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A Study on Interpreting People's Enjoyment under Cherry Blossom in Modern Times (벚꽃을 통해 본 근대 행락문화의 해석)

  • Kim, Hai Gyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.124-136
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    • 2011
  • In landscape architecture, plants play an important role in realizing the intention of the architect and user- behavior as well as an ecology and appearance of the space for them. However, it is true that many researches have focused on ecological characteristics of plants, their cultivation environment and symbolic meanings in traditional terms, while relatively few for the analysis of the aspects of each period through plants. For this, cherry trees that we often see around are selected and their introduction, propagation, development and symbolism from the view of chronicle are studied and the results are followings; Firstly, three-year seedlings of 1,500 pieces of cherry tree from Osaka and Tokyo were planted for the first time in Oieseongdae, Namsan Park, Seoul. Since then, they had been widely planted at traditional sites, modern parks, newly-constructed roads for street trees, and for this, the Japanese Government-General of Chosun had actively supported by its direct cultivation and selling of cherry trees. The spread of cherry trees planted raised the question of whether or not Prunus yedoensis is originated from Jeju Island. Secondly, such massive and artificial planting of them had become attractions over the time and mass media at that time also had actively promoted it. And such trend made the day and night picnic under the cherry blossoms one of the most representative cultures of enjoying spring in Seoul. Thirdly, although general people enjoyed cherry blossoms, but they had dual view and attitude for cherry trees, which were well expressed in their use of them: for example, cherry blossoms, aeng and sakura were used altogether for same meaning, but night aeng or night picnic under cherry blossoms were especially used instead of yojakura when mentioning just pleasure, which meant some saw night enjoying cherry blossoms a low culture. Fourth, symbolic space of Chosun had been transformed into the space for enjoyment and consumption. Anyone who paid entrance fee could enjoy performance of revugirl, cinema and entertainment along with enjoying cherry blossoms. The still-existing strict differentiation of enjoyment culture by social status, class and ethnicity was dismantled from that trend and brought about a kind of disorder. From this, we could find that cherry blossoms had made a great contribution to the change of traditional enjoyment culture over the Japanese colonial period and become a popular spring enjoyment.

In Vitro Plant Regeneration for Mass Propagation of Epimedium koreanum Nakai (삼지구엽초의 다량번식을 위한 기내 식물체 분화)

  • Han, Young-Hee;Choi, Byoung-Ryourl;Soh, Ho-Seob;Lee, Seong-Jae;Choi, Young-Jin;Kim, Se-Young
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.834-838
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    • 2000
  • As an endeavor to establish a micropropagation system for Epimedium koreanum Nakai., this study was carried out to define methods to disinfect its explants and media for callus induction, proliferation and plant regeneration. The lowest infection rates by fungi or bacteria on apical and axillary bud explants of rhizome were observed when they were immerged in 0.3% NaOCl solution for 20 min after soaked in 0.1% $AgNO_3$ solution for 30 min, but leaf explants were seldom infected with fungi or bacteria by this disinfectant method. The highest rate of plantlet formation was obtained from the explants disinfected in 0.3% NaOCl solution for 20 min after soaked in 0.1% $AgNO_3$ solution for 60 min for tip buds and in 0.1 % $AgNO_3$ solution for 30 min for axillary buds of rhizome. Induction rate of callus was the highest from the explants disinfectd in 0.3% NaOCl solution for 20 min after soaked in 0.2% $AgNO_3$ solution for 15 min. Callus growth was proper in a modified 1/2 MS medium including half strength of $NH_4NO_3$ with $0.02-0.2mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ BA and $2.0mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ NAA. Low rate of plantlet regeneration was obtained in 1/2 UM or 1/2 White medium with $2.0mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ BA and $0.2mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ AA.

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Effect of Temperature, Light Condition, and Priming Treatement On the Germination of Aster glehhi FR. Seed (섬쑥부쟁이 발아에 미치는 온도, 광조건 및 Priming 처리의 효과)

