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The Ages of Fault Activities of the Ilkwang Fault in Southeastern Korea, Revealed by Classification of Geomorphic Surfaces and Trench Survey

  • Ho, Chang;Ree, Jin-Han;Joo, Byung-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.1-2
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    • 2004
  • The Ilkwang Fault is NNE-striking, elongated 40 Km between Ulsan and Haendae-ku, Busan in southeastem part of the Korean Peninsula(Kim, D.H. et al., 1989; Kim, J.S. et al., 2003). This paper is mainly concemed about the ages of the fault activities especially in the Quatemary, infered from classification of geomorphic surface and trench excavation for the construction of Singori nuclear power plant. The geomorphi surfaces are classified into the Beach and the Alluvial plain, the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace, the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace, the Reworked surface of 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace and the Low relief erosional surface, from lower to higher altitude. The Beach and the Alluvial plain are elongated to the Holocene terrace(ist terrace, choi, 2003). The 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace is correlated to 2nd terrace (MIS 5em 125 Ka. y. B.P., Choi, 1998). The 45 m a.s.l. Marine terace is correlated to the Lower marine terrace (MIS 7,220 Ka. y. B.P., Choi, 2003 or MIS 9,320 y. B.P.) to the Gwanganri terrace(Penultimate interglacial age, 200-200 Ka. Y. B.P., Oh, 1981). The Low relief erosional surface is distributed coastal side, the Reworked surface of 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace inland side by the Ilkwang Fault Line as the boundary line. But the former is above 10 m higher in relative height than the latter. The 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace on the elongation line of the Ilkwang Fault reveals no dislocation. A site was trenched on the straight contract line with $N30^{\circ}$ E-striking between the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace and the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. Fault line or dislocation was not observable in the trench excavation. Accordingly, the straight contact line is inferred as the ancient shoreline of the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. The Ages of the Fault activities are inferred after the formation of the Ichonri Formation - before the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace (220 Ka. y. B.P. or 320 Ka. y. B.P.). The Low relief erosional surface was an island above the sea-level during the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace in the paleogeography.

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The Examination of the Limitations of Using the OSL Dates Derived from this Study in the Correlation of MIS 5 Marine Terraces Distributed in the Southeastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula (한반도 남동부 해안 해성단구의 분류와 편년에 있어서 본 연구에서 도출된 OSL 연대 적용의 한계성 검토)

  • Choi, Seong Gil;Tamura, Toshikazu;Miyauchi, Takahiro;Tsukamoto, Sumiko
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.63-75
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    • 2018
  • The lower marine terrace 1 and 2 surfaces distributed between Ulsan and Pohang coast in the southeastern coast of the Korean penninsula have been correlated with MIS 5e and 5a (or 5c) by amino acid dates, 14C dates, wide-spread tephra correlation and pollen analysis respectively. In this study, to test the reliability of the OSL method for the estimation of the numerical burial age of marine sediment deposits, we analyzed the samples from the marine terraces which have been known as typical marine terraces formed during MIS 5e and MIS 5a in the above-mentioned coast. The burial ages of the marine deposit of the lower marine terrace 1 and 2, with paleoshoreline altitudes of 18m to 19m and 10m to 11m respectively, both showed about the same age of 60 ka BP. The lower marine terraces 1 and 2, however, were divided into two terrace surfaces by a clear terrace cliff. Besides, the OSL dates of the lower and upper parts of the lower marine terrace 2 of the Bonggil coast showed the reversed burial ages. In the lower marine terrace 1 of the Sanhari coast, almost the same burial ages were derived from both the lower part (marine rounded gravel layer) and the upper part (terrestrial angular gravel layer) of the terrace deposit. Therefore, at the present time, judging from only the OSL dates measured in this study, it could be argued that the OSL method is not the best for the estimation of forming periods of the lower marine terraces 1 and 2 and their classification.

