• Title, Summary, Keyword: matrix stiffness method

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Real-Time Hybrid Testing Using a Fixed Iteration Implicit HHT Time Integration Method for a Reinforced Concrete Frame (고정반복법에 의한 암시적 HHT 시간적분법을 이용한 철근콘크리트 골조구조물의 실시간 하이브리드실험)

  • Kang, Dae-Hung;Kim, Sung-Il
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.11-24
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    • 2011
  • A real-time hybrid test of a 3 story-3 bay reinforced concrete frame which is divided into numerical and physical substructure models under uniaxial earthquake excitation was run using a fixed iteration implicit HHT time integration method. The first story inner non-ductile column was selected as the physical substructure model, and uniaxial earthquake excitation was applied to the numerical model until the specimen failed due to severe damage. A finite-element analysis program, Mercury, was newly developed and optimized for a real-time hybrid test. The drift ratio based on the top horizontal displacement of the physical substructure model was compared with the result of a numerical simulation by OpenSees and the result of a shaking table test. The experiment in this paper is one of the most complex real-time hybrid tests, and the description of the hardware, algorithm and models is presented in detail. If there is an improvement in the numerical model, the evaluation of the tangent stiffness matrix of the physical substructure model in the finite element analysis program and better software to reduce the computational time of the element state determination for the force-based beam-column element, then the comparison with the results of the real-time hybrid test and the shaking table test deserves to make a recommendation. In addition, for the goal of a "Numerical simulation of the complex structures under dynamic loading", the real time hybrid test has enough merit as an alternative to dynamic experiments of large and complex structures.

Free Vibration Analysis of Horizontally Curved I-Girder Bridges using the Finite Element Method (유한요소법을 이용한 수평곡선 I형교의 자유진동해석)

  • Yoon, Ki Yong;Kang, Young Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.47-61
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    • 1998
  • The behavior of horizontally curved I-girder bridges is complex because the flexural and torsional behavior of curved girders are coupled due to their initial curvature. Also, the behavior is affected by cross beams. To investigate the behavior of horizontally curved I-girder bridges, it is necessary to consider curved girders with cross beams. In order to perform free vibration analyses of horizontally curved I-girder bridges, a finite element formulation is presented here and a finite element analysis program is developed. The formulation that is presented here consists of curved and straight beam elements, including the warping degree of freedom. Based on the theory of thin-walled curved beams, the shape functions of the curved beam elements are derived from homogeneous solutions of the static equilibrium equations. Third-order hermits polynomials are used to form the shape functions of the straight beam elements. In the finite element analysis program, global stiffness and mass matrix are composed, based on the Cartesian coordinate system. The Gupta method is used to efficiently solve the eigenvalue problem. Comparing the results of several examples here with those of previous studies, the formulation presented is verified. The validity of the program developed is shown by comparing results with those analyzed by the shell element.

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A Study on Unstable Phenomenon of Space Truss Structures Considering Initial Imperfection (트러스형 공간구조물의 초기 불완전을 고려한 불안정 현상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin-Hyouk;Baik, Tai-Soon;Shon, Su-Deok;Kim, Seung-Deog;Kang, Moon-Myung
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2004
  • The structural space is gradually wide and is wanting agreeable environment by the requirement and necessity of people who lives modem stage. The building coincides with such requirements and is the high rise building actual circumstances which is doing ultra-large. The confirmed report of the technology to organize great merit is becoming currently considerably important issue in constructing a building field. Thus, this paper examine closely for nonlinear unstable taking a picture uneasiness height of prosperity considering to initial imperfection by a numerical method with a space frame structure of discrete system in large space structure. Based on previous investigation method, this paper induce nodal stiffness matrix of solid truss elements considering geometrical nonlinear using finite element method. In this paper, three types of space structure considered; i) 1-free node space structure, ii) 2-free node space structure, iii) multi-free node space structure. It apply the above examples to a nonlinear program, next, grasp the characteristic of an unstable conduct and the result was a clearing low.

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Ablative Mechanism of SiC Coated Carbon/carbon Composites with Ratio of Oxygen to Fuel at Combusion Test (연소시험에서 산소와 연료 비에 따른 탄화규소로 코팅된 탄소/ 탄소 복합재의 삭마 메커니즘)

  • Zhang, Eun-Hee;Kim, Zeong-Baek;Joo, Hyeok-Jong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2007
  • Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites as unique materials possess exceptional thermal resistance with light weight, high stiffness, and strength even at high temperature. However, one serious obstacle for application of the C/C composites is their poor oxidation resistance in high temperature oxidizing environments. SiC coating has been employed to protect the composites from oxidation. This study explored combustion characteristics of 4-directional (4D) carbon/carbon composites using liquid fuel rocket engine to investigate ablative motion of the materials. C/C composites were made of coal tar pitch as a matrix precursor, and heat-treated at $2300^{\circ}C$. Throughout repeated densification process, the density of the material reached $1.903g/cm^3$. After machining 4D C/C composites, the nozzle surface was coated by a SiC layer by pack-cementation method to improve oxidation resistance. Erosion characteristics of SiC-coated C/C composites were measured as function of the ratio of oxygen to fuel. The morphological change of the composites after combustion test was investigated using SEM and erosion mechanism also was discussed.