruption and Apoptosis

  • Lee, Juneyoung;Lee, Dong Gun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.759-764
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    • 2015
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the critical components in host innate immune responses to imbalanced and invading microbial pathogens. Although the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action have been thoroughly investigated for decades, the exact biological properties of AMPs are still elusive. Most AMPs generally exert the antimicrobial effect by targeting the microbial membrane, such as barrel stave, toroidal, and carpet mechanisms. Thus, the mode of action in model membranes and the discrimination of AMPs to discrepant lipid compositions between mammalian cells and microbial pathogens (cell selectivity) have been studied intensively. However, the latest reports suggest that not only AMPs recently isolated but also well-known membrane-disruptive AMPs play a role in intracellular killing, such as apoptosis induction. In this mini-review, we will review some representative AMPs and their antimicrobial mechanisms and provide new insights into the dual mechanism of AMPs.

Review of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca$^{2+}$ Releasing Mechanisms in Skeletal Muscle Contraction (골격근 수축에 있어서 근장그물로부터의 Ca$^{2+}$ 유리 기전에 대한 고찰)

  • Koo, Hyun-Mo;Kim, Jin-Sang
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2001
  • Skeletal muscle cells are activated by ${\alpha}$-motorneurons which release acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. This results in a local depolarization of surface membrane which triggers an action potential. The action potential propagates along the surface membrane and also into the T-tubule system. In the triads T-tubules are in close connection with the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR). The action potential activaies T-tubule voltage sensors(DHP receptors). which activates SR Ca$^{2+}$ release channels(ryanodinc receptors). Ca$^{2+}$ have a key role in skeletal muscle in that an increase of free myoplasmic Ca$^{2+}$ concentration. The process of coupling chemical and electrical signals at the cell surface to the intracellular release of Ca$^{2+}$and ultimate contraction of muscle fibers is termed excitation-contraction coupling(ECC). Coupling of cel1 surface signals to intracellular Ca$^{2+}$ release proceeds by several mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells. This review focus on sarcopiasmic reticulum(SR) Ca$^{2+}$ releasing mechanisms from sarcoplasmic reticulum in the skeletal muscle. The mechanisms include DCCR, CICR, and HCR.

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Styraxjaponoside A and B, Antifungal Lignan Glycosides Isolated from Styrax japonica S. et Z.

  • Park, Cana;Cho, Jae-Yong;Hwang, Bo-Mi;Hwang, In-Sok;Kim, Mi-Ran;Woo, Eun-Rhan;Lee, Dong-Gun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.420-425
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    • 2010
  • The antifungal effects and action mechanisms of styraxjaponoside A and B were investigated. Devoid of hemolytic effect, the compounds had significant effect against several human pathogenic fungal strains, with energy-independent manners. To understand the action mechanisms of the compounds, the flow cytometric analysis plotting the forward scatter and the side scatter, $DiBAC_4$(3) staining and DPH fluorescence analysis were conducted. The results indicated that the actions of the compounds were dependent upon the membrane-active mechanisms. The present study suggests that styraxjaponoside A and B exert their antimicrobial effects via membrane-disruptive mechanisms.