• Title, Summary, Keyword: mean annual frequency

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Characteristics of Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loads from Forest watershed with Various Water Quality Sampling Frequencies (수질샘플빈도에 따른 산림유역의 비점원오염부하특성)

  • Shin, Min-Hwan;Shi, Yong-Chul;Heo, Sung-Gu;Lim, Kyoung-Jae;Choi, Joong-Dae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2008
  • A monsoon season monitoring data from June to September, 2005 of a small forested watershed located at the upstream of the North Han River system in Korea was conducted to analyze the flow variations, the NPS pollutant concentrations, and the pollution load characteristics with respect to sampling frequencies. During the 4-month period, 1,423 mm or 79.2% of annual rainfall(1,797 mm) were occurred and more than 77%, 54% and 68% of annual T-N, $NO_3$-N and T-P loads discharged. Flow rate was continuously measured with automatic velocity and water level meters and 58 water quality samples were taken and analyzed. It was analyzed that the flow volume by random measurement varied very widely and ranged from 79% to 218% of that of continuous measurement. It was recommended that flow measurement of small forested watersheds should be continuously measured with automated flow meters to precisely measure flow rates. Flow-weighted mean concentrations of T-N, $NO_3$-N and T-P during the period were 2.114 mg/L, 0.836 mg/L, and 0.136 mg/L, respectively. T-N, $NO_3$-N and T-P loads were sensitive to the number of samples. And it was analyzed that in order to measure the pollution load within the error of 10% to the true load, the rate of sampling frequency should be higher than 89.7% of the sample numbers that were required to compute the true pollution load. If it is compared to selected foreign research results, about 10 water samples for each rainfall event were needed to compute the pollution load within 10% error. It is unlikely in Korea and recommended that thorough NPS pollution monitoring studies are required to develop the standard monitoring procedures for reliable NPS pollution quantification.

Analysis on Nonstationarity in Mean Sea Level and Nonstationary Frequency Analysis based on Hierarchical Bayesian Model (해수면의 비정상성 검토 및 계층적 Bayesian 모형을 이용한 비정상성 빈도해석 기법 개발)

  • Kim, Yong Tak;Sumiya, Uranchimeg;Kwon, Hyun-Han
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.451-451
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    • 2015
  • 최근 1900년부터 1990년 사이 해수면은 매년 평균 1.2mm 상승했지만 1990년부터는 매년 평균 3mm씩 높아지고 있으며, 이에 1990년부터 현재까지 해수면 수위의 상승속도가 이전 90년 동안 측정된 수치보다 2.5배 빠르다는 연구결과가 발표되었다. 해수면 상승으로 인한 피해는 범람과 침식을 야기할 수 있으며 해일 및 폭풍으로 인한 피해를 증가시킴으로 물질적 피해와 인명 피해를 유발할 수 있다. 이러한 이유로 해수면 상승에 따른 과학적인 분석과 신뢰성 있는 전망을 통하여 해수면 상승에 따른 대응과 대비가 필요하다. 이에 본 연구에서는 비정상성 빈도해석 방법을 통하여 미래의 해수면 상승을 고려할 수 있는 비정상성 빈도해석 기법을 개발하였다. 본 연구에서는 극치사상을 추출하기 위해 국립해양조사원 (Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration, KHOA)에서 관리한 45개 조위관측소의 시 조위 자료를 이용하였다. 45개 조위관측소의 한 시간 단위 자료로부터 연최대 및 연평균 조위계열 (annual average and annual maximum sea level series)을 추출하였다. 본 연구에서는 한반도 해안을 동해안, 서해안, 남해안, 제주 권역으로 구분하고 빈도 해석의 신뢰성을 만족하기 위해 자료 구축기간이 20년 이상이며, 각 해안을 나타낼 수 있는 지점을 선정하였다. 비정상성 빈도해석은 Gumbel 극치분포를 적용하였으며, 계층적 Bayesian 기법을 결합하여 매개변수들에 대한 사후분포를 추정하였다. 본 연구에서는 대부분의 지점에서 비정상성 빈도해석 결과와 정상성 빈도해석 결과와 상당한 차이를 보여주고 있으며, 이는 주로 정상성 가정에 기인하는 문제점으로 판단된다. 향후 기후변화에 따른 연안지역의 홍수 및 사회기반시설의 위험도를 평가하기 위해서는 비정상성을 고려한 빈도해석 절차의 수립과 적용이 필요할 것으로 판단된다.