  • Choi, Geum-Soon;Park, Kwon-Woo;Kang, Ho-Min
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the mass propagation system of Aster glehni FR. and to obtain the basic data for improvement of germination and seedling. The following was the results of experimentation about temperature and light conditions, and priming treatment as kinds of chemicals, their concentration and treated periods affect germination of Aster glehni FR. The germination percentage of Aster glehni FR. seed was higher in 20 and 25$^{\circ}C$ than the others, but it dropped rapidly at 30$^{\circ}C$ and didn't germinate at 35$^{\circ}C$. The first day to germination was the slowest at 15$^{\circ}C$. The germination rate of Aster glehni FR seed increased with increasing with temperatures from 15 to 25$^{\circ}C$. But the seed was rotten easily in high temperature. The germination rate was shown highest in 25$^{\circ}C$, and next was 15, 20, 30$^{\circ}C$ in order. Light treatment enhanced germination percentage, the first day to germination, germination rate and T50, but there was no significant difference. The 3 hours priming treatments had more effect on germination percentage than 30 minutes treatments as comparing averages. Aster glehni FR seeds primed in $KNO_3+K_3PO_4$ for 3 hours had most eHective on germination percentage (83.3%) and also showed shortest $T_{50{\cdot}}T_{50}$ and day of first germination was better in 30 minutes than 3 hours treatments, and most of priming treatments were better than control(non-priming seeds). While priming seeds showed shorter day of first gemination than control, there was no significant difference between 30 minutes and 3 hours treatments.

Studies on the Mass-Propagation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by In-vitro Culture. I. Effects of Phytohormons on the Callus Induction and the Organ Differentiation from Potato Meristem tip (기내배양에 의한 감자(Solanum tuberosum L.)의 대량번식(大量繁殖)에 관한 연구(硏究) I. 몇가지 생장조절물질(生長調節物質)이 생장점(生長點)으로부터의 Callus 및 기관분화(器官分化)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Choong Soo;Jo, Jae Seong;Choi, Chang Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1980
  • These experiments were carried out to define the effects of 2.4-D, NAA and Benzyladenine on the differentiation and growth of the organs and the induction of callus from the potato meristem. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. The differentiation and growth of the shoots from the potato meristem was promoted in increased concentration of Benzyladenine but the callus was not induced on the M.S. medium containing Benzyladenine. 2. On the M.S. medium containing NAA 0.5 mg/l or higher concentration of NAA, the shoots were not initiated but the callus were induced from potato meristem. The growth of callus was promoted in increased concentration of NAA. 3. The roots were initiated from 50% of potato meristems planted on the M.S. medium containing more than 0.1 mg/l of NAA but the roots were pot initiated on the medium containing 2.4-D. 4. The shoot growth was significantly increased by increasing of 2.4-D concentration up to 0.1 mg/l, but the shoots were not initiated on the medium containing 2.4-D more than 1.0 mg/l. 5. For the induction and growth of the callus from potato meristem, NAA was more effective than 2.4-D and the most effective medium was M.S. medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l of NAA. 6. The M.S. mediums supplemented with BA 2.0 mg/l and NAA 0.1 mg/l or BA 1.0 mg/l and 2.4-D 0.1 mg/l showed good results for entire plant regeneration from potato meristem.

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In vitro Multiplication of Hosta Tratt. Species Native to Korea by Shoot-tip Culture (경정배양에 의한 한국 자생 비비추속 식물의 기내증식)

  • Choi, Han;Yang, Jong Cheol;Ryu, Sun Hee;Yoon, Sae Mi;Kim, Sang Yong;Lee, Seung Youn
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to establish the in vitro propagation system by shoot tip culture of six Hosta species native to Korea (Hosta capitata (Koidz.) Nakai, H. clausa Nakai, H. jonesii M.G.Chung, H. minor (Baker) Nakai, H. venusta F.Maek., and H. yingeri S.B.Jones) for mass proliferation and a new cultivar development. The shoot tips of each Hosta species were cultured on MS medium containing eight combinations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/L BA with 0.1 mg/L NAA, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/L TDZ with 0.1 mg/L NAA, and without any PGRs (control). They were investigated on callus, somatic embryo, crown bud, differentiation and growth of shoot and root, total fresh weight after 8 weeks of culture. In all six Hosta species, callus and somatic embryo induction rate and multiple shooting rate of the PGRs treatment group were higher than that of the control group. The highest number of differentiated shoots were obtained on medium supplemented with 2.0 ㎎/L TDZ in H. capitata (5.4), 1.0 mg/L TDZ in H. clausa and H. jonesii (3.3 and 5.8, respectively), 0.5 mg/L BA in H. minor (11.1), 1.0 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L TDZ in H. venusta (8.1), and 0.5 mg/L TDZ in H. yingeri (9.8). In somatic embryo formation, the PGRs treatment group of H. jonesii and H. yingeri were more effective than the control group, and the effects were relatively less in H. capitata, H. clausa Nakai, H. minor, H. venusta. Crown bud formation of four Hosta species (H.capitata, H. clausa, H. jonesiig, and H. yingeri) were also higher in the PGRs treatment group than in the control group. Crown bud formation of four Hosta species (H.capitata, H. clausa, H. jonesiig, and H. yingeri) were also higher in the PGRs treatment group than in the control group. H. clausa showed no significant effect on callus and shoot differentiation regardless of the type and concentration of cytokinin, but slightly increased in formation of crown bud in TDZ.

