• Title, Summary, Keyword: marker

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A study on Variation of Marking Effecting the Required Property Quantity & Market Efficiency in Development of Ready-Made Clothes (기성복 디자인의 개발에서 Marking에 따른 차이가 원자재 소요량과 Maker 효율에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 김준범
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.120-127
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of the study is to mae experimental whether the required property quantity and marker efficiency has variation of marking based on theoretical background of marking using th function of computer marking system. To investigate that variation of marking effect the required property quantity and marker efficiency as the following is tried to solve giving separation to item width of property cutting line detail which is believed to influence the required property quantity and marker efficiency. How to make experiment as follows separating in order marker of 1082 styles of women's ready-made clothes of with basic design(jacket. pants. skirt, two-piece). Then the data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test. The result of this studying as follows 1. In marker of women's jacket and pants the required property quantity shows lower when it is each item than when it is two-pice,. 2. In marker of women's pants marker efficiency shows the highest level when width is 132cm and it shows the lowest level when width is 112cm. 3. In width 152cm of skirt marker it has cutting lines shows lower the required property quantity than it doesn't have. 4. In marker of women's pants it has details shows more high marker efficiency than it doesn't have.

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Usability of 2D/2D Match for Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) of Prostate Cancer with Fiducial Markers (전립선 암 환자의 영상유도 방사선 치료 시 Fiducial Marker를 이용한 2D/2D Match의 유용성에 대한 연구)

  • Bae, Sun-Myung;Yang, Oh-Nam;Song, Heung-Kwon;Back, Geum-Mun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: To study the efficacy of marker match with using kilovoltage (KV) X-ray among multiple image guidance that referring tree fiducial marker in radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods: KV two-dimantional images (anterior-posterior, right-left) and cone-beam CT volumetric images were acquired after setup for patients with three fiducial markers. Compare the position of the fiducial marker of reference plan computed tomography (CT) and of KV, CBCT images; then decide the shift score of X, Y, and Z. This study executed 5 times on 10 patients and analyzed the shift value. Results: In the radiation therapy using fiducial marker, The function of marker match showed the same direction tendency as the CBCT, and showed X, Y, Z difference of about 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 (unit: mm). Conclusion: Comparing to this, the result of shift value using 2D marker match showed less than 1.0 mm difference. The function of marker match is considered more useful in time-wise and effective dose rather than CBCT. Therefore, Both methods are used to treat patients for prostate cancer.

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Comparing the dosimetric impact of fiducial marker according to density override method : Planning study (양성자 치료계획에서 fiducial marker의 density override 방법에 따른 선량변화 비교 : Planning study)

  • Sung, Doo Young;Park, Seyjoon;Park, Ji Hyun;Park, Yong Chul;Park, Hee Chul;Choi, Byoung Ki
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The application of density override is very important to minimize dose calculation errors by fiducial markers of metal material in proton treatment plan. However, density override with actual material of the fiducial marker could make problem such as inaccurate target contouring and compensator fabrication. Therefore, we perform density override with surrounding material instead of actual material and we intend to evaluate the usefulness of density override with surrounding material of the fiducial marker by analyzing the dose distribution according to the position, material of the fiducial marker and number of beams. Materials and Method: We supposed that the fiducial marker of gold, steel, titanium is located in 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0 cm from the proton beam's end of range using water phantom. Treatment plans were created by applying density override with the surrounding material and actual material of the fiducial marker. Also, a liver cancer patient who received proton therapy was selected. We located the fiducial marker of gold, steel, titanium in 0, 1.5, 3.5 cm from the proton beam's end of range and the treatment plans were created by same method with water phantom. Homogeneity Index(HI), Conformity Index(CI) and maximum dose of Organ At Risk(OAR) in Planning Target Volume(PTV) as the evaluation index were compared according to the material, position of the fiducial marker and number of beam. Results: The HI value was more decreased when density override with surrounding material of the fiducial marker was performed comparing with density override with actual material. Especially the HI value was increased when the fiducial marker was located farther from the proton beam's end of the range for a single beam and the fiducial marker's position was closer to isocenter for two or more beams. The CI value was close to 1 and OAR maximum dose was greatly reduced when density override with surrounding material of the fiducial marker was performed comparing with density override with actual material. Conclusion: Density override with surrounding material can be expected to achieve more precise proton therapy than density override with actual material of the fiducial marker and could increase the dose uniformity and target coverage and reduce the dose to surrounding normal tissues for the small fiducial markers used in clinical practice. Most of all, it is desirable to plan the treatment by avoiding the fiducial marker of metal material as much as possible. However, if the fiducial marker have on the beam path, density override of the surrounding material can be expected to achieve more precise proton therapy.