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An Evaluation of Extreme Precipitation based on Local Downpour using Empirical Simulation Technique (Empirical Simulation Technique 기법을 이용한 집중호우의 극한강우 평가)

  • Oh, Tae-Suk;Moon, Young-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.2B
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    • pp.141-153
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    • 2009
  • The occurrence causes of the extreme rainfall to happen in Korea can be distinguished with the typhoons and local downpours. The typhoon events attacked irregularly to induce the heavy rainfall, and the local downpour events mean a seasonal rain front and a local rainfall. Almost every year, the typhoons and local downpours that induced a heavy precipitation be generated extreme disasters like a flooding. Consequently, in this research, There were distinguished the causes of heavy rainfall events with the typhoons and the local downpours at Korea. Also, probability precipitation was computed according to the causes of the local downpour events. An evaluation of local downpours can be used for analysis of heavy rainfall event in short period like a flash flood. The methods of calculation of probability precipitation used the parametric frequency analysis and the Empirical Simulation Technique (EST). The correlation analysis was computed between annual maximum precipitation by local downpour events and sea surface temperature, moisture index for composition of input vectors. At the results of correlation analysis, there were revealed that the relations closely between annual maximum precipitation and sea surface temperature. Also, probability precipitation using EST are bigger than probability precipitation of frequency analysis on west-middle areas in Korea. Therefore, region of west-middle in Korea should prepare the extreme precipitation by local downpour events.

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Seasonal Variations of Acdity and Chemicstry of Precipitation in Iksan Area (익산지역 강수의 계절별 산성도와 화학성상)

  • 강공언;오인교;김희강
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.393-402
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    • 1999
  • Precipitation samples were collected by the wet-only sampling method in Iksan in the northwest of Chonbuk from March 1995 to February 1997. These samples were analyzed for the concentration of ion components, in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The annual mean pH of precipitation was 4.8 and the seasonal trend of pH was shown to be low in Fall and Winter(4.5), middle-ranged in Spring(4.7) and high in Summer(5.0). The frequency of pH below 5.6 was about 71%. The seasonal pattern of pH frequency was found to be different in each season. In the case of the pH less than 5.0, the frequency was higher in Spring, Fall and Winter than in Summer, especially higher in Fall than in other seasons. The concentrations of analysed ions showed a pronounced seasonal pattern. However, major ion species for all seasons were $NH^+_4,;Ca^{2+};and;Na^+$ among cations and $SO^{2-}_4,;Cl^-;and;NO^-_3$ among anions. The major acidifying species appeared to be $nss-SO^{2-}_4;and;NO^-_3$, and the main bases responsible for the neutralization of precipitation acidity were $nss-Ca^{2+};and;NH^+_4$. The potential acidity of precipitation, pAi, was found to be between 3.0 and 5.0 for total samples, while the measured pH was approximately between 3.9 and 7.8. The seasonal trend of pAi showed a decreasing order: Summer (4.3), Winter(4.0), Spring and Fall(3.8). During the Fall, both pAi and pH were especially very low, which indicated that during this period the potential acidity of precipitation was high but the neutralizing capacity was low. For Spring, pAi was very low but pH was slightly high. This was likely due to the large amount of $CaCO_3$ in the soil particles transported over a long range from the Chinese continent that were incorporated into the precipitation, and then neutralized the acidifying species with its high concentraton.

