• Title, Summary, Keyword: mass loss rate

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MASS-LOSS RATES OF OH/IR STARS

  • Suh, Kyung-Won;Kwon, Young-Joo
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2013
  • We compare mass-loss rates of OH/IR stars obtained from radio observations with those derived from the dust radiative transfer models and IR observations. We collect radio observational data of OH maser and CO line emission sources for a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars listed in Suh & Kwon (2011). For 1259 OH maser, 76 CO(J=1-0), and 55 CO(J=2-1) emission sources, we compile data of the expansion velocity and mass-loss rate. We use a dust radiative transfer model for the dust shell to calculate the mass-loss rate as well as the IR color indices. The observed mass-loss rates are in the range predicted by the theoretical dust shell models corresponding to $\dot{M}=10^{-8}M_{\odot}/yr-10^{-4}M_{\odot}/yr$. We find that the dust model using a simple mixture of amorphous silicate and amorphous $Al_2O_3$ (20% by mass) grains can explain the observations fairly well. The results indicate that the dust radiative transfer models for IR observations generally agree with the radio observations. For high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars, the mass-loss rates obtained from radio observations are underestimated compared to the mass-loss rates derived from the dust shell models. This could be because photon momentum transfer to the gas shell is not possible for the physical condition of high mass-loss rates. Alternative explanations could be the effects of different dust-to-gas ratios and/or a superwind.

Mass-Loss Rate in Short-Period Cataclysmic Variables

  • Sirotkin, Fedir V.;Kim, Woong-Tae
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.52.1-52.1
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    • 2010
  • The relationship between orbital periods of cataclysmic variables (CV) and mass-loss rates of their donor stars is an important subject of theoretical researches. The observed donor's radii are oversized in comparison with those of isolated unperturbed stars of the same mass, which is thought to be a consequence of the mass-loss. Using the empirical mass-radius relation of CVs and the Hayashi theory for changes in effective temperature, orbital period, and luminosity of the donor with the stellar radius, we find the mass-loss rate of CVs as a function of the orbital period P. The derived mass-loss rate is more or less constant at 10-9.6-10-10M$\odot$ yr-1 with P above 90 minutes and declines very rapidly with P below 90 minutes, reaching 10-10.3-10-11.7M$\odot$ yr-1 when P is close to the minimum period. The turnaround behavior of the mass-loss rate shape with P near the minimal period is much less pronounced than suggested by earlier numerical models, making observational detection of the turnaround highly unlikely. When applied to our new results, SDSS 1035, 1507, 1501 and 1433 systems, previously known as post-bounce CVs, are more likely to be systems that have yet to reach the minimal period.

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A Study on the Burning Rate of Puzzle Mats (퍼즐매트의 연소속도에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hyung-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2008
  • The mass loss rate and heat release rate of puzzle mats were analysed using variable external irradiation level. Five samples of puzzle mat were tested in this study : Type A, B, C, D and E. Type A, B and C are all general grades whereas Type D and E are both Flame retardant grades. Incident heat fluxs of $25kW/m^2$, $35kW/m^2$, $50kW/m^2$ and $70kW/m^2$ were selected for these experiments. All samples were tested in the horizontal orientation and were wrapped in a single layer of aluminum foil. Each sample was nominally 20mm thick and 100mm square. The combustion heat and mass loss rate were carried out from Oxygen bomb calorimeter and mass loss calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 respectively. Heat release rates were calculated using the equation ${\dot{Q}}=A_f{\dot{m}}"_X{\Delta}H_c=0.75A_f{\dot{m}}"{\Delta}H_c$. where $A_f$ is the horizontal burning area of the sample, $\dot{m}"$ is mass loss rate per unit area, ${\Delta}H_c$ is complete heat of combustion and 0.75 is combustion efficiency.

