• Title, Summary, Keyword: mean annual frequency

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A Study of Differences on Recognition for the Sales Persons' Service Provided between Apparel Salespeople and Customers (의류 판매원의 서비스에 대한 소비자와 판매원의 인지차이에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Mun-Young;Park, Kwang-Hee;Ha, Yeong-Seok
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2004
  • The purposes of this study was to exploit the differences on recognition for the service provided between salespeople and customers who have purchased fashion apparels and garments at the department stores, and to suggest the educational direction of salespeople in order to enhance competitiveness and to increase customers' satisfaction. Data were obtained from 297 apparel salespeople working at 6 department stores and 285 customers of department stores in Daegu. Statistics used for data analysis were frequency, mean, t-test, ANOVA, and regression analyses. The important factors which affected the purchase of fashion products, in order of importance, were information ability, credibility and service quality of salespeople. But the service quality recognized by customers was lower than that by salespeople. It can be said the salespeople have to make every effort that customers feel comfortable and certain for the service provided. There were significant difference on the service provided by salespeople, as well as service quality recognized by customers in accordance with gender, marital status, age, level of education, and annual fashion apparel expenses.

A Space Usage and User Evaluation of Community Facility in Apartment (공동주택의 커뮤니티 공간실태 및 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Noh, Yi-Kyung;Hwang, Yeon-Sook
    • Proceeding of Spring/Autumn Annual Conference of KHA
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    • pp.259-262
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the space usage and user evaluation of community facility in Apartment. This study was conducted case study and questionnaire survey. Four High rise Mixed-use Apartments in and near seoul built in 2000 and later were chosen for case study and 166 residents were collected for questionnaire survey. The frequency, percentage, mean, One-way ANOVA and Duncan tests were executed through SPSS for Win 12.0 statistics package program. The types of community facilities of High rise Mixed-use Apartments were consisted of sports, child care, study, information sharing, leisure/cultural facilities. Most of the community facilities showed to be similar regardless the subject of High rise Mixed-use Apartments. The usage percentage of community facilities increased since the residents have moved to their current residence of High rise Mixed-use Apartments from their previous residence. The most satisfied facility was sports facilities. The satisfaction of community facilities showed high in general. The satisfaction of community facilities was significant with age and the size of apartment.

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A Study on the Area Planning of Data Area and Reading Area and User Satisfaction in Subject Specialization of University Libraries (대학도서관 자료실의 자료영역 및 열람영역 면적계획과 이용자 만족도 연구)

  • Chang, Ari;Hwang, Yeon-Sook
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2014
  • The subject specialization room will be able to support university library users who are inclined to use the general reading room. This study is the research of the area planning for university library's subject specialization room. For the evaluation, 431 users from 15 university libraries in 14 universities located across Seoul were surveyed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Frequency, percentage, mean, t-test, f-test were used. Results of the study are as follow. Subject specialization rooms in university libraries can be classified via the analysis of spatial characteristics. According to the area ratio of data space and reading space in a subject specialization room, the subject room can be separated into data-loaning and data-reading types. Old libraries are more likely to be data-loaning types, where reading room is small and there are a lot of bookshelves. The annual increase in library collections causes space for bookshelves to decrease. As a result, space for reading has been gradually transformed into space for stacking data. It is necessary to introduce ways to maintain enough space for both reading and stacking data. One way includes movable compact shelving, which can partially replace existing fixed shelves.

The impact of climate change on pollen allergy in Korea (한국의 기후 변화가 꽃가루 알레르기에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Jae-Won
    • Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease
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    • v.6 no.sup1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2018
  • Weather may alter the concentrations of pollens which can subsequently influence the occurrence of allergic diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that greenhouse gases increase pollen concentration. Daily fluctuations in the pollen concentration have to do with a variety of meteorological factors such as temperature, rainfall and sunshine amount; therefore, it is complicated. At least more than 10 weather elements that affect the concentration of pollen. Earlier pollination and rising pollen concentrations have been reported in many countries. Most studies have focused on analysis of their relationships with local meteorological and climatic factors. Observed pollen data at locations representing a wide range of geographic and climatic conditions should be analyzed statistically to identify pollination date, pollen season length, and annual mean and peak values of daily concentrations of pollen. The seasonal and regional variations of pollen have also been changed in South Korea with climate change. There were evaluated sensitization rate to pollen in South Korea since 1997. Sensitization rates for weed and tree pollens are increased in Korean children, especially with increasing pollen concentration of ragweed and Japanese hop. It has been demonstrated that urbanization correlate with the increasing pollen allergies. However, the effects of environmental change on allergic diseases have not yet been completely understood. Recently there have been many epidemiological studies on the relationship between allergic diseases and climate changes. Previous studies suggest that climate changes interact with and affect pollen allergy, which in turn increases the frequency and severity of allergic disease.

