• Title, Summary, Keyword: mean annual frequency

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Error Bounds Analysis of the Environmental Data in Lake Shihwa and Incheon Coastal Zone (시화호.인천연안 환경자료의 오차범위 분석)

  • Cho, Hong-Yeon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2008
  • The characteristic analysis of the estimated population parameters, i.e., standard deviation and error bound of coastal pollutant concentrations (hereafter PC, i.e., COD, TN, and TP concentrations), was carried out by using environmental data with different sampling frequency in Lake Shihwa and Incheon coastal zone. The results clearly show that standard deviation of the PC increases as its mean value increases. The error bounds of the annual mean values based on seasonally measured DO concentrations and PC data in Incheon coastal zone were estimated as ranges 2.26 mg/l, $0.68{\sim}0.86\;mg/l$, $0.62{\sim}0.80\;mg/l$, and $0.074{\sim}0.082\;mg/l$, respectively. In terms of annual mean of the DO concentration and PC in Lake Shihwa, the error bounds based on monthly measured data from 1997 to 2003 were also estimated as ranges 4.0 mg/l, 3.0 mg/l, $0.5{\sim}1.0\;mg/l$, and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. The error bound on the basis of real-time monitoring data is $7{\sim}13%$ only as compared to that of monthly measured data.

A Studay on the Rainfall and Drought Days in Kyupgpook Area (경북지방(慶北地方)의 강수(降水) 및 무강수(無降水) 현상(現象) 조사(調査) 분석(分析))

  • Suh, Seung Duk;Jeon, Kuk Jin
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.5
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    • pp.143-157
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    • 1987
  • In order to determine the design precipitation, the most probable daily precipitation and annual precipitation at every spot are calculated and iso - precipitation line are drawn. Probability of precipitation and drought phenomena of each gage station are analyzied by the method of frequency analysis from the statistical conceptions. The results summarized in this study are as the follows. 1. Annual mean precipitation in kyungpook area are 1044 mm, about 115 mm less than annual mean precipitation of Korea amounts to l1S9mm, and found to regionally unequal. 2. Monthly mean rainfall of July is 242.2mm, 23.2%, August 174.2mm, 16.7%, June 115mm, 11% and September 114.2mm, 10.9% and Rainfall depth of July-August are more than 40% of annual precipition. This shows notable summer rainy weather by typoon and low pressure storm and seasonal unbalance of water supply. 3. The relation among the maximum precipi.tation per day, per two continuous days and per three contnous days are caculated and the latter is found 31.0% increased rate of the first and the last 48.2% increased rate of first. 4. Probability precipitation in Kyungpook area are shown as 9.0%(5 year), 13.3%(10 year), 17.7%(20 year), 23.1%(50 year), 27.0%(100 year) and 31.1%(200 year) increased rate of each recurrence year compared with observed average annual precipitation. 5. From annual precipitation and maximum daily rainfall data probability of precipitation and precipitation isohyetal line are derived which shown as Table 11 and Fig. 8. 6. Drought days are divided 6 class and analysed results are shown on table 12. Average occurrence time of 10-14 continuous drought days are 2.3 time per year, 15-19 days are 0.9 time per year, 20-24 days are one per six years, 30-34 days are once per nine years and over than 35days are once per 25 years.

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Variation Characteristics of Annual Maximum Rainfall Series and Frequency-Based Rainfall in Korea (우리나라 연최대치 강우량 계열 및 확률강우량의 변화 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Hvung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.43-56
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    • 2002
  • About 12 rain gauge stations of Korea, annual maximum rainfall series of before and after 1980 whose durations are 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours respectively were composed and statistical characteristics of those time series were calculated and probability rainfall were estimated by L-moment frequency analysis method and compared each other in order to investigate the recent quantitative rainfall variations. And also, distribution curves of each statistical variations for each duration were constructed by using Kigging method to look into spacial rainfall variation aspects. As a result, We could confirm recent rainfall increase in the South Korea. And spatial increase pattern of standard deviation and frequency rainfall appeared analogously each other. 1n the cases of comparatively short rainfall duration, we could see relatively low increase or decrease tendency in Chungchong Province, Cholla-bukdo, Cholla-namdo eastern part, Kyongsang-namdo western part area. While, variations happened great1y in seaside district of east coast, southwest seashore, Inchon area etc. In the cases of longer durations relatively low increase was showed in southern seashore such as Yeosoo area and as distance recedes from this area, showed gradually augmented tendency. The aspect of mean looks similar tendency of above except that the variation rate of almost seaside district are big in the case of shorter durations. In addition, rainfall increases of short durations which became the center of hydrologist and meteorologist are unconfirmed in this study.

