• 제목, 요약, 키워드: mean annual frequency

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고차확률가중모멘트법에 의한 지역화빈도분석과 GIS기법에 의한 설계강우량 추정(I) -동질성의 지역구분 방법을 중심으로- (Estimation of Design Rainfall by the Regional Frequency Analysis using Higher Probability Weighted Moments and GIS Techniques(I))

  • 이순혁;박종화;류경식;지호근;전택기;신용희
    • 한국농공학회지
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2001
  • It is matter of common knowledge to give impetus to the water resources development to cope with increasing demand and supply for the water utilization project including agricultural living and industrial water owing to the economic and civilization development in recent years. Regional design rainfall is necessary or the design of the dam reservoir levee and drainage facilities for the development of various kinds of essential waters including agricultural water. For the estimation of the regional design rainfall classification of the climatologically an geographically homogeneous regions should be preceded preferentially This study was mainly conducted to derive the optimal regionalization of the precipitation data which can be classified by the climatologically and geographically homogeneous regions all over the regions except Cheju and Wulreung islands in Korea. A total of 65 rain gauges were used to regional analysis of precipitation. Annual maximum series for the consecutive durations of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72hr were used for various statistical analysis. Both K-means clustering and mean annual precipitation methods are used to identify homogeneous regions all over the regions. Nine and five homogeneous regions for the precipitation were classified by the K-means clustering and mean annual methods, respectively. Finally, Five homogeneous regions were established by the trial and error method with homogeneity test using statistics of $\chi$$^2$ distribution.

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지구온난화에 따른 홍수 및 가뭄 발생빈도의 변화와 관련하여 : 1. 연/월강수량의 변화에 따른 일강수량 분포의 변화분석 (On the Change of Flood and Drought Occurrence Frequency due to Global Warming : 1. Change of Daily Rainfall Depth Distribution due to Different Monthly/Yearly Rainfall Depth)

  • 윤용남;유천상;이재수;안재현
    • 한국수자원학회논문집
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.617-625
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    • 1999
  • 지구 온난화는 산업혁명이후 이미 시작되었으며 최근에 와서 그 정도가 심해지고 있다. CO2와 같은 온실기체의 증가를 가장 큰 원인으로 하는 지구 온난화의 영향이 아직 정량적으로 밝혀지고 있지만 대기순환모형(General Circulation Model: GCM)을 이용한 연구에서 이러한 온실기체의 증가가 지구의 평균온도를 상승시킨다고 밝히고 있다. 지구 온난화는 전지구적 물의 순환에도 영향을 미쳐 지구 곳곳의 강수패턴에 변화를 가져오는데 근래에 자주 발생하는 대규모 가뭄이나 홍수화 같은 극치기상이 이러한 지구온난화의 간접증거로 자주 언급되곤 한다. 국내의 경우도 예외는 아니어서 근래에 들어 빈번한 홍수 및 가뭄을 경험하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 지구온난화에 따른 홍수 및 가뭄의 빈도변화 분석을 목적으로 한다. 이러한 연구목적을 달성하기 위해 먼저 현재상태가 지구온난화 과정의 한 시점이라는 가정 아래 현재까지 관측된 일강수량 자료를 분석하여 과거 연강수량의 증가가 일강수량의 분포에 어떤 식으로 영향을 미치고 있는지를 분석하여 보았다. 대상자료는 금강유역의 17개 지점을 선정하여 이용하였고, 분석결과로서 연강수량과 무강수일수는 상대적으로 작은 상관을 보이고 있음을 밝힐 수 있었으며 오히려 10mm이하 또는 50mm이상의 강수일수에 0.8-0.9의 높은 상관을 보임을 파악할 수 있었다.

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신갈나무 숲의 林木密度, 落葉量, 植物量 및 1次 純生産量의 經年 變化 (Secular chang of density, litterfall, phytomass and primary productivity in mongolian oak(quercus mongolica)forest)

  • Kwak, Toung-Se;Kim, Joon-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.19-33
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    • 1992
  • The density, litterfall, phytomass, and primary productivity for 7 years in quercus mongolian forest locasted at mt. nambyengsan, pyeongchang-gun, gangwon provance in central part of korean peninsula were estimated quantitatively. at the first year in 1984, a stand had 1, 450 trees/ha in tree density, which was 0.67 of skewness and 0.54 of kurtosis in frequency distribution, however, at the 7th year in 1990, the stand had 1, 133 trees/ha in the density with 22%(or 316 tree/ha)in mortality, which was 1.16 of skewness and 1.89 of kurtosis in the frequency. annual mean litterfall was 5 ton DM/ha, which was composed of 68% of leaves, 17% of branches, 3% of bud scales, 9% of arcons and cups, 0.7% of flowers and others. the phytomass of tree layer for 7 years was gradually increased from 149.7 ton DM/ha at the first year to 188.5 ton DM/ha at the 7th year.annual net productivity for the tree layer studied ranged from 8.76 ton DM/ha.yr-1 to 11.62 ton DM/ha. yr-1 with heavy fluctuation year by year. average annual productivity of the stand of trunk, branches, leaves and roots for 7 years were 4.42, 0.67, 3.85 and 1.29 ton DM/ha.yr-1, respectively. turnover rate of the stand was 6.9% at the first year and 5.6% at the 7th year. such fluctuation of the productivity was caused by the chang of density, mortality, mortality and turnover rate.

