• 제목, 요약, 키워드: mean annual frequency

검색결과 133건 처리시간 0.049초

지표홍수 빈도곡선의 개발에 의한 미 계측지점의 확률 홍수량 추정 (An Estimation of Flood Quantiles at Ungauged Locations by Index Flood Frequency Curves)

  • 윤용남;신창건;장수형
    • 한국수자원학회논문집
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2005
  • 본 연구에서는 지표홍수 빈도곡선을 개발하여 미계측 지점에서의 확률 홍수량을 추정해 보았다. 홍수빈도 분석은 한강유역의 9개 지점에 대하여 연최대치 홍수량 자료를 이용하여 분석하였다. 홍수빈도 곡선을 작성한 후 각 지점별 연평균홍수량( $Q_{2.33}$)을 결정하였고, 각 지점별 재현기간에 따른 연평균 홍수량에 대한 비를 산정 후 평균하였다. 그 결과 재현기간별로 다른 홍수량비가 산정되었다. 연평균 홍수량과 유역의 지형인자와의 상관 분석을 통해 다중선형 회귀식을 도출하였다. 미계측 지점의 확률 홍수량은 그 지점의 유역면적과 하상경사를 이용하여 경험식에 의해 연평균 홍수량을 산정 한 후 재현기간에 따른 홍수량비를 곱하여 산정 할 수 있다. 본 연구의 검증을 위하여 하천정비 기본계획에 수록되어 있는 재현기간별 확률홍수량과 비교한 결과 유역면적 2,000k $m^2$ 이하의 유역에서는 유사한 값을 모의 할 수 있었다. 기존 강우-유출 해석을 기반으로 한 설계 홍수량 추정 방법에의 적용은 재평가되어야 한다. 왜냐하면, 수문자료와 강우-유출모형은 많은 불확실성이 내포하고 있기 때문이다.

농업용 저수지에서의 농업용수 잠재능 평가 (Evaluation of Agricultural Water Supply Potential in Agricultural Reservoirs)

  • 김진수;이재용;이정범;송철민;박지성
    • 한국농공학회논문집
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2016
  • The new concept of agricultural water supply potential, which is mean annual turnover rate times unit storage capacity, was introduced for agricultural reservoirs. We investigated characteristics of mean annual turnover rate and unit storage capacity for agricultural reservoirs with storage capacity of over $1million\;m^3$. The curve of agricultural water supply potential represents change in mean annul turnover rate according to change in unit storage capacity. The mean annual turnover rate and unit storage capacity in the reservoirs with high minimum storage ratio are significantly higher than those in the reservoirs with low minimum storage ratio. Most of unstable water supply reservoirs showed low mean annual turnover rate or low unit storage capacity, indicating that mean annual turnover rate may be an index of stability degree for agricultural water use. The reservoirs with mean annual turnover rate of over 2 and unit storage capacity of over 0.8 m may be estimated as the stable water supply zone for 10 frequency dry year. The reservoirs with high agricultural water supply potential can belong to the wide range of stable water supply zone. The results suggest that relation between mean annual turnover rate and unit storage capacity may be used in evaluating stability degree for agricultural water supply in the reservoirs.

남한강 유역 댐 영향 지역의 기본홍수량 추론 (Inference of natural flood frequency for the region affected by dams in Nam Han River)

  • 김남원;이정은;이정우
    • 한국수자원학회논문집
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    • v.49 no.7
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    • pp.599-606
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    • 2016
  • 본 연구에서는 남한강 유역내 충주댐 직하류부터 양평 수위관측소 지점까지 댐의 영향을 받는 지역에 대해 저류함수모형을 이용하여 댐에 의해서 조절되지 않은 자연상태의 홍수량을 모의하고, 이를 근거로 홍수빈도분석을 실시하여 기본홍수량의 거동 특성을 분석하였다. 충주댐 하류부 6지점에 대한 지점빈도해석을 통해 산정한 재현기간에 따른 분위수의 변화는 지점별로 서로 유사하였고, 이의 평균적인 거동은 지역빈도분석 결과와 거의 일치하였다. 충주댐 하류지역 자연홍수량에 대해 계산된 분위수 및 빈도홍수량의 평균치는 충주댐 상류에서 기 도출된 결과와 유사한 특성을 나타내었다. 충주댐 하류지역의 분위수와 빈도홍수량의 평균치는 댐 유무에 따라 큰 차이를 나타내었으며, 특히 분위수는 재현기간이 커짐에 따라 더욱 큰 편차를 보였고, 통제된 경우 빈도홍수량의 평균치는 댐 하류로 갈수록 기본홍수량에 점차 근접해가는 형태를 나타내었다.