A Semi-empirical Mass-loss Rate in Short-period CVs

  • Kim, Woong-Tae;Sirotkin, Fedir V.
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.76.2-76.2
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    • 2010
  • We present the final results of our study on the mass-loss rate of donor stars in cataclysmic variables (CVs). Observed donors are oversized in comparison with those of isolated single stars of the same mass, which is thought to be a consequence of the mass loss. Using the empirical mass-radius relation of CVs and the homologous approximation for changes in effective temperature T2, orbital period P, and luminosity of the donor with the stellar radius, we find the semi-empirical mass-loss rate M2dot of CVs as a function of P. The derived M2dot is at ~10-9.5-10-10 $M\odot$/yr and depends weakly on P when P > 90 min, while it declines very rapidly towards the minimum period when P < 90 min. The semi-empirical M2dot is significantly different from, and has a less-pronounced turnaround behavior with P than suggested by previous numerical models. The semi-empirical P-M2dot relation is consistent with the angular momentum loss due to gravitational wave emission, and strongly suggests that CV secondaries with 0.075 $M\odot$ < M2 < 0.2 $M\odot$ are less than 2 Gyrs old. When applied to selected eclipsing CVs, our semi-empirical mass-loss rates are in good agreement with the accretion rates derived from the effective temperatures T1 of white dwarfs. Based on the semi-empirical M2dot, SDSS 1501 and 1433 systems that were previously identified as post-bounce CVs have yet to reach the minimal period.

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Mass Loss and Air Entrainment Rate of Whirl Fire by Height of Fire Source (화점높이 변화에 따른 Whirl Fire의 질량감소 및 공기유입속도)

  • Park, Hyung-Ju
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.126-131
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    • 2011
  • This study is intended to understand mass loss rate and air entrainment rate of the whirl fire by height of fire source. Liquid fuels were methanol and n-Heptane which are used in many studies of whirl fire. Size of vessel was 100 mm ${\times}$ 100 mm ${\times}$ 50 mm and the vessel was made by stainless steel. When height of fire source changed from 0 cm to 30 cm, air entrainment rate showed the fastest in case of 0 cm. And in the same height of fire source, average and maximum air entrainment rate showed the fastest in 30 cm of anemometer. From the results of whirl fire for methanol and n-Heptane, mass loss rate and air entrainment rate of n-Heptane was found to faster 1.33 to 1.58 times and 4.38 to 5.44 times compared with methanol, respectively. Consequently, mass loss rate and air entrainment rate in whirl fire was able to identified decrease as height of fire source increases and the higher the heating value, increases the that's value.

A Study on the Heat Release Rate of EPS Sandwich Panel Core (EPS 샌드위치 패널 심재의 열방출율에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hyung-Ju;Cho, Myung-Ho
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 2008
  • The mass loss rate and heat release rate of EPS sandwich panel cores were analysed using variable external irradiation level. The experimental materials were exposed to incident heat fluxes form 20 to 50 kW/$m^2$. For the measurement of mass loss rate and heat release rate, the size of specimen was $100mm{\times}100mm{\times}50mm$ and the samples were 3 different kinds. The combustion heat were carried out from the Oxygen bomb calorimeter and the mass loss rate and heat release rate were carried out from the Mass loss calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1. As the results of this study, the mass loss rate of Type A, B, and C were 2.7 g/$m^2s$, 2.8 g/$m^2s$, and 2.3 g/$m^2s$ and the heat release rate of Type A, B, and C were 58.23 kW/$m^2$, 47.19 kW/$m^2$, and 50.06 kW/$m^2$ respectively at the heat flux of 50 kW/$m^2$. In conclusion, when the heat release characteristics applied to a classification system of Canada, Type A and C can be classified grade C-3, and Type C can be classified grade C-2 from all data of this study.