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연최대치 계열과 연최대치 독립 호우사상 계열의 비교 (Comparison of Annual Maximum Rainfall Series and Annual Maximum Independent Rainfall Event Series)

  • 유철상;박철순
    • 한국수자원학회논문집
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.431-444
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    • 2012
  • 본 연구에서는 강우 지속기간이 짧은 경우와 긴 경우에 대한 연최대치 계열과 연최대치 독립 호우사상 계열의 차이를 살펴보았다. 연최대치 독립호우사상은 1961년부터 2010년까지의 서울지점 시강우 자료에 다양한 IETD와 절단값을 적용하여 추출하였다. 결정된 연최대치 독립호우사상 계열은 기존의 연최대치 계열과 비교하였다. 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, IETD와 절단값의 영향은 예상할 수 있는 수준을 벗어나지 않았다. 예를 들어, IETD의 증가에 따라 짧은 지속기간 및 긴 지속기간을 갖는 독립 호우사상의 발생 빈도는 유사한 감소비율을 갖으나, 절단값의 증가에 따라서는 특히 지속기간이 긴 호우사상의 발생빈도가 급격히 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 추출된 독립 호우사상의 평균 강우강도는 강우 지속기간에 관계없이 거의 일정한 것으로 나타났다. 이는 연 최대치 강우강도가 주로 지속기간이 긴 호우사상에서 결정될 가능성이 크다는 것을 의미한다. 마지막으로, 강우지속기간이 짧은 경우, 연 최대치 계열과 연 최대치 독립 호우사상 계열의 차이가 매우 큰 것으로 확인되었다. 그러나 이러한 차이는 강우 지속기간이 증가함에 따라 현저히 줄어들었다. 이러한 결과는 특히 매우 짧은 집중시간을 고려하는 작은 유역의 경우, 전통적인 자료 분석방법을 통해 결정된 설계강우가 실제 발생 가능성이 없는 비현실적인 경우가 될 가능성이 매우 큼을 의미한다.

부산지역 기단성 뇌우 발생일의 대기안정도지수 특성 (Characteristics of Atmospheric Stability Index of Airmass thunderstorm day at Busan)

  • 전병일
    • 한국습지학회지
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to research the relation between airmass thunderstorm and stability index with 12 years meteorological data(1990~2001) at Busan. Also We used the analysed stability indices from University of Wyoming to consider airmass thunderstorm. The frequency of thunderstorm occurrence during 12 years was 156 days(annual mean 13days). The airmass thunderstorm frequency was 14 days, most of those occurrence were summertime(59%). And occurrence hour of airmass thunderstorm was distributed from 1300LST to 2100LST broadly. The highest forecast index for airmass thunderstorm at Busan was K index, the lowest forecast index was SWEAT index. The forecasting of thunderstorms is based primary on the concepts of conditional instability, convective instability, and forced lifting of air near the surface. Instability is a critical factor in severe weather development. Severe weather stability indices can be a useful tool when applied correctly to a given convective weather situation.

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태풍에 의한 우리나라의 기상재해에 관한 통계적 연구 (A Statistical Study on the Meterorological Disasters in Korea caused by the Typhoons)

  • 설동일;민병언
    • 한국항해학회지
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study is to provide against to the meteorological disasters in Korea caused by the typhoons by means of the statistical analyses for the relation between the intensities of the typhoons and the meteorological disasters. The data are extracted from the "TYPHOON REPORT OF KOREA" and the "TYPHOON WHITE BOOK" issued by the Central Meteorological Office. The results are summarized as follows : (1) The annual mean frequency and the total number of the typhoon causing the disasters during 30 years (1956∼1985) are 2.2, 65 respectively, and the highest number appears in August followed by September and the third is July. And the degrees of themeteorolgocal disasters are alsio the same order. (2) The more serious disasters occurred by the TS degree typhoons, and the TS degree typhoons occupy the highest frequency. (3) The more serious disasters occurred by the TS degree typhoons, and the TS degree typhoons occupy the highest frequency. (3) The meteorological disaster per typhoon is most severe in August, and the July and September are alike in the degree of the disasters per typhoon. (4) The meteorological disasters are approximately a proportional relation to the intensities of the typhoons. (5) The frequency of the Rain typhoon , Wind typhoon and Rain·Wind typhoon are about 2 : 1: 3 in July, August and September respectively. And the severe disasters occur more frequently by the Rain typhoon than by the Wind typhoon.