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Flood Frequency Analysis by Wakeby and Kappa Distributions Using L-Moments (Wakeby 및 Kappa 분포의 L-모멘트법에 의한 홍수빈도분석)

  • Maeng, Seung-Jin;Lee, Soon-Hyuk;Lee, Hyeon-Gyu;Ryu, Kyong-Sik;Song, Gi-Heon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study is to induce the design floods by the methodology of L-moment including test of homogeneity, independence and outlier of the data of annual maximum flood flows for 12 water level gaging stations of South Korea. To select appropriate distribution of the data for annual maximum flood flows, the distributions of Wakeby and Kappa are applied and the appropriateness is judged by Kolmogorov-smirnov (K-S) test. The parameters of selected Wakeby and Kappa distributions are calculated by the method of L-moment and the design floods are induced. Through the comparative analysis using the relative root mean square errors (RRMSE) and relative absolute errors (RAE) of design floods, the result shows that the design floods by Wakeby distribution are closer to the observed data than those obtained by the Kappa distribution.

Regional frequency analysis using spatial data extension method : II .Flood frequency inference for ungaged watersheds (공간확장자료를 이용한 지역빈도분석 : II. 미계측 유역의 홍수빈도 추론)

  • Kim, Nam Won;Lee, Jeong Eun;Lee, Jeongwoo;Jung, Yong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.451-458
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    • 2016
  • In order to infer regional flood frequency for ungauged watersheds, index flood method was applied for this study. To pursuit this given purpose, annual peak flood data for 22 watersheds located at the upstream of the Chungju Dam watershed were obtained from the spatial extension technique. The regionalization of mean annual flood was performed from extended flood data at 22 points. Based on the theory that flood discharge and watershed size follows the power law the regionalization generated the empirical relationship. These analyses were executed for the full size of the Chungju Dam watershed as one group and three different mid-size watersheds groups. From the results, the relationship between mean annual flood and watershed sizes follow the power law. We demonstrated that it is appropriate to use the relationship between specific flood discharges from the upper and lower watersheds in terms of estimating the floods for the ungaged watersheds. Therefore, not only the procedure of regional frequency analysis but also regionalizaion analaysis using finer discretization of the regions interest with respect to the regional frequency analyisis for the ungauged watersheds is important.

Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Potential in the Western Seas of Korea (한국 서해안의 해상풍력발전 부존량 평가)

  • Ko, Dong Hui;Jeong, Shin Taek;Kang, Keum Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.266-273
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, annual wind data in 2014 at six locations(Seosudo, Gadaeam, Sibidongpa, Galmaeyeo, Haesuseo, Jigwido) are collected and analyzed in order to review optimal candidate site for offshore wind farm in the Western Seas of Korea. Observed wind data is fitted to Rayleigh and Weibull distribution and annual energy production is estimated according to wind frequency. GWE-3kH(3 kW-class) and GWE-10KU (10 kW-class) turbine are selected as wind turbine. Also, power curve are used to calculate wind energy potential. As a result, annual mean wind speed at six locations(Seosudo, Gadaeam, Sibidongpa, Galmaeyeo, Haesuseo, Jigwido) were calculated about 4.60, 4.5, 5.00, 5.13, 5.51, 5.90 m/s, respectively. In addition, annual energy production were estimated at 10,622.752, 11,313.05, 13,509.41, 14,899.55, 17,106.13, 19,660.85 kWh. Generally, annual mean energy density were between poor and marginal class and capacity factor at Jigwido was calculated at 22.44%. Its value is higher than the others.

Comparative Analysis of Flood Frequency by L-moment in Weibull-3 and GEV Distributions (Weibull-3및 GEV 분포모형의 L-모멘트법에 의한 홍수빈도 비교분석)

  • 이순혁
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to derive optimal design floods by Gerneralized Extreme Value(GEV) and Weibull-3 distributions for the annual maximum series at ten watersheds along Han,Nagdong, Geum, Yeongsan and Seomjin reiver systems. Adequency for the analysis of flood data used in this study was established by the tests of Independence. Homogeneity , detection of Outlines, L-moments. Design flood sobtaine dby /methods of Moments and L-Moments using different methods for plotting positions in BEV and Weibull-3 distributions were compared by the Relative Mean Errors(RME) and Root MEan Square Errors(RMSE). The result wa found that design floods derived by the L-moments using the other formulas for plotting positions from the viewpoint of Relative Mean Errors and Root Mean Square Errors.