THE DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS WITH STELLAR MASS LOSS

  • Kim, Chang-Hwan;Chun, Mun-Suk;Min, Kyung-W.
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.11-23
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    • 1991
  • The dynamical evolution of globular clusters is studied using the orbit-averaged multicomponent Fokker-Planck equation. The original code developed by Cohn(1980) is modi-fied to include the effect of stellar evolutions. Plommer's model is chosen as the initial density distribution with the initial mass function index $\alpha$=0.25, 0.65, 1.35, 2.35, and 3.35. The mass loss rate adopted in this work follows that of Fusi-Pecci and Renzini(1976). The stellar mass loss acts as the energy source, and thus affects the dynamical evolution of globular clusters by slowing down the evolution rate and extending the core collapse time Tcc. And the dynamical length scale $$R_c, $$R_h is also extended. This represents the expansion of cluster due to the stellar mass loss.

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Preprocessing and mass evolution of dark halos in the hydrodynamic zoom-in simulation

  • Han, San;Smith, Rory;Choi, Hoseung;Cortese, Luca;Catinella, Barbara;Contini, Emanuele;Yi, Sukyoung K.
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.38.2-38.2
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    • 2018
  • To understand the assembly of the galaxy population in clusters today, it is important to first understand preprocessing, the impact of environments prior to cluster infall. We use 15 cluster samples from YZiCS, a hydrodynamic cluster zoom-in simulation to determine the significance of preprocessing, and focus on the tidal mass loss of dark matter halos. We find ~48% of the cluster member halos were once satellites of another host. The preprocessed fraction depends on each cluster's recent mass growth history. Also, we find that the total mass loss is a clear function of the time spent in a host. However, two factors can increase the mass loss rate considerably. First, if the satellite mass is approaching the mass of its host. Second, when the halo suffers tidal mass loss at a higher redshift. Being in hosts before cluster infall enables halos to experience tidal mass loss for an extended period of time.

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Changes of Mass Loss and Nitrogen Content during Root Decomposition in the Chihuahuan Desert (치화화사막에서 뿌리의 분해과정에 따른 질소함량의 변화)

  • ;W.G.Whitford
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 1994
  • We examined spatial and temporal patterns of root decomposition for three and half years, from October 1986 to April 1990, in semi-arid Chihuahuan Desert. Decomposition of roots occurred in a two-phased pattern: an early period of rapid mass loss followed by a period of slower loss. The rate of root decomposition had a high negative correlation with the initial lignin concentration in roots (r=-0.84, p<0.05). Annual mass loss rate of Baileya multiradiata, a herbaceous annual, was the highest with the value of 0.60, while that of Panicum obtusum. a perennial grass which was restricted to playa, was the lowest with 0.13. The mass loss rate of roots in the playa was the lowest among the vegetation zones along the transect. After 42 months elapsed, fluffgrass roots in playa lost 40% of the initial mass, while in other sites it lost on average 55% of the initial mass. In all roots except for desert marigold, there was an initial release of nitrogen early in decomposition followed by net nitrogen immobilization. Nitrogen concentration of the desert marigold roots showed linear increase from the beginning. Lignin concentration of perennial grass roots were higher than those of herbaceous annual and woody perennial root.

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The Effects of Mass Loss on the Pre-Main Sequence Evolutionary Tracks of Stein's Model Stars

  • Um, In-Kyung
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1984
  • Under the context of Stein's linear theory of stellar models, the luminosity-effective temperature relationship is derived for contracting pre-main sequence stars which are losing mass, according to the empirical formula, given by Reimers (1975). The effects of mass loss on their evolution are investigated by calculating evolutionary tracks of 1. $1.5M_{\odot}$, $5M_{\odot}$, and $10M_{\odot}$, stars. Our calculations reveal that the effects of mass loss show up in the radiative equilibrium stage of the evolution. It is found that an increase of mass loss rate leads to delay the onset of radiative equilibrium, thus resulting in under-luminous main sequence stars. It is also noted that the mass loss prolongs the pre-main sequence life time. Detailed results of the calculations are discussed.

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