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Role of Transport on Aerosol Concentration at Crater Lake, Oregon USA (미국 오레곤주 Crater Lake의 에어로졸 농도에 미치는 수송의 역할)

  • 전병일
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.669-677
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of role of transport on aerosol concentration at Crate Lake, Oregon USA for 1988.3~1999. 5. The IMPROVE program is a cooperative measurement effort governed by a steering committee composed of representatives from USA federal and regional-state organizations. Also IMPROVE sampler is designed to obtain a complete signature of the composition of the airborne particles affecting visibility. According to 10-day backward isentropic trajectory analysis, the frequency of local, marine and Asian trajectory showed 33.1%(335 cases), 47%(478 cases), 5.2%(53 cases) respectively. The monthly variation of nss $SO_4^{2-}$, nss S, $NO_3^-$, K and C showed the double peak pattern, high in April~May and August~september and showed the lowest concentration in Winter. The other constituents concentration except for Cl$^{[-10]}$ , Na, Mg was high in local trajectory than marine trajectory. A ratio nss $SO_4^{2-}$ to $SO_4^{2-}$ was 90.5% in marine trajectory and 98% in local trajectory. It suggest that the aerosol in Crater Lake was effected by salt. The annual mean concentration of nss $SO_4^{2-}$ and nss S decreased but the springtime concentration increased.

A Study on Determination of Probability Rainfall-Depth of Short Duration as Consideringthe Project Life and the Factor of Safety in Seoul (내용 안전치를 고려한 서울지방의 단시간 확률 강우량산정에 관한 연구)

  • 이원환;김재한;김채원
    • Water for future
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 1976
  • This Study is developed in order to determine the probability of a raintall depth of short duration in Seoul as considering the profect life and the factor of safety of hydraulic structures. The raw annual maximum rainfall data are selected from 1915 to 1974 about short duration (10min-120min.) in Seoul. The selected data are treated by frequency analysis, and the hypothesis that the distribution fuction of the raw data is normal Distribution is performed by chi-square test that signifcance level has 5%. With the parameters (mean and standard deviation) of the accepted distribution function, the probabilitn of a rainfall depth can be easily determined on the graph which is made on this paper.

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The Effect of Cutting Frequencies on Botanical Composition in Permanent Grassland (예취빈도가 영년초지의 식생구성에 미치는 영향)

  • 조익환
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to study the effect of cutting frequencies(2, 3: one time grazed after 2 cuts, 3, 4, 6 cuts per year) and nitrogen fertilization(0 and 120 kg per ha and year) on botanical composition of permanent grassland at the "Federal Research Institute for Agriculture in Alpine Regions(Gumpenstein)," Austria The results are summarized as follows: 1. With only fertilizing phosphorus(P) and potassium(K),mean annual dry matter yields were 6.9 - 8.4 ton per ha and highest when only one time grazed after 2 cuts, but fell progressively with increase in cutting frequency and additonal fertilization of nitrogen. The average nitrogen efficiences expensed as dry matter yieldsfig) per feltilized nitrogenfig per ha) were 10.3 kg. 2. When N fertilizer was applied, the proportion of tall and medium grasses in the mixed swards increased by 30 - 50% compared with only fertilizing PK. Whereas swards with fertilizing only PK generally stimulated composition of the legumes at the expense of the grasses(30 - 50%). 3. Although the proportion of tall and medium grasses(Trisetum flavescens and Dachlis glomerara) and tall herbs(hntodon hispidus, Taraxacum oflcinale and Aegopodium podagraria) increased by infrequent cutting, frequently cutting plots helped increase the proportion of short grasses(Poa pratensis and Poa trivialis), especially where plots both had been applied with nitrogen fertilizer. 4. Nitrogen fertilization resulted in higher existence of herbs and weeds such as Taramcum oficinale. Aegopodium podagraria, Galium mllugo, Anthriscus silvestris and Lamium album. 5. Due to unusually high or low cutting frequencies such as 4 cuts or 2 cuts per year increased botanical compostion of Heracleum sphondylium.hondylium.