Improvement of Productivity by Forest Tree Breeding Work in Korea (우리나라에서의 임목육종(林木育種)에 의(依)한 생산성(生産性) 증가(增加))

  • Ryu, Jang Bal;Shim, Sang Yung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.77 no.4
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    • pp.382-388
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    • 1988
  • Improvement of productivity by forest tree breeding work in Korea was estimated for a few important tree species. Progenies of 17 plus trees of red pine (Pines densiflora) outgrew by 57 percentage compared with progenies of unselected trees at age 15. If best three families are selected among the 17, more than double in volume grow-th is expected. The hybrid Pinus rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda showed more than double volume growth compare to P. rigida at a southern plantation at age 15. However, the superiority of the hybrid decreased at northern plantations, mainly because of low coldhardiness of the hybrid. At a northern plantation, the hybrid grew less than the P. rigida on upper hill, while the hybrid grew much better than the P. rigida on flat area. Another hybrid Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa grew faster than both parents by two to two and half times according to planting sites at age 10. Introduction of Pinus rigida also showed increased volume growth. Volume increase by selection of best five provenances among 45 at age 12 was estimated as 53 percent compare to progenies of plus trees in Korea, Additional 19 percent of volume increase was expected by selection of the best families within the best provenances. Annual production of chestnuts reached about 70,000 M/T by planting resistant clones to chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), which killed almost all susceptible trees. Although polyploid trees and mutants have been produced by colchicine treatments in over 10 tree species, none of them is economically important Remarkable improvement of productivity is expected by biotechnology in future through selection, hybridization, introduction of foreign genes at cell, cell organelle and gene level, and gene transformation. At present, mass propagation of superior planting materials by tissue culture will increase the productivity.

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Effects of Temperature, Light and Plant Growth Regulators on the Seed Germination of Lavandula angustifolia Mill (잉글리쉬 라벤다의 종자발아(種子發芽)에 대한 온도(溫度), 광(光) 및 생육조절물질(生長調節物質)의 영향(影響))

  • Li, Xian Ri;Kang, Won-He;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Kim, Ii-Seop
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.258-264
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to establish mass propagation system from seeds of Lavandula angustiolia Mill. Only 4% of dry seeds were germinated when they were incubated in $4^{\circ}C$. Germination rate of stratified seeds for 9 weeks was 15% higher in light than darkness. Soaking with 1000mg/l of $GA_3$ was helpful to overcome the effect of darkness. The optimal temperature for germination was $25^{\circ}C$ for the seeds that were treated with$GA_3$, solution. For the improvement of germination rates, pretreatment of $GA_3$ at 500-2000mg/l showed about 75% of germination, and in the combination treatment of $GA_3$, and BA, germination rate increased by about 10% in the treatment of 1000mg/l $GA_3+10mg/l$ BA compared with the 1000mg/l $GA_3$ treatment. Cold stratification treatment was very effective for seed germination, and over 70% of seeds were germinated when they were incubated in $4^{\circ}C$ for 9-12 weeks. In addition, there was synergic effect on the seed germination subject to stratification and 1000mg/l $GA_3$, treatment for 6 months. In the mixture of vermiculite: peatmoss (1 : 1, v/v), emergence rate was 6.7% in control and 65% in 1000mg/l $GA_3$ treatment, respectively.

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ON THE EFFECTS CHLORINITIES UPON GROWTH OF EARLIER LARVAE AND POST-LARVA OF A FRESH WATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGI(DE MAN) (담수산새우 Macrobrachium rosenbergi (de Man)의 초기유생 및 Post-larva.의 성장에 미치는 염분량에 관하여)