Probabilistic seismic evaluation of buckling restrained braced frames using DCFD and PSDA methods

  • Asgarian, Behrouz;Golsefidi, Edris Salehi;Shokrgozar, Hamed Rahman
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.105-123
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, using the probabilistic methods, the seismic demand of buckling restrained braced frames subjected to earthquake was evaluated. In this regards, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14-storybuildings with different buckling restrained brace configuration (including diagonal, split X, chevron V and Inverted V bracings) were designed. Because of the inherent uncertainties in the earthquake records, incremental dynamical analysis was used to evaluate seismic performance of the structures. Using the results of incremental dynamical analysis, the "capacity of a structure in terms of first mode spectral acceleration", "fragility curve" and "mean annual frequency of exceeding a limit state" was determined. "Mean annual frequency of exceeding a limit state" has been estimated for immediate occupancy (IO) and collapse prevention (CP) limit states using both Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA) and solution "based on displacement" in the Demand and Capacity Factor Design (DCFD) form. Based on analysis results, the inverted chevron (${\Lambda}$) buckling restrained braced frame has the largest capacity among the considered buckling restrained braces. Moreover, it has the best performance among the considered buckling restrained braces. Also, from fragility curves, it was observed that the fragility probability has increased with the height.

강수지표를 이용한 남·북한 강수특성 비교 (Comparison of Precipitation Characteristics using Rainfall Indicators Between North and South Korea)

  • 이보람;정은성;김태웅;권현한
    • 대한토목학회논문집
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.2223-2235
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    • 2013
  • 본 연구는 남 북한에서 시 공간적 강수특성 변화를 이해하고자, 남한 65개 기상청 관측소에서 1963년부터 2010년까지, 북한 27개 관측소에서 1973년부터 2010년까지 측정된 일 강수량 자료를 분석했다. 총량(Amount), 극치(Extremes)와 빈도(Frequency)를 나타내는 지표들을 선정하였고, 각각의 지표를 RIA (Rainfall Index for Amount), RIE (Rainfall Index for Extremes), RIF (Rainfall Index for Frequency)로 정의하였다. 남 북한 행정구역별로 2000년까지 평균 지표 값과 2001년부터 2010년까지 최근 10년 평균 지표 값을 비교하였다. 과거에 비해 최근 10년간 남한은 연중 강우일수를 나타내는 NWD (Number of Wet Days)와, 200년 빈도 강수량을 나타내는 Freq200 (200-yr Frequency Rainfall)을 제외한 SDW (Annual mean daily rainfall over wet-days), TotalDR (Annual Total Rainfall Amount), Prcp50 (Annual number of wet days over 50 mm/day), Prcp80 (Annual number of wet days over 80 mm/day), CWD (Annual maximum number of consecutive wet-days), AMDR (Annual maximum daily rainfall), 그리고 R3day (Annual maximum 3-days rainfall total) 값들이 모두 증가한 양상을 보였지만 북한은 SDW와, 연총강우량 TotalDR을 제외하곤 모두 감소하였다. 또한 연평균 지표 값의 경향성을 확인하기 위해 통계적 방법인 Mann-Kendall 검정을 실시하였다. 과거 감소의 경향을 나타내던 각 관측지점이 최근에 이르러서는 경향성의 역전 되는 현상을 보인 곳이 나타났으며, 이는 평균값만을 바탕으로 강수사상 특성변화를 분석하는 방법의 한계점으로 볼 수 있다. 본 연구의 결과는 한반도 물 관리 기후변화에 대한 영향 분석과 대응 대책 마련에 활용될 수 있을 것이다.