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A systematic review of the complications of single implant-supported restorations (단일 임플란트지지 보철물의 후유증에 관한 체계적 연구)

  • Chang, Moon-Taek
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.925-938
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the complications of single implant-supported restorations followed more than 5-year. Thirty-five studies were selected for the systematic review. A total of 3932 single implants were included at the beginning of studies. Thirty-one implants were removed before loading and 91 implants after loading. The overall implant loss rate was 3.1 %. Implant losses were concentrated on the period between loading and 2-year follow-up, and, after a stable period, increased after 5-year follow-up. The mean marginal bone loss at single-tooth implants was well within 0.2 mm/year, i.e., acceptable annual bone loss by the implant success criteria. However, considerable amounts of single implants suffered a marginal bone loss at implant more than 0.2 mm/year. Fistula was a frequent biological complication in the early studies. The most frequent technical problem was a screw loosening, but its frequency was reduced after the use of a gold screw and torque controller. Within the limits of this study, the complications of single implants might be underestimated due to the lack of information about the biological and technical complications available in the relevant literature.

Quantifying L2ers' phraseological competence and text quality in L2 English writing (L2 영어 학습자들의 연어 사용 능숙도와 텍스트 질 사이의 수치화)

  • Kwon, Junhyeok;Kim, Jaejun;Kim, Yoolae;Park, Myung-Kwan;Song, Sanghoun
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.281-284
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    • 2017
  • On the basis of studies that show multi-word combinations, that is the field of phraseology, this study aims to examine relationship between the quality of text and phraseological competence in L2 English writing, following Yves Bestegen et al. (2014). Using two different association scores, t-score and Mutual Information(MI), which are opposite ways of measuring phraseological competence, in terms of scoring frequency and infrequency, bigrams from L2 writers' text scored based on a reference corpus, GloWbE (Corpus of Global Web based English). On a cross-sectional approach, we propose that the quality of the essays and the mean MI score of the bigram extracted from YELC, Yonsei English Learner Corpus, correlated to each other. The negative scores of bigrams are also correlated with the quality of the essays in the way that these bigrams are absent from the reference corpus, that is mostly ungrammatical. It indicates that increase in the proportion of the negative scored bigrams debases the quality of essays. The conclusion shows the quality of the essays scored by MI and t-score on cross-sectional approach, and application to teaching method and assessment for second language writing proficiency.

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Measurement and Interpretation of Time Variations of Particulate Matter Observed in the Busan Coastal Area in Korea

  • Kim, Cheol-Hee;Son, Hye-Young
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2011
  • In order to investigate the effects of local and synoptic meteorological conditions on urban scale particulate air pollutants observed over the Busan coastal area, power spectrum analysis was applied to observed particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter $\leq10\;{\mu}m$ ($PM_{10}$) for the period from 1 October, 1993 to 31 December, 2004. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was used to obtain the hourly mean observed $PM_{10}$ concentrations to identify different periodicity scales of $PM_{10}$ concentrations. The results showed that, aside from the typical and well-known periodicities such as diurnal and annual variations caused by anthropogenic influences, three other significant power spectral density peaks were identified: 7-day, 21-day and 2.25-year periodicities. Cospectrum analysis indicated that the seven-day variations were closely related to the synoptic meteorological conditions such as weak wind speed, which are relevant to the stagnant high pressure system slowly passing through the Korean Peninsula. The intra-seasonal 21-day variation was negatively correlated with wind speed but was consistently positively correlated with relative humidity, which is related to aerosol formation that can be achieved as a result of the hygroscopic characteristics of aerosols. However, the quasibiennial 2.25-year variation was correlated with the frequency of Asian dust occurrence, the periodicities of which have been recorded inter-annually over the Korean Peninsula.