Marine Terraces of the Eastern Coast of Korean Peninsula

  • Park, Seong-Gil
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.15-15
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    • 2003
  • In South Korea, marine terraces have been well developed along the eastern coastal zone, and previous researches on the marine terraces have also been focused on to this coastal zone. The marine terraces of the eastern coast of South Korea had been classified into three terrace groups, that is, the higher, middle, and lower surface ones, according to the heights of marine terraces by previous studies(Oh, 1981 ;Chang, 1987 ;Yoon et. al, 1999, 2003 ; Hwang and Yoon, 1996 etc.). Recently, however, it tends to classify the marine terraces based on the concept of geomorphic surface units(Lee, 1987 ; Kim, 1990 ; Choi, S. 2003; Choi S. et. al 2003a,b, etc). For example, it was proposed that the marine terrace surfaces of Eupcheon coast of the southeastern coastal area of Korea could be classified into 16 geomorphic surfaces, i.e., Eupcheon 1terrace(former shoreline height of 160m), 2(153m), 3(140m), 4(130m), 5(124m), 6(115m), 7(100m), 8(92m), 9(82m), 10(71m), 11(62m), 12(53m), 13(43m), 14(35m), 15(18m) and 16(10m) surfaces, in descending order, according to the former shoreline heights(Choi, S, 2003 ; Choi, S. et. al, 2003a,b). Among these terraces, Eupcheon 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 surfaces had not been reported in previous works. Among the above mentioned marine terraces, Eupcheon 15 terrace, the most widely and continuously distributed marine terrace have been identified as marine terrace of the Last Interglacial culmination period(oxygen isotope stage 5e) which was based on amino acid dates(124∼125ka BP) and geomorphological features such as red soil, pollen analysis, fossil cryogenic structures and crossing terrace concept. Eupoheon 15 terrace surfaces have also been proposed as the key surface for the identification and correlation of the so-called '5e' marine terrace in the eastern coast of South Korea. This terrace was reconfirmed as the Last Interglacial culmination period, which was based on the identification of Ata tephra, one of the wide-spread marker tephra which indicates the Last Interglacial culmination period in Japan by Sasaki et. al(2002). It was thought that marine terraces of the eastern coast of South Korea had been formed by the steady-state uplifting during the Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea level changes(Choi, 1997). The uprift rate of 10cm/1,000years had been proposed in the eastern coast of South Korea based on the former shoreline altitude(18m) of the above Eupcheon 15 terrace. Therefore, it can be estimated that Eupcheon 1 terrace had been formed in the early Pleistocene from the above uprift rate. The OSL dating for the samples of Eupcheon 7, 9, 13, 15 and 16 terraces and identification of marker tephra in the terrace deposits are in progress. It is expected that more elaborate chronology on themarine terraces of the eastern coast of South Korea could be established by these absolute dates and marker-tephra.

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The comparison and chronology of the lower marine terraces in the mid-eastern coast of Korean peninsula (韓反島 中部東海岸 低位海成段丘의 對比와 編年)

  • ;Choi, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.103-119
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    • 1995
  • This Paper aims to compare the lower marine terraces distributed from Muckho to Gangneung in the mid-eastern coast of Korean peninsula by the geomorphic method of using characteristies of terrace features and terrace deposits, paleosol, and fossil cryogenic structures, and to estimate the age of the lower marine terraces on the basis of the comparisons of those with the characteristics of thalassostatic terrace in adjacent rivers. The 1ower marine terraces in this area can be classified into two levels, i.e., lower marine terrace I and II surfaces, in desending order, according to the difference of former shoreline altitude. The former shoreline heights of the lowerm marine terrace I and II surfaces are 18m and 10m, respectiveiy. The width of the I surface is broader and distributed more continuousiy than that of II surface. Daejin I surface in Muckho coast, and Myeongju and Anin terrace in Gangneung coast could be classified into the lower marine terrace I surface, and Daejin II surfaCe into II surface. The Surface of ancient shore platform of the lower marine terrace I and II surfaces were weathered, and the color of the terrace deposit ranges from red to reddish brown. And this terrace deposit is covered with slope deposit of Last Glacial or fossil periglacial structures (platy structure and vecicle) of Last Glacial are formed in terrace deposit. These facts indicate that the lower marine terrace I and II surfaces had been formed before the Last Glacial, and then affected by chemical weathering under warm environment, finally followed by cold period. But the deposit of the lower marine terrace I surface is more weathered than that of II surface. And pseudogleyed red soil, which is developed in I but not in II surface, could be judged to have been formed in the Last Interglacial culmination stage (Oxygen isotope stage 5e). Therefore, in terms of the degree of weathering of the terrace deposit and the existence of pseudogleyed red soil, the age of both terrace is thought to be a little different. And the characteristics of the above mentioned II surface are accord with those of thalassostatic terrace formed in middle or late period of the Last Interglacial (5e or 5a). Thus on the basis of above all points, the lower marine terrace I and II surfaces in this area could be seen to have formed in the Last Interglacial culmination stage and middle or late period of the Last Interglacial, respectively. Because the lower mamine terrace I surface is broadry distributed in the eastern coast of Korea nPeninsula, the surface could be used to be a key surface in studying Quaternary marine terraces.

