• Title, Summary, Keyword: mean annual frequency

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Study on Characteristics of fine Particle (PM10) Concentration in Busan for Five Years (최근 5년간 부산지역의 미세먼지(PM10)농도 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il;Hwang, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.533-542
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    • 2007
  • The general characteristics of fine particle and meteorological analysis of high $PM_{10}$ concentration day which was over $100{\mu}g/m^3$ in busan were investigated for period of 2002 to 2006. Annual mean concentration including Asian dust day was $68.7{\mu}g/m^3$ in 2002, $54.6{\mu}g/m^3$ in 2003, $60.4{\mu}g/m^3$ in 2004, $58.3{\mu}g/m^3$ in 2005 and $58.8{\mu}g/m^3$ in 2006, respectively. Seasonal mean concentration was $73.4{\mu}g/m^3$ in Springtime, $56.8{\mu}g/m^3$ in Summertime, $55.5{\mu}g/m^3$ in Wintertime and $54.4{\mu}g/m^3$ in Falltime, respectively. Mean concentration for land use was 69.2 $37.0{\mu}g/m^3$ in industrial area, 64.2 $35.5{\mu}g/m^3$ in rural area, 62.6 $34.4{\mu}g/m^3$ in commercial area and 55.3 $33.8{\mu}g/m^3$ in residential area, respectively. Frequency of synoptic pattern for high $PM_{10}$ concentration day was 18 days(16.7%) in I type, 27 days(25.0%) in II type, 10 days(9.3%) in III type, 5 days(4.6%) in IV type, 13 days(12.0%) in V type and 29 days (26.9%) in VI type, respectively. Frequency of long range transport sector for high $PM_{10}$ concentration day was 9 days(8.3%) in I type, 64 days(59.5%) in II type, 34 days(31.5%) in III type, 1 days in IV type, 0 days, respectively.

The seismic reliability of two connected SMRF structures

  • Aval, Seyed Bahram Beheshti;Farrokhi, Amir;Fallah, Ahmad;Tsouvalas, Apostolos
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.151-164
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    • 2017
  • This article aims to investigate the possible retrofitting of a deficient building with soft story failure mode by connecting it to an adjacent building which is designed based on current code with friction dampers at all floors. Low cost and high performance reliability along with significant energy dissipation pertaining to stable hysteretic loops may be considered in order to choose the proper damper for connecting adjacent buildings. After connecting two neighbouring floors by friction dampers, the sliding forces of dampers at various stories are set in two arrangements: uniform sliding force and then variable sliding force. In order to account for the stochastic nature of the seismic events, incremental dynamic analyses are employed prior and after the installation of the friction dampers at the various floors. Based on these results, fragility curves and mean annual rate of exceedance of serviceability and ultimate limit states are obtained. The results of this study show that the collapse mode of the deficient building can affect the optimum arrangement of sliding forces of friction dampers at Collapse Prevention (CP) performance level. In particular, the Immediate Occupancy (IO) performance level is not tangible to the sliding force arrangement and it depends solely on sliding force value. Generally it can be claimed that this rehabilitation scheme can turn the challenge of pounding two adjacent buildings into the opportunity of dissipating a large amount of the seismic input energy by the friction dampers, thus improving significantly the poor seismic performance of the deficient structure.

Evaluation of Sustainable Yield for a Small Rural Watershed (농촌 소유역의 지하수 지속가능개발량 평가)

  • Park, Ki-Jung;Chung, Sang-Ok
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.581-587
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    • 2004
  • An experimental watershed was selected and sustainable yield was evaluated. The study area(3.89$\textrm{km}^2$) was located in Kyungpook Sangju Yangchon-dong. The visual MODFLOW was verified by comparing the observed and estimated groundwater table. The analysis of the observed and estimated groundwater table from 19 March 2003 to 18 March 2004 showed that the average error was 0.0009m, the error sum of squares 7.245$m^2$, absolute mean error 0.094 m, root mean square error 0.141m, and the model efficiency was 92%. The normal, 10- and 30- year drought frequency years were selected and sustainable yield was evaluated in these periods. Ratios of sustainable yield to the annual infiltration were 14.5% for the normal year(1992), 15.1% for the 10-year(1994), and 15.2% for the 30-year drought frequency year(1982). The results of this study can be used as a basic information for groundwater development and management planning considering regional characteristics.

