• Title, Summary, Keyword: marine macroalgae

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Recent Prospect of Compounds Derived from Marine Macroalgae for Medicinal Application of Anti-Inflammation for Chemoprevention of Cancer

  • Kim, Moon-Moo
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2011
  • Although marine living organism contains a numerious number of compounds, it is difficult to collect these compounds in a large scale for medicinal application. However, in recent years, several bioactive compounds isolated from marine macroalgae have been proved to be able to provide potential sources for development of medicinal products because they can be obtained in large amount from marine. A number of studies have reported a variety of effects of marine macroalgae but a few anti-inflammatory activity of marine macroalgae have recently been published. Herein, we reviewed novel anti-inflammatory compounds recently isolated from marine brown algae, green algae and red algae. From this survey, in particular, some compounds contained in edible macroalgae exert anti-inflammatory effects with inhibition on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B transcription factor that play a key role in cancer as well as inflammation, demonstrating to be able to potentially apply to development of anti-inflammatory agent for chemoprevention of cancer. Furthermore, some macroalgae and their compounds with both excellent anti-inflammatory activity and very low toxicity can select a potential candidates capable of preventing or treating several chronic inflammation such as colitis, hepatitis and gastritis, leading to cancer.

Sedimentary and Benthic Environment Characteristics in Macroalgal Habitats of the Intertidal Zone in Hampyeong Bay (함평만 조간대 해조류 분포지역의 퇴적 및 저서환경 특성)

  • Hwang, Dong-Woon;Koh, Byoung-Seol
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.694-703
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    • 2012
  • To understand the characteristics of sedimentary and benthic environments in habitats of naturally-occurring intertidal benthic macroalgae, various geochemical parameters of sediment (grain size, ignition loss [IL], chemical oxygen demand [COD], and acid volatile sulfur [AVS]) and pore water (temperature, salinity, pH, and nutrients) were measured in the southern intertidal zone of Hampyeong Bay at two month intervals from April to October 2009. Ecological characteristics including the distribution and biomass of benthic macroalgae were also investigated. Benthic macroalgae were distributed below 4 to 5 m depth from mean sea level near the lower portion of the intertidal zone where air exposure time is relatively short. The distribution area and biomass of benthic macroalgae gradually decreased during the study period. The surface sediments in the benthic algal region were mainly composed of finer sediments, such as slightly gravelly mud and mud. The temperature, salinity, pH, and nutrient concentrations (except dissolved inorganic nitrogen) in pore water did not differ in regions with and without benthic macroalgae, whereas the mean grain size and the concentrations of IL, COD, and AVS in sediments were much higher in regions harboring benthic macroalgae. The correlation between mean grain size and IL in sediments displayed two distinct gradients and the slope was much steeper in regions harboring benthic macroalgae, indicating that the content of organic matter in benthic algal region is not solely dependent on mean grain size. Our results indicate that the benthic macroalgae in the southern intertidal zone of Hampyeong Bay play an important role in the accumulation of organic matter in sediment.

Investigation of ${\alpha}$-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts from 19 Species of Marine Macroalgae in Korea

  • Jeong, So-Young;Qian, Zhong-Ji;Jin, Yeong-Jun;Kim, Gi-Ok;Yun, Pil-Yong;Cho, Tae-Oh
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2012
  • In the present work, we have collected 19 species of macroalgae (9 Phaeophta and 10 Rhodophyta) f rom all around of Korea: Dictyopteris divaricata, D. prolifera, Myelophycus cavus, Papenfussiella kuromo, Petalonia zosterifolia, Petrospongium rugosum, Rugulopteryx okamurae, Sargassum fulvellum, S. muticum, Callophyllis japonica, Gloiopeltis tenax, Gracilaria longissima, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Grateloupia asiatica, Grateloupia lanceolata, Grateloupia sparsa, Grateloupia turuturu, Grateloupia sp, and Polyopes affinis. The macroalgal species were extracted by 70% ethanol (EtOH) for 24 h and evaluated its inhibitory effects on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase. Among ethanol extracts, Myelophycus cavus showed the most effectively inhibitory activity ($IC_{50}$, 2.17 ${\mu}g/ml$) against ${\alpha}$-glucosidase, followed by Sargassum fulvellum (<$IC_{50}$, 8.13 ${\mu}g/ml$), Dictyopteris prolifera ($IC_{50}$, 16.66 ${\mu}g/ml$), Rugulopteryx okamurae ($IC_{50}$, 50.63 ${\mu}g/ml$), and Petrospongium rugosum ($IC_{50}$, 101.62 ${\mu}g/ml$). Furthermore, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay showed no cytotoxicity on mouse pre-adipocytes cell line (3T3-L1). These results suggest that some edible macroalgae merit further evaluation for clinical usefulness as anti-diabetic functional foods.

