• Title, Summary, Keyword: mean annual frequency

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A Study of the Accidents of the Residents in a Rural Area (일개 보건진료소 사업 지역의 사고조사)

  • Kang, Pock-Soo;Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kim, Seok-Beom;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Lee, Ok-Keum
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.174-184
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    • 1991
  • To determine the incidence rate of accidents and its associated factors, a prospective survey was carried out in a rural area of a total of 1,360 residents for 1 year from January 1 to December 31, 1988 in Shin-am Ri, Jungdong Myun, Sangju Kun, Kyungpook Province. Data for accidents were collected by the community health practitioner who is working at Primary Health Post in Shin-am Ri. A total number of accident cases was 85 among 1,360 persons during one year study period, and annual incidence rate was 62.5 per 1,000 persons. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in the age group of 30-39 was 179.8. The incidence rate of accident in male was 86.5 which was about 2 times that in female. In male, the highest incidence rate was seen in 30-39 age group and in female, 60-69 age group. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in spring(29.4%) and summer(29.4%), and the lowest in fall(17.7%). The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in Friday(24.5%) by day of week, and between 9 a.m. to 12 a.m. by time zone. The most frequent use of medical facilities was Primary Health Post(51.8%) and the next was clinic(38.8%). Mean duration of treatment was 9.8 days. The accident occured in the room and kitchen(23.5%), in the yard and barn(23.5%), on the road(22.4%). and in the rice field and dry field(20.0%). The causes of accident were motor vehicle accident(20.0%), piercing or cutting(20.0%), collision or fighting(12.9%), and poisoning(11.8%) in order of frequency. The most common type of injury was open wound which was 43.5%. The most common tool of accident was farm machine which was 23.5%. The most common injuried part of body was extremity(55.3%).

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Analysis of the Characteristics of Precipitation Over South Korea in Terms of the Associated Synoptic Patterns: A 30 Years Climatology (1973~2002) (종관적 특징에 따른 남한 강수 특성 분석: 30년 (1973~2002) 기후 통계)

  • Rha Deuk-Kyun;Kwak Chong-Heum;Suh Myoung-Seok;Hong Yoon
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.732-743
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    • 2005
  • The characteristics of precipitation over South Korea from 1973 to 2002 were investigated. The synoptic patterns inducing precipitation are classified by 10 categories, according to the associated surface map analysis. The annual mean frequency of the total precipitation, its duration time and amount for 30 years are 179 times, 2.9 hours, and 7.1 mm, respectively. About $59\%$ of the total precipitation events were associated with a synoptic low. The dominant patterns are identified with respect to seasons: A synoptic mobile low pressure pattern is frequent in spring, fall, and winter, whereas low pressure embedded within the Changma and orography induced precipitation are dominant in summer and in winter. For the amount of precipitation, precipitation originated from tropical air associated with typhoon, tropical convergence, and Changma is more significant than that with other pressure patterns. The statistical elapse time reaching to 80 mm, which is the threshold amount of heavy rainfall watch at KMA, takes 12.9 hours after the onset of precipitation. The probability distribution function of the precipitation shows that the maximum probability for heavy rainfall is located at the south-coastal region of the Korean peninsula. It is also shown that the geographical distribution of the Korean peninsula plays an important role in occurrence of heavy rainfall. For example, heavy precipitation is frequently occurred at Youngdong area, when typhoon passes along the coastal region of the back borne mountains in the peninsula. The climatological classification of synoptic patterns associated with heavy rainfall over South Korea can be used to provide a guidance to operational forecast of heavy rainfall in KMA.