Vulnerability Analyses of Wave Overtopping Inundation by Synthesized Typhoons with Sea-Level Rise (해수면 상승과 빈도 합성태풍이 고려된 월파범람 위험성 분석)

  • Kim, HyeonJeong;Suh, SeungWon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.253-264
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    • 2019
  • Storm surges caused by a typhoon occur during the summer season, when the sea-level is higher than the annual average due to steric effect. In this study, we analyzed the sea-level pressure and tidal data collected in 1 h intervals at Incheon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Seogwipo stations on the Yellow Sea coast to analyze the summer season storm surge and wave overtopping. According to our analyses, the summer mean sea-level rise on the west and south coasts is approximately 20 cm and 15 to 20 cm higher than the annual mean sea-level rise. Changes in sea-level rise are closely related to changes in seasonal sea-level pressure, within the range of 1.58 to 1.73 cm/hPa. These correlated mechanisms generates a phase difference of one month or more. The 18.6 year long period tidal constituents indicate that in 2090, the amplitude of the $M_2$ basin peaks on the southwest coast. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the target year for global warming and sea-level rise in 2090. Wave overtopping was simulated considering annual mean sea-level rise, summer sea level rise, the combined effect of nodal factor variation, and 100-year frequency storm surge. As a result, flooding by wave overtopping occurs in the area of Suyong Bay, Busan. In 2090, overtopping discharges are more than doubled than those in Marine City by the recent typhoon Chaba. Adequate coastal design is needed to prepare for flood vulnerability.

Structure and Dynamics of Taxus cuspidata Populations (주목(Taxus cuspidata) 개체군의 구조와 동태)

  • Chun, Young-Moon;Hong, Moon-Pyo;Lee, Na-Yeon;Seo, Eun-Kyoung;Lee, Seung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2012
  • This study analyzed on the characteristics of community structure, species composition, population conditions and annual mean radial growth of Taxus cuspidata in the subalpine zone of the Seoraksan, Deokyusan, and Hallasan National Parks. Deokyusan and Hallasan sites had three layers of stratification structure without tree layer in it and four layer in Seoraksan site. The major dominant species in the order of importance value were as follows: T. cuspidata, Acer tschonoskii var. rubripes, Quercus mongolica, Abies koreana and Sorbus commixta. The trees (> 5 cm DBH) of T. cuspidata were extremely high with 986.0 individuals/ha at the Hallasan site. Average DBH class were 42.0 cm at the Hallasan site and mainly showed large class. The populations of seedlings and saplings with 357.3 individuals/ha, and juvenile with 128.6 individuals/ha, as a succession tree, were found to be the highest at the Hallasan site. In the size frequency distribution, the populations of T. cuspidata in Mt. Halla site showed a reverse J-shaped curve and it was estimated that T. cuspidata community of this site might be maintained continuously as a stable state like present state. Annual mean radial growth of T. cuspidata populations at Seoraksan, Deokyusan, and Hallasan sites showed up as 1.27 mm/year, 0.93 mm/year and 0.89 mm/year respectively.

Relationship between Blood Mercury Level and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) 2008-2009

  • Kim, Young-Nam;Kim, Young A;Yang, Ae-Ri;Lee, Bog-Hieu
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.333-342
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    • 2014
  • Limited epidemiologic data is available regarding the cardiovascular effects of mercury exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury exposure from fish consumption and cardiovascular disease in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV 2008~2009). Survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) adjusted for fish consumption frequency, age, education, individual annual income, household annual income, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), alcohol consumption status, and smoking status. The mean blood mercury level in the population was $5.44{\mu}g/L$. Trends toward increased blood mercury levels were seen for increased education level (P=0.0011), BMI (P<0.0001), WC (P<0.0001), and fish (i.e., anchovy) consumption frequency (P=0.0007). The unadjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.450 [95% confidential interval (CI): 1.106~1.901] times higher than that of the lowest quartile. The fish consumption-adjusted OR for hypertension in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.550 (95% CI: 1.131~2.123) times higher than that of the lowest quartile, and the OR for myocardial infarction or angina in the highest blood mercury quartile was 3.334 (95% CI: 1.338~8.308) times higher than that of the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between blood mercury levels and stroke. These findings suggest that mercury in the blood may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction or angina in the general Korean population.