Biofuel production from macroalgae toward bio-based economy (바이오 기반 경제를 위한 해조류 유래 바이오 연료 생산)

  • Lim, Hyun Gyu;Kwak, Donghun;Jung, Gyoo Yeol
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2014
  • Macroalgae has been strongly touted as an alternative biomass for biofuel production due to its higher photosynthetic efficiency, carbon fixation rate, and growth rate compared to conventional cellulosic plants. However, its unique carbohydrate composition and structure limits the utilization efficiency by conventional microorganisms, resulting in reduced growth rates and lower productivity. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that it is possible to enable microorganisms to utilize various sugars from seaweeds and to produce some energy chemicals such as methane, ethanol, etc. This paper introduces the basic information on macroalgae and the overall conversion process from harvest to production of biofuels. Especially, we will review the successful efforts on microbial engineering through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology to utilize carbon sources from red and brown seaweed.

The Effects of Substituting Squid Meal and Macroalgae with Soybean Meal in a Commercial Diet on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Abalone Haliotis discus hannai (전복(Haliotis discus hannai) 용 배합사료내 오징어분 및 해조류 대체원으로서 대두박이 전복 치패의 성장과 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byeng-Hak;Kim, Hee Sung;Cho, Sung Hwoan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.329-336
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    • 2015
  • We examined the effect of substituting squid meal and macroalgae with soybean meal in a commercial diet on the growth and body composition of juvenile abalone Haliotis discus hannai. We randomly distributed 2310 juvenile abalone into 33 rectangular plastic containers and fed them five experimental diets in triplicate as follows. The control diet (Con) consisted of 12% squid meal, 8% corn gluten and 20% soybean meal as protein source, wherein 10% ${\alpha}$-starch, 20% wheat flour, and 5% dextrin were carbohydrate source. The experimental diets, 50% squid meal (SM50), 50% squid meal and 50% macroalgae (SM50+MA50), and 100% squid meal and 50% macroalgae (SM100+MA50) were substituted with the same respective amounts of soybean meal. The fifth experimental diet consisted of the control diet plus 1% diatom powder (DP). We prepared two domestic (Domestic A and B) and two imported (China and Japan) abalone feeds. Finally, we prepared Undaria and sea tangle. We found that the weight gain of abalone fed the Con, DP, and China and Japan diets was significantly greater than that of abalone fed Undaria and sea tangle. We conclude that the substituting squid meal and macroalgae with soybean meal in abalone feed has limited benefits, but supplementing diets with 1% diatom powder is effective in improving weight gain.

Species-specific responses of temperate macroalgae with different photosynthetic strategies to ocean acidification: a mesocosm study

  • Kim, Ju-Hyoung;Kang, Eun Ju;Edwards, Matthew S.;Lee, Kitack;Jeong, Hae Jin;Kim, Kwang Young
    • ALGAE
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.243-256
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    • 2016
  • Concerns about how ocean acidification will impact marine organisms have steadily increased in recent years, but there is a lack of knowledge on the responses of macroalgae. Here, we adopt an outdoor continuous-flowing mesocosm system designed for ocean acidification experiment that allows high CO2 conditions to vary with natural fluctuations in the environment. Following the establishment of the mesocosm, five species of macroalgae that are common along the coast of Korea (namely Ulva pertusa, Codium fragile, Sargassum thunbergii, S. horneri, and Prionitis cornea) were exposed to three different CO2 concentrations: ambient (×1) and elevated CO2 (2× and 4× ambient), over two-week period, and their ecophysiological traits were measured. Results indicated that both photosynthesis and growth exhibited species-specific responses to the different CO2 concentrations. Most notably, photosynthesis and growth increased in S. thunbergii when exposed to elevated CO2 conditions but decreased in P. cornea. The preference for different inorganic carbon species (CO2 and HCO3), which were estimated by gross photosynthesis in the presence and absence of the external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) inhibitor acetazolamide, were also found to vary among species and CO2 treatments. Specifically, the two Sargassum species exhibited decreased eCA inhibition of photosynthesis with increased growth when exposed to high CO2 conditions. In contrast, growth of U. pertusa and C. fragile were not notably affected by increased CO2. Together, these results suggest that the five species of macroalgae may respond differently to changes in ocean acidity, with species-specific responses based on their differentiated photosynthetic acclimation. Understanding these physiological changes might allow us to better predict future changes in macroalgal communities in a more acidic ocean.