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L-모멘트법에 의한 강우의 지역빈도분석 (Regional Frequency Analysis for Rainfall using L-Moment)

  • 고덕구;추태호;맹승진;찬다트리베디
    • 한국콘텐츠학회논문지
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.252-263
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구에서는 L-모멘트법에 의한 지역화 빈도분석에 따른 설계강우량 추정에 관한 연구를 수행하였다. 제주도와 울릉도의 강우관측소를 제외한 분석에 사용된 65개 강우관측소의 강우자료 수집과 선정된 강우관측지점의 강우자료의 지속시간, 즉 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 및 72시간 지속의 연최대치 계열을 구성하였다. 관측지점을 대상으로 Cluster분석을 실시한 결과 우리나라의 강우관측지점에 대한 합리적인 지역화로 5개의 지역으로 구분되었다. 지역화된 지역에 대한 지속기간별 극치강우자료의 적정분포모형 결정을 위한 6가지 분포모형의 적용하고 적용분포의 L-모멘트비를 산정하여 L-모멘트비도를 도시하고 K-S 검정에 의한 적정분포모형을 선정하였다. 선정된 적정분포는 GEV 분포이며 이 분포에 의해 강우관측치의 점빈도 및 지역빈도분석에 의한 설계강우량을 유도하였다. Monte Carlo 기법에 의해 모의발생된 강우량의 점빈도 및 지역빈도분석에 의한 설계강우량을 유도하였다. 실측치 및 모의발생치의 점빈도 및 지역빈도분석에 의한 설계강우량의 비교분석을 위해 상대제곱근오차와 상대편의오차에 의해 분석한 결과 점빈도 분석에 의한 설계강우량보다 지역빈도분석에 의한 설계강우량의 사용이 적정한 것으로 나타났다.

Buffeting response of a free-standing bridge pylon in a trumpet-shaped mountain pass

  • Li, Jiawu;Shen, Zhengfeng;Xing, Song;Gao, Guangzhong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2020
  • The accurate estimation of the buffeting response of a bridge pylon is related to the quality of the bridge construction. To evaluate the influence of wind field characteristics on the buffeting response of a pylon in a trumpet-shaped mountain pass, this paper deduced a multimodal coupled buffeting frequency domain calculation method for a variable-section bridge tower under the twisted wind profile condition based on quasi-steady theory. Through the long-term measurement of the wind field of the trumpet-shaped mountain pass, the wind characteristics were studied systematically. The effects of the wind characteristics, wind yaw angles, mean wind speeds, and wind profiles on the buffeting response were discussed. The results show that the mean wind characteristics are affected by the terrain and that the wind profile is severely twisted. The optimal fit distribution of the monthly and annual maximum wind speeds is the log-logistic distribution, and the generalized extreme value I distribution may underestimate the return wind speed. The design wind characteristics will overestimate the buffeting response of the pylon. The buffeting response of the pylon is obviously affected by the wind yaw angle and mean wind speed. To accurately estimate the buffeting response of the pylon in an actual construction, it is necessary to consider the twisted effect of the wind profile.

Characterization of Task-weighted Agricultural Dust Exposure of Vineyard Workers

  • Lee, Ki-Young
    • 한국환경보건학회지
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.264-270
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    • 2010
  • Agricultural workers are often exposed to high levels of dust during field operations. A systematic exposure assessment of annual task-weighted exposure has not been thoroughly examined. The occupational dust exposure in two wine grape vineyards was measured. Exposure levels to total and respirable dust were determined for a 1-year cycle of work. An operation profile including the frequency of tasks was established. The means of total and respirable dust exposure were $1.08\;mg/m^3$ and $0.07\;mg/m^3$, respectively. Based on the exposure for each task and the task frequency, task-weighted mean exposures to total and respirable dust were estimated as $1.115\;mg/m^3$ and $0.079\;mg/m^3$, respectively. The task-weighted exposure was significantly represented by three operations and could be attributed to the exposure frequency rather than the exposure intensity of operations. The measurement of a few of the most frequent tasks may be an alternative method of estimating task-weighted exposure. Agricultural dust exposure can be significantly reduced by targeting those tasks most important to task-weighted dust exposure.

Application of artificial neural network model in regional frequency analysis: Comparison between quantile regression and parameter regression techniques.

  • Lee, Joohyung;Kim, Hanbeen;Kim, Taereem;Heo, Jun-Haeng
    • 한국수자원학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.170-170
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    • 2020
  • Due to the development of technologies, complex computation of huge data set is possible with a prevalent personal computer. Therefore, machine learning methods have been widely applied in the hydrologic field such as regression-based regional frequency analysis (RFA). The main purpose of this study is to compare two frameworks of RFA based on the artificial neural network (ANN) models: quantile regression technique (QRT-ANN) and parameter regression technique (PRT-ANN). As an output layer of the ANN model, the QRT-ANN predicts quantiles for various return periods whereas the PRT-ANN provides prediction of three parameters for the generalized extreme value distribution. Rainfall gauging sites where record length is more than 20 years were selected and their annual maximum rainfalls and various hydro-meteorological variables were used as an input layer of the ANN model. While employing the ANN model, 70% and 30% of gauging sites were used as training set and testing set, respectively. For each technique, ANN model structure such as number of hidden layers and nodes was determined by a leave-one-out validation with calculating root mean square error (RMSE). To assess the performances of two frameworks, RMSEs of quantile predicted by the QRT-ANN are compared to those of the PRT-ANN.

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