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The estimation of the marine terrace of the Last Interglacial culmination stage(MIS 5e) in the Sanhari of Ulsan coast,southeastern Korea (울산 해안의 최종간빙기 최온난기 추정 해성단구)

  • Choi, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2016
  • The formation age and depositional environment of the marine terrace I of the estimated paleoshoreline altitude of 18m in Sanhari of Ulsan coast, southeastern Korea were investigated on the basis of examination of lithofacies and stratigraphy of terrace deposits. Marine deposits of the terrace is composed of rounded boulders(70cm in diameter) and rounded pebbles(1.0cm in diameter) which overlay them. The above rounded boulders which lie on the paleo-shore platform are considered to have been formed by wave abrasion in the same period that the paleo-shore platform was developed. The rounded pebbles which lie on the rounded boulder layer are considered to have been deposited in gravel beach and berm environment, judging from the laminae developed in this layer. The paleo-shore platform and marine rounded gravel layer of the terrace are assumed to have been formed in the large transgression period of the Last Interglacial culmination stage(MIS 5e), judging from the comparision of the formation age of 125ka B.P. of Juckcheon terrace I in the adjacent Pohang coast which was dated by amino acid dating. The terrestrial deposit of this terrace was largely composed of angular and subangular gravel mixed with marine rounded pebble which has been carried away mainly from the deposit of previous marine terraces and redeposited in this terrace. The lowest peat layer of terrastrial deposit was considered to have been deposited during the period from the late MIS 5e which is the estimated finishing time of deposition of the above marine gravels to the early stage of following regression period(MIS 5d) in which the sea level was still high. The sediments of angular and subangular gravel deposit which lie on this peat layer were assumed to have been deposited during the period from the early stage of the first regression period(MIS 5d) of the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial. The lower part of the angular gravel layer is composed of the deposits of the fluvial and colluvial sediments, whereas most of the upper and middle part of the layer is mainly composed of angular gravels of colluvial sediments formed in the cold environment.

Geochemical weathering properties of marine terrace sediment at Gangneung-Donghae area, South Korea (강릉-동해에 분포하는 해안단구 퇴적물의 지화학적 풍화 특성)

  • Hong, Seongchan;Choi, Jeong-Heon;Kim, Jong Yeon
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 2016
  • Several flights of marine terraces were developed along the Eastern coast of Korea (Gangneung-Donghae). Various dating techniques have been applied to determine the age of these terraces, with a view to better understand the regional uplift history. In this study, we compare the major element compositions of the terrace deposits and modern beach sediments to estimate the relative formation age of these terraces. We observed a discernible difference in major element geochemistry between modern beach sediments and various elevated terrace deposit (i.e. palaeobeach sediments). In general, weathering properties of marine terrace sediments are expected to be affected by the formation ages of terraces, and here, we confirm that the chemical composition are indicative of the relative age of the terraces in this region.

Properties of Deposits and Geomorphic Formative Ages on Marine Terraces in Gwangyang Bay, South Sea of Korea (광양만 일대 해안단구의 퇴적물 특성과 지형 형성시기)

  • Lee Gwang-Ryul;Park Chung-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.346-360
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    • 2006
  • In order to analyze synthetically geomorphological processes of marine terrace in Korea, this study deals with the distribution of marine terraces, stratification of sedimentary layers, physicochemical properties of deposits, and formative ages of marine terraces based on OSL(Optically Stimulated Luminescence) absolute age at coastal area of Gwangyang Bay in central part of the South Coast. As a result of comparison with physicochemical properties on diverse geomorphic materials, there is not enough distinction in them, because of recycling and mixing of materials at Gwangyang Bay having a geomorphic closure. In Gwangyang bay coast, marine terraces are discovered at least 3 levels and have a small area. Formative age of 1st Terrace, as the lowest level ranging in $10{\sim}13m$ above the sea level, is estimated at MIS(Marine Isotope Oxygen Stage) 5a, based on OSL age dating and properties of deposits. Uplifting rate is calculated at 0.141m/ka in Gwangyang bay coast. For application to this rate, 2nd terrace($18{\sim}22m$) is estimated at MIS 5e, 3rd terrace($27{\sim}32m$) is latter part of MIS 7. Consequently, we might conclude that uplifting and geomorphic process of marine terrace in South Coast is similar to East Coast during the Late Pleistocene in Korea.