Derivation of Probable Rainfall Intensity Formulas at Inchon District (인천지방 확률강우강도식의 유도)

  • Choe, Gye-Un;An, Tae-Jin;Gwon, Yeong-Sik
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.263-276
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    • 2000
  • This paper is to derive the probable rainfall depths and the probable rainfall intensity formulas for Inchon Metropolitan district. The annual maximum rainfall data from 10 min. to 6 hours have been collected from the Inchon weather station. Eleven types of probability distribution are considered to estimate probable rainfall depths for 12 different storm durations at the Inchon Metropolitan district. Three tests including Chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smimov and Cramer Von Mises with the graphical analysis are adopted to select the best probability distribution. The probable rainfall intensity formulas are then determined by the least squares method using the trial and error approach. Five types of Talbot type, Sherman type, Japanese type, Unified type I, and Unified type II are considered to determine the best type for the Inchon rainfall intensity. The root mean squared errors are computed to compare the accuracy from the derived formulas. It has been suggested that the probable rainfall intensities having Unified type I for the short term duration should be the most reliable formulas by considering the root mean squared errors and the difference between computed probable rainfall depth and estimated probable rainfall depth.

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The Characteristics of Radiation, Temperature and Wind Direction around King Sejong Station, Antarctica (남극 세종 기지 주변의 복사, 기온 및 풍향의 특징)

  • Choi, Tae-Jin;Lee, Bang-Yong;Kim, Seong-Joong;Park, Yoo-Min;Yoon, Young-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.397-408
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    • 2006
  • Due to the temporal and spatial variability of the warming at and near the Antarctic Peninsular, it is required to better understand local climate at the issued region. The purpose of the study are to characterize surface radiation, air temperature and wind direction and investigate their relations at the King Sejong Station near the Antarctic Peninsular during last three and half years. While the study site was a weak radiative energy sink (positive net radiation) with annual mean of 15-20 Wm-2, it played a role as a strong sink in summer (December to January) with mean of 85 Wm-2, a magnitude that was significantly larger than those at other surface covered with snow or ice in Antarctica. Monthly averaged air temperature ranged from -7.7-2.8oC and the variations of monthly averaged air temperature showed the distinct differences with year. Northwesterly, westerly and easterly were dominant and the variability of air temperature could be explained by the variability of the frequency of wind direction with cold easterly and warm northwesterly/northerly to some degree, which in turn influenced radiation budget through albedo in summer.

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Spatio-Temporal Variability of Temperature and Precipitation in Seoul

  • Choi, Hyun-Ah;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Kim, So-Ra;Kwak, Han-Bin
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.467-478
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    • 2008
  • This study analyzes the spatial and temporal variability of temperature ($^{\circ}C$) and precipitation (mm) in Seoul, Korea. The temperature and precipitation data were measured at 31 automatic weather stations (AWSs) in Seoul for 10 years from 1997 to 2006. In this study, inverse distance squared weighting (IDSW) was applied to interpolate the non-measured spaces. To estimate the temperature and precipitation variability, the mean values and frequencies of hot and cold days were examined. The maximum and minimum temperatures were $32.80^{\circ}C$ in 1999 and $-19.94^{\circ}C$ in 2001, respectively. The year 2006 showed the highest frequency of hot temperatures with 79 hot days, closely followed by 2004 and 2005. The coldest year was in 2001 with 105 cold days. The annual mean temperature and precipitation increased by about $1^{\circ}C$ and 483mm during the 10-year period, respectively. The temperature variability differed between high-elevation forested areas and low-elevation residential areas. However, the precipitation variability showed little relation with the topography and land use patterns.

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An Analysis of Historical Precipitation data for Water Resources Planning (수자원 계획을 위한 과거 강수량자료의 분석)

  • 이동률;홍일표
    • Water for future
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 1994
  • A statistical characteristics, relations of calendar and water year, and frequencies of precipitaion which are necessary for water resources planning were analyzed with long historical data(1905-1991 years). And the analysis of precipitation of the drought periods in 1967-1968 years was carried out. The study basins are the five major rivers in Korea. As a results of this study, annual precipitation shows an increasing trend but its variation has no statistical significance. The rellations of calendar and water year precipitation is presented, it shows that there are little difference of the total precipitation between them. The annual minimum series of total precipitation for the periods of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months by water year are constructed, and frequency precipitation for each periods using 2-parameter lognormal distribution is presented. The analysis of the precipitation in 1967-1968 years shows in a natural river basins that it would be a moderate drought, if dry seasons(Oct-May) or wet seasons(Jun-Sep) has 75 percents of historical mean precipitation of the same periods. And if it has less than 60 percents of historical mean precipitation, it would be a severe drought.