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Consideration of the Effect of Artifact during the Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the Fiducial Marker (영상 유도 방사선치료 시 Fiducial Marker의 Artifact에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Min;Kim, Dae-Sup;Back, Geum-Mun;Kang, Tae-Yeong;Hong, Dong-Ki;Yun, Hwa-Yong;Kwon, Kyeong-Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The effect of artifact was analyzed, which occurs from fiducial marker during the liver Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) using the fiducial marker. Materials and Methods: The size of artifact of fixed fiducial marker and length of mobile fiducial marker locus were measured using the On-Board Imager system (OBI) and CT simulator, and 2D-2D matching and 3D-3D matching were carried out, respectively, and at this time, the coordinates transition value of couch was analyzed. Results: The measurement of fixed fiducial marker artifact size indicated CT 4.90, 8.10, 12.90, 19.70 mm and OBI 5.60, 10.60, 14.70, 29.40 mm based on the reference CT slice thickness of 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, and 10.00 mm. Meanwhile, the measurement of mobile fiducial marker locus length indicated CT 42.00, 43.10, 46.50 mm, and OBI 43.40, 46.00, 49.30 mm. The coordinates transition of 1.00, 2.00, and 8.00 mm occurred between 2D-2D matching and 3D-3D matching. Conclusion: It was confirmed that the therapy error increased during IGRT due to the influence of artifact when CT slice thickness increased. Thus, it may be desirable to acquire the image less than 2.50 mm in slice thickness when IGRT is implemented using the fiducial marker.

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Techniques on Multi-Marker for the Implementation of Augmented Reality (증강현실 구현을 위한 Multi-Marker에 관한 기법)

  • Kim, Hag-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2010
  • This study is intended to propose a technique that can trace objects by utilizing the multimarker method in the Marker Recognition which is a bridge way connecting virtuality and reality in complex environments or in a condition hands become obstacles. In the existing marker method, the object becomes blinking when the maker is blocked since this method relies only on single marker. However, the researcher was able to confirm the appearance of augmented object when the marker was blocked for the multiple markers replaced the blocked one. In order to implement such technique, multi-marker estimation was utilized with perspective matrix. The advantage is the fast estimation process for there is no need of other calculation. The implemented technique can detect markers and locate their positions, represent 3-D object in various circumstances.

A Fair Scalable Inter-Domain TCP Marker for Multiple Domain DiffServ Networks

  • Hur, Kyeong;Eom, Doo-Seop
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.338-350
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    • 2008
  • The differentiated services (DiffServ) is proposed to provide packet level service differentiations in a scalable manner. To provide an end-to-end service differentiation to users having a connection over multiple domains, as well as a flow marker, an intermediate marker is necessary at the edge routers, and it should not be operated at a flow level due to a scalability problem. Due to this operation requirement, the intermediate marker has a fairness problem among the transmission control protocol (TCP) flows since TCP flows have intrinsically unfair throughputs due to the TCP's congestion control algorithm. Moreover, it is very difficult to resolve this problem without individual flow state information such as round trip time (RTT) and sending rate of each flow. In this paper, to resolve this TCP fairness problem of an intermediate marker, we propose a fair scalable marker (FSM) as an intermediate marker which works with a source flow three color marker (sf-TCM) operating as a host source marker. The proposed fair scalable marker improves the fairness among the TCP flows with different RTTs without per-flow management. Through the simulations, we show that the FSM can improve TCP fairness as well as link utilization in multiple domain DiffServ networks.