Estimation of Design Rainfalls Considering BCM2 Simulation Results (BCM2 모의 결과를 반영한 목표연도 확률강우량 산정)

  • Lee, Chang Hwan;Kim, Tae-Woong;Kyoung, Minsoo;Kim, Hung Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3B
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2010
  • Climatic disasters are globally soaring due to recent acceleration of global warming. Especially the occurrence frequency of heavy rainfalls is increasing since the rainfall intensity is increasing due to the change of rainfall pattern, This study proposed the non-stationary frequency analysis for estimating design rainfalls in a design target year, considering the change of rainfall pattern through the climatic change scenario. The annual rainfalls, which are regionally downscaled from the BCM2 (A2 scenario) and NCEP data using a K-NN method, were used to estimate the parameters of a probability distribution in a design target year, based on the relationship between annual mean rainfalls and distribution parameters. A Gumbel distribution with a probability weighted method was used in this study. Seoul rainfall data, which are the longest observations in Korea, were used to verified the proposed method. Then, rainfall data at 7 stations, which have statistical trends in observations in 2006, were used to estimate the design rainfalls in 2020. The results indicated that the regional annual rainfalls, which were estimated through the climate change scenario, significantly affect on the design rainfalls in future.

Assessment of the Meteorological Characteristics and Statistical Drought Frequency for the Extreme 2017 Spring Drought Event Across South Korea (2017년 극심한 봄 가뭄의 기상학적 특성 및 통계학적 가뭄빈도해석)

  • Bang, Na-Kyoung;Nam, Won-Ho;Hong, Eun-Mi;Michael, J. Hayes;Mark, D. Svoboda
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2018
  • The extreme 2017 spring drought affected a large portion of central and western South Korea, and was one of the most climatologically driest spring seasons over the 1961-2016 period of record. This drought was characterized by exceptionally low precipitation, with total precipitation from January to June being 50% lower than the mean normal precipitation (1981-2010) over most of western South Korea. In this study, for the quantitative drought impact analysis, the widely-used Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the statistical drought frequency are compared with observed meteorological characteristics and anomalies. According to the drought frequency analysis of monthly cumulative precipitation during January and May in 2017, Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheong-do, and Jeollanam-do areas showed more than drought frequency over 100 years. Gyeongsangnam-do area showed more than drought frequency over 200 years based on annual precipitation in 2017. The South Korean government (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) and Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC)) have been operating a government-level drought monitoring system since 2016. Results from this study can be used to improve the drought monitoring applications of future drought events, as well as drought planning and preparedness in South Korea.

The Changes in Transportation Expenditure Patterns of Urban Households During 1985-1998 (도시가계의 교통비 지출 변화 : 1985-1998)

  • 전윤숙;이희숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.139-154
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in transportation expenditure patterns of urban households during 1985-19o8. The data were drawn from 'Annual Report on the family Income and Expenditure Survey' by National Statistical Office, Republic of Korea. For data analysis, frequency, percentile, mean, and multiple regression analysis were utilized by the SAS window program. The results of this study were as follows; Frist, the levels of public transportation expenditure showed increasing trend, whereas the portions of public transportation expenditure have showed decreasing trend during 1985-1998. And both the level and the portion of private transportation expenditure showed increasing trends during 1985-1998. Second, the marginal propensities to consume of public transportation have decreased, whereas the marginal propensities to consume of private transportation have increased during 1985-1998. Third, income elasticities of public transportation showed decreasing trend during 1985-1998, impling that consumers have less demand public transportation with increasing income. And income elasticities of private transportation showed increasing trend till 1993, and then showed decreasing trend till 1998, impling that consumers have perceived the car as one of necessary goods rather than luxury goods gradually since 1993.

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Flood Frequency Analysis using L, L1 and L2-Moment Methods (L, L1 및 L2-모멘트법에 의한 홍수빈도분석)

  • Lee, Soon-Hyuk;Maeng, Sung-Jin;Ryoo, Kyong-Sik;Jee, Ho-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.310-313
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to derive optimal design floods by Gumbel, GEV, GLO and GPA distributions for the annual maximum series at sixteen watersheds. Adequacy for the analysis of flood data used in This study was established by the tests of Independence, Homogeneity, detection of Outliers. Parameters were estimated by the Methods of L, L1 and L2-moments. Design floods obtained by Methods of L, L1 and L2-moments using Gringorten methods for plotting positions in GEV distribution were compared by the Relative Mean Errors and Relative Absolute Errors.

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