Freeze Risk Assessment for Three Major Peach Growing Areas under the Future Climate Projected by RCP8.5 Emission Scenario (신 기후변화시나리오 RCP 8.5에 근거한 복숭아 주산지 세 곳의 동해위험도 평가)

  • Kim, Soo-Ock;Kim, Dae-Jun;Kim, Jin-Hee;Yun, Jin-I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.124-131
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluate a possible change in freeze risk for 'Changhowon Hwangdo' peach buds in three major peach growing areas under the future climate projected by RCP8.5 emission scenario. Mean values of the monthly temperature data for the present decade (2000s) and the future decades (2020s, 2050s, 2080s) were extracted for farm lands in Icheon, Chungju, and Yeongcheon-Gyeongsan region at 1km resolution and 30 sets of daily temperature data were generated randomly by a stochastic process for each decade. The daily data were used to calculate a thermal time-based dormancy depth index which is closely related to the cold tolerance of peach buds. Combined with daily minimum temperature, dormancy depth can be used to estimate the potential risk of freezing damage on peach buds. When the freeze risk was calculated daily for the winter period (from 1 November to 15 March) in the present decade, Icheon and Chungju regions had high values across the whole period, but Yeongcheon-Gyeongsan regions had low values from mid-December to the end of January. In the future decades, the frequency of freezing damage would be reduced in all 3 regions and the reduction rate could be as high as 75 to 90% by 2080's. However, the severe class risk (over 80% damage) will not disappear in the future and most occurrences will be limited to December to early January according to the calculation. This phenomenon might be explained by shortened cold hardiness period caused by winter warming as well as sudden cold waves resulting from the higher inter-annual climate variability projected by the RCP8.5 scenario.

Effect of Transplanting Date on the Growth, Yield, and Occurrence of Viviparity in Floury Endosperm Rice Cultivars in the Chungbuk Province (충북지역 쌀가루용 벼 품종의 이앙시기가 생육, 수량 및 수발아 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chae-Young;Choi, Ye-Seul;Lee, Hee-Du;Jeong, Taek-Gu;Kim, Ik-Jei;Kim, Chung-Kon;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.4
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    • pp.284-293
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    • 2020
  • Rice consumption in Korea has been decreasing as the eating habits of the Korean people have diversified with rapid economic growth. Recently, floury endosperm rice cultivars were developed to boost rice consumption and replace wheat flour consumption with rice flour, which is vulnerable to viviparity under wet weather during the grain-filling stage because of its loosely packed starch granule structures. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to find a suitable rice transplanting date to produce high-quality rice flour by altering the heading ecology type and changing the cultivation time by region. We examined four floury endosperm rice cultivars (FERC) in the Cheongju (central plain area) and Boeun (mid-mountainous area) regions of Korea from 2017 to 2019. Of the FERCs, the mid-late maturing types (MMT) Seolgaeng (SG), Hangaru (HGR), and Shingil (SGL) exhibited high yield and yield components after transplanting May 30 in both regions; the early maturing type (EMT) Garumi 2 (GRM2) also exhibited high yield after transplanting June 20 in Cheongju. In addition, MMTs showed the same tendency as the characteristics shown in Cheongju when grown in the Boeun region, and EMT displayed high yield and yield components after transplanting June 10. The FERCs could easily present pre-harvest sprouting in the rainy season during the grain-filling stage after 20 days post-heading because the mean temperature and frequency of more three-day rainfalls have increased over the last 5 years from the previous annual averages. Viviparity of HGR and GRM2 decreased as the transplanting date was delayed, with decreases of 2.3%-4.6% in HGR and 11.9%-23.1% in GRM2 according to the region. SGL was generally resistant to viviparity because of the Tongil type. To minimize pre-harvest sprouting and produce high yield of rice flour in the Chungbuk province, the most suitable transplanting time was the end of May in MMT and the middle and end of June in EMT.