The Design of Optical Marker for Auto-registering of 3D scan data (3차원 스캐너의 레지스터링 문제 해결을 위한 광학식 마커 설계)

  • 손용훈;양현석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.256-259
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    • 2003
  • This paper proposes OPTICAL MARKER fer registering process - one of the 3D measurement process : scan registering - merging - measurement. If the registering work is carried out manually, it can be accompanied with much time and many errors. Because the patterned marker make registering process automatic, many firms use it now. But the physical shape of existing markers is the source of the data loss caused by hiding surface, and the marker arrangement is the source of the time loss. The optical marker proposed in this paper has marker generator, organized a large number of binary coded control laser diode, separate from 3D scan object. So, it does not take much time for the marker disposition, and it is not the origin of the data loss, and the binary coded laser information make the auto-registering possible.

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The study for improve a method of Marker auto- identification (마커 자동 인식 향상 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-38
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to develop an improved marker auto-identification algorithm for reduce of data processing time through improve the efficiency of noise elimination and marker separation. The maker auto-identification algorithm was programming named KUMAS used Delphi language. For the study, various experiments were conducted for the verification of KUMAS. and compared two systems of established with the KUMAS. Four different motions - cycling, gait, rotation, and pendulum -, were selected and tested. Motions were filmed 30Hz frames rate per second. ${\chi}^2$ used for statistical analysis. Significant level were ${\alpha}=.05$. The test results were as follow. 1. Increased the success ratio of marker auto-identification. 2. The efficiency of marker auto-identification was remarkably improved through marker separation, noise elimination. 3. The marker auto-identification ability was improved in 2D-image plane include the 3D motion. 4. Significant different were found between KUMAS and B-SYS(established system) with non-input the artificial noise frames, input the artificial noise frames and total frames.

Adaptive planar vision marker composed of LED arrays for sensing under low visibility

  • Kim, Kyukwang;Hyun, Jieum;Myung, Hyun
    • Advances in robotics research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 2018
  • In image processing and robotic applications, two-dimensional (2D) black and white patterned planar markers are widely used. However, these markers are not detectable in low visibility environment and they are not changeable. This research proposes an active and adaptive marker node, which displays 2D marker patterns using light emitting diode (LED) arrays for easier recognition in the foggy or turbid underwater environments. Because each node is made to blink at a different frequency, active LED marker nodes were distinguishable from each other from a long distance without increasing the size of the marker. We expect that the proposed system can be used in various harsh conditions where the conventional marker systems are not applicable because of low visibility issues. The proposed system is still compatible with the conventional marker as the displayed patterns are identical.

A Robust Marker Detection Algorithm Using Hybrid Features in Augmented Reality (증강현실 환경에서 복합특징 기반의 강인한 마커 검출 알고리즘)

  • Park, Gyu-Ho;Lee, Heng-Suk;Han, Kyu-Phil
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.17A no.4
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2010
  • This paper presents an improved marker detection algorithm using hybrid features such as corner, line segment, region, and adaptive threshold values, etc. In usual augmented reality environments, there are often marker occlusion and poor illumination. However, existing ARToolkit fails to recognize the marker in these situations, especially, partial concealment of marker by user, large change of illumination and dim circumstances. In order to solve these problems, the adaptive threshold technique is adopted to extract a marker region and a corner extraction method based on line segments is presented against marker occlusions. In addition, a compensating method, corresponding the marker size and center between registered and extracted one, is proposed to increase the template matching efficiency, because the inside marker size of warped images is slightly distorted due to the movement of corner and warping. Therefore, experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can robustly detect the marker in severe illumination change and occlusion environment and use similar markers because the matching efficiency was increased almost 30%.