Variations in Nutrients and CO2 Uptake with Growth of Undaria pinnatifida from the South Coast of Korea (미역 (Undaria pinnatifida)의 생장에 따른 영양염과 CO2 흡수율 변화)

  • Shim, Jeong-Hee;Hwang, Jae-Ran;Lee, Jae-Seong;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.679-686
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    • 2010
  • To investigate the contribution of macroalgae to biogeochemical nutrients and carbon cycles, we measured the uptake rates of nutrients and $CO_2$ by Undaria pinnatifida using an incubation method in an acrylic chamber. From January to March 2010, U. pinnatifida was sampled at Ilkwang, a well-known area of macroalgae culture in Korea. The initial and final concentrations of nutrients, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, and pH of the chamber water were measured, and production/uptake rates were calculated using concentration changes, chamber volume, and incubation time. The production rate of dissolved oxygen by U. pinnatifida (n = 32) was about $5.4{\pm}4.0\;{\mu}mol\;g_{fw}^{-1\;}h^{-1}$. The uptake rate of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC), calculated by total alkalinity and pH, was $7.9{\pm}6.5\;{\mu}mol\;g_{fw}^{-1}\;h^{-1}$. Nutrients uptake averaged $141.7{\pm}119.2$ nmol N $g_{fw}^{-1}\;h^{-1}$ and $15.0{\pm}9.1$ nmol P $g_{fw}^{-1}\;h^{-1}$. A positive linear correlation ($r^2$ = 9.6) existed between the production rate of dissolved oxygen and the uptake rate of total dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that these two factors serve as good indicators of U. pinnatifida photosynthesis. The relationships between fresh weight and uptake rates of nutrients and $CO_2$ suggested that younger specimens (<~50 g fresh weight) are much more efficient at nutrients and $CO_2$ uptake than are specimens >50 g. The amount of carbon uptake by the total biomass of U. pinnatifida in Korea during the year of 2008 was about 0.001-0.002% of global ocean carbon uptake. Thus, more research should be focused on macroalgae-based biogeochemical cycles to evaluate the roles and contributions of macroalgae to the global carbon cycle.

Seasonal Variations in Species Composition and Biomass of Epiphytic Algal Community in an Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Bed (잘피밭에 서식하는 부착해조류 군집의 종조성 및 계절변동)

  • Kwak, Seok-Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 2009
  • A total of 3 epiphytic macroalgae were collected from eelgrass bed in Jindong Bay, and Scytosiphon lomentaria and Colpomenia sp. in Phaephyta, Gracilaria sp. in Rhodophyta occurred during study periods. For epiphytic microalgae (diatoms), Cocconeis scutellum and Cocconeis placentula were common species. Seasonal variations of epiphytic algal biomass were marked: the higher epiphytic macroalgae was 3.3 g $DW/m^2$ in November 2003; whereas epiphytic diatoms were 43,153 $cells/m^2$ in June 2003. Diversity and number of epiphytic macroalgae species were the lowest in the study area, compared with those of in other areas such as Koongyang Bay, Dongdae Bay, and Aenggang Bay. These results were therefore likely due to the severe physical characteristics of the intertidal mudflat eelgrass biological characteristics, and the deterioration of water quality.

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Marine Algicolous Endophytic Fungi - A Promising Drug Resource of the Era

  • Sarasan, Manomi;Puthumana, Jayesh;Job, Neema;Han, Jeonghoon;Lee, Jae-Seong;Philip, Rosamma
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1039-1052
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    • 2017
  • Endophytic fungi have currently been acknowledged as the most promising source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery, and considerable progress has been made in exploring their diversity, species richness, and bioprospecting. Fungal endophytes from unique environmental settings offer a pool of potentially useful medicinal entities. Owing to the constant stresses imposed on macroalgae by marine environments, it is believed that algae and their associated endophytic symbionts represent a good source of structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. Despite the proven significance of active metabolites of algal endophytes, little have been exploited. This review highlights the latest discoveries in algicolous endophytic research, with particular focus on the bioactive metabolites from algal endophytes. Compounds are classified according to their reported biological activities, like anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. Present experimental evidence suggests that a majority of the bioactive metabolites were reported from Phaeophyceae followed by Rhodophyceae and Chlorophyceae. An intensive search for newer and more effective bioactive metabolites has generated a treasure trove of publications, and this review partially covers the literature published up to 2016.