Short-Term Effect of Mineral Nitrogen Application on Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in Uncultivated Rice Paddy (유휴 논토양에서 Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) 에 대한 무기태 질소의 단기 시용 효과)

  • 이주삼;조익환;안종호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.95-106
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    • 1998
  • A study was made to estimate the economic level(Necon.) of mineral nitrogen and a cutting frequency for the dry matter production of reed canarygrass(Phalaris arundinacea L.) in uncultivated rice paddy during the harvested years in 1993~1995. Annual mineral nitrogen was applied at the levels of 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 3 cuttings, 0, 120, 240, 360 and 480 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 4 cuttings, and 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 5 cuttings, respectively. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The dry matter yields of all cutting frequencies in 1993 were significantly higher than in the other hay years. Mean dry matter yield were 14.40, 13.88 and 15.98 tons $ha^{-1}$ in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. 2. Significantly higher matter yields were obtained as 15.37 and 15.80 tons $ha^{-1}$ at the level of 120 kg $ha^{-1}\;cut^{-1}$ in 3 and 4 cuttings, and 14.02~14.08 tons $ha^{-1}$ levels of 90~120 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 5 cuttings, respectively. 3. Higher efficiencies of dry matter production in response to mineral nitrogen application were recorded as 29.7 kg at level of 90 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 3 cuttings, 19.6 kg at level of 240 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 4 cuttings, and 20.1 kg at level of 150 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 5 cuttings, respectively. 4. Significantly higher matter yields appeared as 5.02 tons $ha^{-1}$ at 2nd cut in 3 cuttings, 3.94~4.37 tons $ha^{-1}$ at 2nd and 3rd cut in 4 cuttings, and 3.81~3.58 tons $ha^{-1}$ at 2nd and 3rd cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. 5. The highest values of relative dry matter yield were 40.4% for 2nd cut in 3 cuttings, 34.9% for 3rd cut in 4 cuttings, and 31.5% for 2nd cut in 5 cuttings, respectively. 6. The estimated marginal dry matter yields(Ymar.) were 13.8~14.7 tons $ha^{-1}$ at ranges of economic N level of 228.5~291.9 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 3 cuttings, 13.8~14.2 tons $ha^{-1}$ at ranges of 293.5~335.7 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 4 cuttings, and 12.2~12.8 tons $ha^{-1}$ at ranges of 237.5~302.5 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 5 cuttings, respectively. 7. Maximun dry matter yields(Ymax.) were 17.0 tons at the level of limiting N(Nmax.) of 558.9 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 3 cuttings, 16.1 ton at level of limiting N of 531.4 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 4 cuttings, and 13.9 ton at level of limiting N of 546.3 kg $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ in 5 cuttings, respectively. 8. Economic N level in all cuts were in the ranges of 42.6~123.8 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 3 cuttings, 27.3~144.1 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 4 cuttings, and 9.3~159.4 kg $ha^{-1}$ in 5 cuttings, respectively. 9. The proper cutting frequency for matter production of reed canarygrass was 3 cuttings during the h harvested years in 1993~1995, due mainly to the higher efficiency of N for the dry matter production.