경남지방의 월강수량의 변동율과 Anomaly Level의 출현특성 (The Characteristics of the Anomaly Level and Variability of the Monthly Precipitation in Kyeongnam, Korea)

  • 박종길;이부용
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.179-191
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    • 1993
  • This paper aims to know the characteristics of occurrence of the anomaly level and variability of the monthly precipitation in Kyeongnam, Korea. For this study, it was investigated 주e distribution of the annual and cont비y mean precipitation, the precipitation variability and its annual change, and the characteristics of occurrence of the anomaly level in Kyeongnam area the results were summarized as follows : 1) she mean of annual total precipitation averaged over Kyeongnam area is 1433.3mm. I'he spatial distribution of the annual total precipitation shows that in Kyeongnam area, the high rainfall area locates in the southwest area and south coast and the low rainfall area in an inland area. 2) Monthly mean precipitation in llyeongnam area was the highest in July(266.4mm) 각lowed by August(238.0mm), June(210.2mm) in descending order. In summer season, rainfall was concentrated and accounted for 49.9 percent of the annual total precipitation. Because convergence of the warm and humid southwest current which was influenced by Changma and typhoon took place well in this area. 3) The patterns of annual change of precipitaion variability can be divided into two types; One is a coast type and the other an inland type. The variability of precipitation generally appears low in spring and summer season and high in autumn and winter season. This is in accord with the large and small of precipitation. 4) The high frequency of anomaly level was N( Normal)-level and the next was LN( Low Informal) -level and 25(Extremely Subnormal)-level was not appeared in all stations. The occurrence frequency of N level was high in high rainfall area and distinguish성 in spring and summer season but the low rainfall area was not. hey Words : anomaly level, variability, precipitation, coast type, inland type.

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국내(國內) 패션기업(企業)의 사회지향적(社會指向的) 마케팅 실천(實踐)에 관한 연구(硏究) (A Study on the Practice of Social Marketing in Domestic Fashion Business)

  • 권미정;이계숙;박숙현
    • 패션비즈니스
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the practice d social marketing of fashion business in Korea. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher and consisted of items of 30 items of social marketing practice in fashion business. Responsers are administrators and merchandisers who work in fashion business. Data were analyged using SPSS by frequency, mean, standard deviation, $x^2$-test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test. The results of this study were as follows : 1. In decision-making method of social marketing, degrees of practice were shown comparatively high. And, three practice factors (consumerism, humanism, and environmentalism) showed indifference in six business characteristics (store type, staff number, annual budget, annual education method, education frequency, and the location). 2. In feedforward method of social marketing, degrees of practice were shown comparatively high. And, two practice factors (business strategy, and product strategy) showed indifference in seven business characteristics (date of establishment, store type, staff number, annual budget, education method, annual education frequency, and the location). 3. In administrative method of social marketing, degrees d practice were shown comparatively high. And, four practice factors (product development, price decision, distribution management, and advertisement and promotion) showed indifference in eight business characteristics (date d establishment, store type, staff number, annual budget, education method, annual education frequency, the location, and distribution structure). 4. In total system method of social marketing, degrees of practice were shown comparatively high. And, two practice factors (marketing planning, and self-audits system) showed indifference in six business characteristics (business size, store type, annual budget, education method, annual education frequency, and distribution structure). The present findings provide that social marketing of fashion business in korea has been practiced comparatively high.

