• Title, Summary, Keyword: matairesinol

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Biological Activity of Phenolic Compounds in Seeds and Leaves of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

  • Lee, Won-Jung;Cho, Sung-Hee;Lee, Jun-Young;Park, Sang-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.22-39
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    • 2003
  • Biological activity of phenolic compounds in seeds and leaves of safflower (Carthamu tinctorius L.) were evaluated using several in vitro and in vivo assays. Six phenolic constituents were isolated from the seeds and identified as N-feruloylserotonia, N- (p-coumaroyl)serotonin, matairesinol, 8′-hydroxyarctigenin, acacetin 7-O-$\beta$-D-glucoside (tilianine) and acacetin. Six phenolic compounds exhibited considerable antioxidative activity, and especially two serotonins showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity and antiperoxidative activity against rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical generated via a Fenton-type reaction. Additionally, six phenolic compounds possessed comparable cytotoxicity against three cancer cells, Hela cell, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell, and particularly acacetin and its glycosides had the most potent cytotoxicity. Moreover, we found that feeding safflower seeds attenuated bone loss, and lowered levels of plasma and liver lipids in ovariectomized rats. Serotonins, lignans and flavones stimulated proliferation of the osteoblast-like cells in a dose-dependent manner (10$^{-15}$ ~10$^{-6}$ M), as potently as E$_2$ (17$\beta$-estradiol). Particularly, serotonins were mainly responsible for bone-protecting and lipid lowering effects in ovariectomized rats. Meanwhile, eight flavonoids, including a novel quercetin-7-O-(6"-O-acetyl)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranoside and seven kown flavonoids, luteolin quercetin, luteolin 7-O-$\beta$-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-(6"-O-acetyl)-$\beta$-D-gluco-pyranoside, quercetin 7-O- -glucopyranoside, acacetin 7-O-$\beta$-D-glucuronide and apigenin-6-C-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-$\beta$-D-glucopyranoside were first isolated and identified from safflower leaf. Among these flavonoids, luteolin-acetyl-glucoside and $\beta$quercetin- acetyl-glucoside showed potent antioxidative activities against 2-deoxyribose degradation and lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. Luteolin, quercetin and their corresponding glycosides also exhibited strong antioxidative activity, while acacetin glucuronide and apigenin-6, 8-di-C-glucoside were relatively less active. Finally, changes in phenolic compositions were also determined by HPLC in the safflower seed and leaf during growth stages and roasting process to produce standardized supplement powerds. These results suggest that phenolic compounds in the roasted safflower seed and leaf may be useful as potential sources of therapeutic agents against several pathological disorders such as carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis.

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Chemical Comparison of Germinated- and Ungerminated-Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius) Seeds (홍화(Carthamus tinctorius L.)씨와 발아홍화씨의 화학성분 비교)

  • Kim, Eun-Ok;Lee, Ki-Teak;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.1162-1167
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    • 2008
  • This study was to investigate the chemical compositions of germinated (GSS)- and ungerminated (UGSS)-safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seeds. GSS had higher amount of sugar and crude fiber than UGSS, but less amounts of protein and lipid. Levels of $\alpha$-tocopherol and essential amino acids of GSS were higher than those of UGSS, although there are no difference in fatty acid composition between GSS and UGSS. Among the nine phenolic compounds detected, five phenolic compounds, except for two lignans and two flavonoids, were found in both GSS and UGSS. Four serotonin derivatives accounted for about 80 per cent of total phenolic compounds, and levels of five phenolic compounds decreased slightly with germination. These results suggest that germination may enhance the functionality of safflower seed by increasing nutritional compositions and by decreasing phenolic compounds with bitter taste and cathartic effects.