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Mineral Nutrition of the Field-Grown Rice Plant -[I] Recovery of Fertilizer Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Relation to Nutrient Uptake, Grain and Dry Matter Yield- (포장재배(圃場栽培) 수도(水稻)의 무기영양(無機營養) -[I] 삼요소이용률(三要素利用率)과 양분흡수량(養分吸收量), 수량(收量) 및 건물생산량(乾物生産量)과(乾物生産量)의 관계(關係)-)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 1973
  • Percentage recovery or fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by rice plant(Oriza sativa L.) were investigated at 8, 10, 12, 14 kg/10a of N, 6 kg of $P_2O_5$ and 8 kg of $K_2O$ application level in 1967 (51 places) and 1968 (32 places). Two types of nutrient contribution for the yield, that is, P type in which phosphorus firstly increases silicate uptake and secondly silicate increases nitrogen uptake, and K type in which potassium firstly increases P uptake and secondly P increases nitrogen uptake were postulated according to the following results from the correlation analyses (linear) between percentage recovery of fertilizer nutrient and grain or dry matter yields and nutrient uptake. 1. Percentage frequency of minus or zero recovery occurrence was 4% in nitrogen, 48% in phosphorus and 38% in potassium. The frequency distribution of percentage recovery appeared as a normal distribution curve with maximum at 30 to 40 recovery class in nitrogen, but appeared as a show distribution with maximum at below zero class in phosphorus and potassium. 2. Percentage recovery (including only above zero) was 33 in N (above 10kg/10a), 27 in P, 40 in K in 1967 and 40 in N, 20 in P, 46 in Kin 1968. Mean percentage recovery of two years including zero for zero or below zero was 33 in N, 13 in P and 27 in K. 3. Standard deviation of percentage recovery was greater than percentage recovery in P and K and annual variation of CV (coefficient of variation) was greatest in P. 4. The frequency of significant correlation between percentage recovery and grain or dry matter yield was highest in N and lowest in P. Percentage recovery of nitrogen at 10 kg level has significant correlation only with percentage recovery of P in 1967 and only with that of potassium in 1968. 5. The correlation between percentage recovery and dry matter yield of all treatments showed only significant in P in 1967, and only significant in K in 1968, Negative correlation coefficients between percentage recovery and grain or dry matter yield of no or minus fertilizer plots were shown only in K in 1967 and only in P in 1968 indicating that phosphorus fertilizer gave a distinct positive role in 1967 but somewhat' negative role in 1968 while potassium fertilizer worked positively in 1968 but somewhat negatively in 1967. 6. The correlation between percentage recovery of nutrient and grain yield showed similar tendency as with dry matter yield but lower coefficients. Thus the role of nutrients was more precisely expressed through dry matter yield. 7. Percentage recovery of N very frequently had significant correlation with nitrogen uptake of nitrogen applied plot, and significant negative correlation with nitrogen uptake of minus nitrogen plot, and less frequently had significant correlation with P, K and Si uptake of nitrogen applied plot. 8. Percentage recovery of P had significant correlation with Si uptake of all treatments and with N uptake of all treatments except minus phosphorus plot in 1967 indicating that phosphorus application firstly increases Si uptake and secondly silicate increases nitrogen uptake. Percentage recovery of P also frequently had significant correlation with P or K uptake of nitrogen applied plot. 9. Percentage recovery of K had significant correlation with P uptake of all treatments, N uptake of all treatments except minus phosphorus plot, and significant negative correlation with K uptake of minus K plot and with Si uptake of no fertilizer plot or the highest N applied plot in 1968, and negative correlation coefficient with P uptake of no fertilizer or minus nutrient plot in 1967. Percentage recovery of K had higher correlation coefficients with dry matter yield or grain yield than with K uptake. The above facts suggest that K application firstly increases P uptake and secondly phosphorus increases nitrogen uptake for dry matter yied. 10. Percentage recovery of N had significant higher correlation coefficient with grain yield or dry matter yield of minus K plot than with those of minus phosphorus plot, and had higher with those of fertilizer plot than with those of minus K plot. Similar tendency was observed between N uptake and percentage recovery of N among the above treatments. Percentage recovery of K had negative correlation coefficient with grain or-dry matter yield of no fertilizer plot or minus nutrient plot. These facts reveal that phosphorus increases nitrogen uptake and when phosphorus or nitrogen is insufficient potassium competatively inhibits nitrogen uptake. 11. Percentage recovery of N, Pand K had significant negative correlation with relative dry matter yield of minus phosphorus plot (yield of minus plot x 100/yield of complete plot; in 1967 and with relative grain yield of minus K plot in 1968. These results suggest that phosphorus affects tillering or vegetative phase more while potassium affects grain formation or Reproductive phase more, and that clearly show the annual difference of P and K fertilizer effect according to the weather. 12. The correlation between percentage recovery of fertilizer and the relative yield of minus nutrient plat or that of no fertilizer plot to that of minus nutrient plot indicated that nitrogen is the most effective factor for the production even in the minus P or K plot. 13. From the above facts it could be concluded that about 40 to 50 percen of paddy fields do rot require P or K fertilizer and even in the case of need the application amount should be greatly different according to field and weather of the year, especially in phosphorus.

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