The Ages of Fault Activities of the Ilgwang Fault in Southeastern Korea, Inferred by Classification of Geomorphic Surfaces and Trench Survery (지형면 분류 및 트렌치 조사에 의한 일광단층의 단층활동시기 추정)

  • Jang, Ho;Lee, Jin-Han;An, Yun-Seong;Joo, Byeong-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2004
  • The Ilgwang Fault is NNE-striking, elongated 40 Km between Ulsan and Haeundae-ku, Busan in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. This paper si mainly concerned about the ages of the fault activities especially in the Quaternary, inferred from classification of geomorphic surfaces and trench excavation for the construction of Singori nuclear power plant. The geomorphic surfaces are classified into Beach and the Alluvial plain, the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 5a), the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 5e), the Reworked surface of 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(MIS 7 or 9) and the Low relief erosional surface. The Low relief erosional surface is distributed coastal side, the Reworked surface of 45m a.s.l. Marine terrace inland side by the Ilgwang Fault Line as the boundary line. But the former is above 10 m higher in relative height than the latter. The 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace on the elongation line of the Ilgwang Fault reveals no dislocation. A site was trenched on the straight contact line with $N30^{\circ}E$-striking between the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace and the 20 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. Fault line or dislocation was not observable in the trench excavation. Accordingly, the straight contact line is inferred as the ancient shore line of the 10 m a.s.l. Marine terrace. The Ages of the Fault activities are inferred after the formation of the Ichonri formation - before the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. Marine terrace(220 Ka. y. B.P. or 320. Ka. y. B.P.). The Low relief erosional surface was an island above the sea-level during the formation of the 45 m a.s.l. marine terrace in the paleogeography.

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The paleo-shoreline and formation age of the 1st marine terrace in Heunghae-eup Pohang City, South Korea : evaluation of the mode and rate of the late Quaternary tectonism (I) (포항시 흥해읍 일대 해안단구 제1면의 구정선 고도와 형성 시기 - 한반도 제4기 후기 지각운동의 양식과 변형률 산출을 위한 연구(I) -)

  • Shin, Jae Ryul;Park, Kyung Geun
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.703-713
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    • 2016
  • This study documents the altitude of paleo-shoreline and formation age of the $1^{st}$ marine terrace emerged around Heunghae-eup Pohang City (South Korea). As a result, the $1^{st}$ terrace representing 10 m of the paleo-shoreline was formed at MIS 5c around 100,000 BP and was influenced repetitive sedimentation of sea-wave till regression of MIS 5a. The result is recognized as a definite truth for the $1^{st}$ terrace in the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula based on synthetic reviews of previous studies and cross-validation of absolute age data. Furthermore, this study deduces a sea stand at MIS 5c from the geomorphological contrast method, but precise determination of paleo-shoreline of the $2^{nd}$ terrace should be required to estimate that of MIS 5c.

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Marine terrace and its implications to paleoenvironment during the Quaternary at Suje-ri - Suryum-ri of the East coast of Gyeongju, SE Korea (한반도 남동부 경주시 수제리-수렴리의 해안단구와 제4기 환경변화)

  • HWANG, Sangill;SHIN, Jaeryul;YOON, Soon-Ock
    • Journal of The Geomorphological Association of Korea
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.97-108
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    • 2012
  • During the last few decades, the ever-increasing knowledge of coastal morphogenic processes has made marine terraces the most recognizable, widespread and scientifically reliable records to determine both qualitatively and quantitatively the vertical movements that have affected the tectonically active coastal regions during the Quaternary. This study first aims to address the marine terrace records from Suje-ri to Suryum-ri along the coast of Gyeongju, SE Korea. Eight distinct flights of terraces, including HH YC, elevated up to 160 m above present sea level have been mapped along the coast of the study areas, and are designated $L_{II}$ to HH YC from the youngest to oldest. Based on the elevation of paleo-shoreline and inferred formation age for HH YC uplift rate since the middle Pleistocene has been estimated at 0.23 mm/year. Establishing the nature and timing of the uplift history derived from marine terraces provide a better understanding of neotectonic framework for explain enigmatic, complex landscape evolution in the Korean peninsula.