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Annual Reproductive Cycle and Embryonic Development within the Maternal Body of the Marbled Rockfish, Sebastiscus marmoratus from the Cheju Island (제주산 씀뱅리 (Sebastiscus marmoratus)의 생식년주기와 체내자어 발달)

  • BAE Hee Chan;CHUNG Sang Chul;LEE Jung Jea;LEE Young Don
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.489-499
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    • 1998
  • Gonadal development, reproductive cycle and embryonic development of the marbled rockfish, Sebastiscus marmoratus were investigated histologically. A total of 1,035 specimens were collected from the Cheju Island from July of 1992 to May of 1996. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) in female reached the maximum during October to March, thereafter, the values decreased from Norvember to April. GSI in male reached the maximum in September (before one to three months of the female's maximum), thereafter, the values rapidly decreased from October to December. The annual reproductive cycle can be divided into five stages in female and four stages in male: females, Growing(June to September), Mature(September to February), Ripe and copulation(October to March), Gestation and parturition(November to April), Degenerative and resting(December to May); in males, Growing(April to July), Mature(August to November), Ripe and copulation(September to December), and Degenerstive and resting(November to March). Size frequency distribution of eggs and larvae showed non-synchrony. Maternal larvae parturition occurred one or two time during November to April. Mean length of the larvae parturition was 3.5 mm. Mean number of eggs and maternal larvae for the 15 cm minimum class of female was 58,377, and fecundity increased with the increase of total length and body weight.

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Habitat Characteristics and Distribution of Cymbidium kanran Native to Jejudo, Korea (제주한란의 자생환경 특성 및 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.40-49
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    • 2004
  • This work carried out to define the characteristic of Cymbidium kanran habitat at Mt. Halla in Jejudo, Korea from the ecological point of view including geological and topographical features, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, fluctuations of light intensity, habitat vegetation, distribution altitude, area limit, and etc. And another goal of this study consider the conservation counterplan of the cymbidium habitat. Natural distribution areas of the cymbidium were observed more abundantly on the well drained south and east-facing slopes. Soil acidity was ranged from pH 4.1 to 5.3, and electric conductivity was ranged from 176.4 to 299.9 us/cm (average 215.3 us/cm). Base-saturation percentage of the habitat soil was below 50%, bulk density 0.42g/$cm^2$, particle density 2.05g/$cm^2$, humus content 26%, total nitrogen 0.82%, available phosphate 4.2 mg/kg, exchangeable potassium 0.63 Cmol/kg, calcium 0.44 Cmol/kg and magnesium 0.67 Cmol/kg. Annual mean air temperature was $15.4^{\circ}C$, however, air temperature was ranged $11.7{\sim}18.2^{\circ}C$ in spring, $21.2{\sim}23.8^{\circ}C$ in summer, $12.8{\sim}22.0^{\circ}C$ in fall and $5.5{\sim}7.8^{\circ}C$ in winter season. Annual mean soil temperature at depth of 10cm was $13.2^{\circ}C$ And minimum value was recorded $4.7^{\circ}C$ on January, and maximum value $22.5^{\circ}C$ on August. Relative humidity was ranged 90.8~94.7% in summer, 80.8~91.5% in fall and 77.6~84.2% in winter season. Minimum value was 56.5% on December, and maximum value was 100% on July and August. Light intensities were ranged from 400 to 1,800 lux at the greater part of Cymbidium kanran sites in Jejudo. Summer regarded as an lower light intensities was recorded to be range of 500~600 lux; however, autumn and winter were shown higher light regimes ranged from 3,500 to 3,800 lux. Therefore, one must be suprised that the cymbidium grow at the light condition of 6 lux (minimum) or 10,000 lux (maximum). Tree species keeping higher frequency rate and density were Eurya japonica, Camellia japonica, Castanopsis cuspidata, Carpinus laxiflora and Pinus densiflora. Number of trees growing in a 5${\times}$5m quardrat was 35 as an average, and proportion of evergreen versus deciduous was 5:1. Distribution altitude of the orchid habitat was ranged from 120m (low) to 840m (high) from sea level on the south facing slope of Mt. Halla, and was ranged eastern borderline of Gujwaup, Bukjejugun to western boundaries of Jungmundong, Seogwipo city. For the stable conservation of Cymbidium kanran habitat, sunlight regimes must be increased more by means of cutting trees or twigs in the site.