우리나라의 최대하강수량 빈도계수 산정에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation Frequency Factor in Korea)

  • 노재식;이원환;이길춘
    • 물과 미래
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 1986
  • 본 연구는 수공구조물의 계획설계와 물관리 계획시 계획강우량의 결정기준이 되는 우리나라 전역의 최대하강수량 추정을 위한 최대하강수량 빈도계수 산정에 관한 내용이다. PMP 빈도계수 산정에 있어서는 연속기록년 20년의 자기우량기록지 보유지점을 대상으로 하였으며, 지속기간별(10분, 1,2,4,6,12,24시간) 연최대치 강우자료집단을 이용하여 연최대평균강우량에 따른 PMP 빈도계수를 결정할 수 있는 상관도를 작성하였다. 최대하강수량은 최대평균강우량과 빈도계수 및 지속기간 상관도상에서 얻어진 PMP 빈도계수와 통계치를 사용하여 통계학적 방법으로 산정하였으며, 포락선에 의해서 지점 최대하강수량과 지속기간 관계식을 유도하여 산정하였다. 산정된 지점 최대하강수량으로부터 전국에 대한 24시간 최대하강수량 분포도와 PMP·DAD 곡선을 작성하였다. ^ The purpose of this study is to estimate the PMP frequency factor for evaluation of the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) in Korea. The value of PMP is the criterion of the determination of design rainfall in Planning and designing hydraulic structures, and water resources management. To obtain the object, 12 key stations were selected in which have the automatic rain0recording paper of 20 years, and the annual maximum rainfall values were calculated for each 7 durations(10 min., 1,2,4,6,12,24 hr.). The statistics(mean, standard deviation)were estimated, and diagram which shows the relationship between mean annual maximum rainfall($$) and frequency factor for each durations were drawn. PMP was estimated by statistical method using the PMP frequency factor obtained from the diagram and statistics($$, Sn). The PMP-Duration Equation was derived from the envelope curve in order to obtain the PMP for an arbitrary duration. The isohyetal map of 24 hours PMP and PMP. DAD curve for the whole of Korea were drawn in accordance with the point PMP values.

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전국 확률강수량 산정을 위한 비정상성 빈도해석 기법의 적용 (Application of a Non-stationary Frequency Analysis Method for Estimating Probable Precipitation in Korea)

  • 김광섭;이기춘
    • 한국농공학회논문집
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.141-153
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we estimated probable precipitation amounts at the target year (2020, 2030, 2040) of 55 weather stations in Korea using the 24 hour annual maximum precipitation data from 1973 through 2009 which should be useful for management of agricultural reservoirs. Not only trend tests but also non-stationary tests were performed and non-stationary frequency analysis were conducted to all of 55 sites. Gumbel distribution was chosen and probability weighted moment method was used to estimate model parameters. The behavior of the mean of extreme precipitation data, scale parameter, and location parameter were analyzed. The probable precipitation amount at the target year was estimated by a non-stationary frequency analysis using the linear regression analysis for the mean of extreme precipitation data, scale parameter, and location parameter. Overall results demonstrated that the probable precipitation amounts using the non-stationary frequency analysis were overestimated. There were large increase of the probable precipitation amounts of middle part of Korea and decrease at several sites in Southern part. The non-stationary frequency analysis using a linear model should be applicable to relatively short projection periods.

부산지역의 도시열섬 구조 변화에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Change of the Urban Heat Island Structure in Busan Metropolitan Area, Korea)

  • 김현수;석현배;김유근
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.1807-1820
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    • 2014
  • The spatial and temporal changes of the annual mean urban heat island(UHI) intensity were investigated using near surface temperature data measured at 16 automatic weather systems(AWS) in Busan metropolitan area(BMA) during the 11-yr period, from 2000 to 2010. For nighttime, the annual mean UHI intensity at Dongnae(U1) in 2000 was weaker than it in 2010. However the change of the annual mean UHI intensity at Daeyeon(U2) during 11 years was different from it at U1. The annual frequency of the UHI intensity over $5^{\circ}C$ considerably increased at U2 and decreased at U1 during 11 years. The center of the UHI also spatially shifted southward with Daeyeon and Haeundae in BMA. It would be caused by the increase of urban area, population-density and transportation near U2 and by the decrease of them near U1. We found that the spatial and temporal differences of the UHI intensity have coincided with changes of land-use, population density and transportation in BMA.