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A study on the stochastic generation of annual runoff (연유출량의 추계학적 모의발생에 관한 연구)

  • 이순혁;박명근;맹승진
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to get best fitting frequency distribution for the annual run- off and to simulate long series of annual flows by single-season first order Markov Model with comparison of statistical parameters which were derived from observed and synthetic flows at four watersheds in Seom Jin and Yeong San river systems. The results summarized through this study are as follows. 1. Hydrologic persistence of observed flows was acknowledged by the correlogram analysis. 2. A normal distribution of the annual runoff for the applied watersheds was confirmed as the best one among others by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. 3. Statistical parameters were calculated from synthetic flows simulated by normal dis- tribution. In was confirmed that mean and standard deviation of simulated flows are much closer to those of observed data than except coefficient of skewness. 4. Hydrologic persistence between observed flows and synthetic flows simulated was also confirmed by the correlogram analysis. 5. It is to be desired that generation technique of synthetic flow in this study would be compared with other simulation techniques for the objective time series.

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Estimation of Optimum Raate of Cattle Slurry Application for Forage Production Using Idled Rice Paddy I. The Effect of cattle slurry application on annual dry matter yield in reed canarygrass. (유휴 논토양에서 조사료 생산을 위한 적정 액상구비 시용수준의 추정 I. 액상구비의 시용이 Reed Canarygrass의 연 건물수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이주삼;조익환;김성규;안종호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 1994
  • This study was investigated for the purposes of securing forage resource using idled rice paddy recently increased in accordance to a current trend of farm products' liberalization and also of presevation of environment by using cattle sluny as liquid manure, which is seriously increasing these days. In this study, mean annual dry matter yield and its seasonal variation with reed canarygrass, and a optimum rate of cattle sluny application were investigated. The results are as follows: 1. According to the conditions of cutting frequencies(3, 4 and 5 cutting per year), mean annual dry matter yield was recorded from 8.9 tons to 10.9 tons per hectare and was the highest at 3 cutting frequency. 2. The use of cattle sluny with the levels of between 300 and 360 kg N per hectare showed a significantly higher mean annual dry matter yield than that of the control (non-fertilization). 3. The treatments with 3 and 4 cutting frequencies(90 kg Nhdyear, 120 kg Nhdyear) recorded higher dry matter yields than the control of the former level by 1.23 tons and 2.34 tons respectively and in the treatment of 5 cutting frequency, the second level with cattle sluny of 300 kg Nhdyear showed an increased dry matter yield of 2.11 tons compared to the former level(l50 kg Nhdyear). With regards to nitrogen efficiency, one kg of nitrogen is applied to 13.7, 19.4 and 14.1 kg of dry matter yields in the conditions of 3, 4 and 5 cutting frequencies respectively. 4. In view of seasonal variance of annual dry matter yield, the second cut in 3 cutting frequency, the third cut in 4 cutting frequency and the third in 5 cutting frequency showed the highest ratio as 42, 37 and 32% respectively compared to the total. 5. Under the conditions of this study, the 'Input-Output curve' from 5 cutting frequency was the closest to sigmaformed process(i=0.9993) of various cutting frequencies, and the maximum marginal yield in the treatment was obtained at the level of 250 kg Nha with cattle sluny. The economic level of cattle sluny was between 371.0 and 402.2 kg N and the highest dry matter yield was obtained at 489.3 kg Mdyear in the same treatment

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Eating Habits and Attitudes of Adults in the Rural Area by Socioeconomic Factors (농촌 주민의 사회경제적 수준에 따른 식생활 습관과 태도)

  • Choe Jeong Sook;Kang Hyun Joo
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the eating habits and attitudes by socioeconomic factors(sex, age, educational level and annual family income) of adults in rural areas. The survey was administered by the nationwide 580 adult persons in rural in February 2001. The survey was conducted by a questionnaire that was composed of 20 items of likert-type scale. These data were analyzed by using SPSS(version 10.0) PC package and were expressed by mean and frequency. The results are following : 1) The degree of efforts to eating safe and fresh food were significantly different according to age(p<0.05), educational level(p<0.001) and annual family income(p<0.001). 2) The degree of efforts to nutritional balanced diet were significantly different by age(p<0.05) and annual family income(p<0.00l). 3) The concern about overeating of energyㆍsaltㆍfat were increased as the educational level goes up(p<0.001). 4) Meal regularity was more regular as age goes up(p<0.05). 5) Regarding for eating a variety of food were differed significantly by age(p<0.05) and educational level(p<0.01). 6) There are significantly different in duration of meal time of the subjects by sex(p<0.001), age(p<0.05) and educational level(p<0.0l). 7) Preference for snacks was significantly different by age (p<0.05) and educational level(p<0.0l). 8) There were significant differences in preference for processed foods(p<0.001) and frequency of using a chemical seasoning in cooking(p<0.05) of the subjects by educational level. 9) As the age(p<0.001) goes up and the educational level(p<0.001) and annual family income(p<0.001) goes down, they did not recognize the necessity for improving eating habits. According to these results, there were differences in eating habits between socioeconomic characteristics group in rural area. Therefore, this study can be used as basic data for specific nutritional intervention program in rural areas.

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