  • KWON Chin Soo;UNO Yutaka;OGASAWARA Yohismitsu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 1977
  • The fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergi(de Man) is a very common species in Indopacific region, which inhaits both fresh and brackish water in low land area, most of rivers and especially aboundant in the lower reaches which are influenced by sea water. It is one of the largest and commercial species of genus Macrobrachium, which is commonly larger than $18\~21cm$ in body length, from the basis of eye-stalked to the distal of telson. As a part of the researches in order to investigate the possibilities on transplantation and propagation of this species, this work dealt with the problems on the effects of chlorinities upon zoeal larvae and post-larvae 1). metamorphosis rate and optimum chlorinity for metamorphosis to post-larve, 2). tolerance and comparative survival rate on various chlorinties, from fresh water to sea water $(19.38\%_{\circ}\;Cl)$, which reared for six days upon each stage of zoeal larvae, 3). accomodation rate on chlonities which reared for twelve days after transmigration into variant chlorinities of the range from $3.68\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $1.53\%_{\circ}$ Cl in the way of rearing of the range from $3.82\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $11.05\%_{\circ}$ upon each stage of zoea, 4). tolerance on both of fresh and sea water upon zoeal larva and post-larva under the condition of $28^{\circ}C{\pm}1$ in temperature and feeding on Artenia salina nauplii, 5). relationship between various chlorinities and grwth of post-larvae under the condition of $28^{\circ}C$ in tmperature and feeding on meat of clam. Thus these investigations were performed in order to grope for a comfortable method on seedmass production. Up to the present, the study on the effects of chlorinity upon earlier zoeal larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium species has been scarcely performed by workers with the exception of Lewis(1961) and Ling (1962,, 1967), even so their works were not so detailed. On the other hand, larvae of several species of this genus were reared at the water which mixed sea water so as to carry out complete metamorphosis to post-larva by workers in order to investigate on earlier 1 arval and earlier post-larval development, such as Macrobrachium lamerrei (Rajyalakshmi, 1961), M. rosenbergi and M. nipponense (Uno and Kwoa, 1969; Kwon and Uno, 1969), M. acanthurs (Choudhury, 1970; Dobkin, 1971), M. carcinus(Choudhury, 1970), M. formosense(Shokita, 1970), M. olfersii (Duggei et al., 1975), M. novaehallandiae (Greenwood et al., 1976), M. japonicum (Kwon, 1974) and M. lar (Shokita, personal communication), and there fore it is regarded that chlorinity is, generally, one of absolute factors to rear zoeal larvae of brackish species of Macrobrachium genus. Synthetic results on this work is summarized as the follwings: 1) Zoeal larvae required different chlorinities to grow according to each stage, and generally, it is regarded that optimum range of living and growing is from $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl\to\;7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$, and while differences of metamorphsis rate, from first zoea to post-larva, is rarely found in this range, and however it occurs apparently in both of situation at $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ below and $16.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ above and moreover, metamorphosis rate is delayed somewhat in case of lower chlorinity as compared with high chlorinity in these situations. 2) Accomodation in each chlorinity on the range, from fresh water to sea water, is different according to larval stages and while the best of it is, generally, on the range from $14.24\%_{\circ}Cl$ to $8.28\%_{\circ}Cl$ and favorite chlorinity of zoea have a tendency to remove from high chlorinity to lower chlorinity in order to advance larval age throughout all zoeal stages, setting a conversional stage for eighta zoea stage. 3) Optimum chlorinity of living and growth upon postlarvae is on the range of $4.25\%_{\circ}Cl$ below, and in proportion as approach to fresh water, growth rate is increased. 4) Post-large are able to live better in fresh water in comparison with zoeal larvae, which are only able to live within fifteen hours, and by contraries, post-larvae are merely able to live for one day as compared with ?미 larvar, which are able to live for six days more in sea water $19.38\%_{\circ}Cl\;above$. 5) Also, in case of transmigration into higher and lower chlorinities in the way of rearing in the initial chlorinities $ 3.82\%_{\circ}Cl,\;7.14%_{\circ}Cl\;and\;11.05%_{\circ}Cl$, accoodation rate is a follow: accomodation capacity in ease of removing into higher chlorinities from lower chlorinities is increased in proportion as earlier stages, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage, and by contraries, in case of advanced stages from eighth zoea it is incraesed in proportion as approach to post-larva stage in the case of transmigration into lower chlorinity from higher chlorinity. On the other hand, it is interesting that in case of reciprocal transmigration between two different chlorinitiess, each survival rate is different, and in this case, also, its accomodation in each zoea stage has a tendency to vary according to larval stages as described above, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage. 6) It is likely that expension of radish pigments on body surface is directly proportional to chlorinity during the period of zoea rearing, and therefore it seems like all body surfacts of zoea larvae be radish coloured in case of higher chlorinity. 7) By the differences that each zoeal larvae, postlarvae, juvaniles and adult prawn are required different chlorinity for inhabiting in each, it is regarded that this species migrats from up steam to near the estuary of the river which the prawns inhabits commonly in natural field for spawning and growth migration. 8) It had better maintainning chlorinities according to zoeal stage for a comfortable method on seed-mass production that earlier larva stages than eighth zoea are maintained on the range from $8\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;12\%_{\circ}Cl$ to rear, and later larva stages than eighth zoea, by contraries, are gradually regula ted-to love chlorininity of the range from $7\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;4\%_{\circ}Cl$ according to advance for post-larva stage.

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