• Title, Summary, Keyword: malic acid method

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Organic Acid in Korean Soy-Sauces (한국(韓國) 간장중(中)의 유기산(有機酸)에 대(對)하여)

  • Chang, Chi-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.8
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1967
  • Korean soy-sauces were orepared by the ordinary and impreved method and its analyses on the organic acid. The results obtained is as following: 1. In analysing general components of prepared soy-sauce, total acid, volatile acid and non-volatile acid were found more in improved soy-sauce than in ordinary soy-sauce. 2. Volatile organic acid were analysed by gas-chromatography method. As a result, the followings was attained: a) In the ordinary soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were detected. Butyric acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid are followed in the order. b) In the improved soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were detected. Acetic acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, butyric acid and formic acid are followed in the nrder. 3. Non-volatile organic acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography method. As a result, the followings were attained: a) Lactic, glutaric, fumaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, and succinic acid and two unknown spots were detected in ordinary soysauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, glutaric, malic, fumaric and malonic acid are followed in the order. b) Lactic, glutaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, tartaric, succinic and tgalacturonic acid and two unknown spots were detected in the improved soy-sauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, malic, glutaric, tartaric, galacturonic and malonic acid are followed in the order. 4. ${\alpha}-keto$ acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography. As a result, the followings were attained: Pyruvic acid and ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid and an unknown spot were detected in the ordinary and improved soy-sauce. Pyruvic acid was in the highest amount and then ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid are ollowed in the order. 5. Stale flavor in the ordinary soy-sauces seems to be partly affected by butyric acid and propionic acid. 6. Substances influencing taste, such as lactic acid and succinic acid, were found more in improved soy-sauce than ordinary soy-sauce.

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Organic Acids Content of the Selected Korean Apple Cultivars (우리나라 사과 일부 품종의 유기산 함량)

  • Do, Young-Sook;Whang, Hea-Jeung;Ku, Ja-Eel;Yoon, Kwang-Ro
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.922-927
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    • 2005
  • Total and individual organic acid contents of Malus domestica Borkh, cultivars, Tsugaru, Fuji Jonathan (Hong-Ok), and New Jonagold(Sin-Heung) apples, were investigated. Average titratable acidities measured by titration method and total organic acids content determined by HPLC were 241.64-444.52 and 364.23-680.80mg%, respectively. Average total organic acid contents were Jonathan 630.80mg%, New Jonagold 471.04mg%, Fuji 403.80mg%, and Tsugaru 364.23mg%, Contents of DL-malic, citric, fumaric, and quinic acid were 351.98 (Tsugaru)-579.88mg% (Jonathan), 2.14 (Fuji)-12.95mg% (Jonathan), 0.012 (Fuji)-0.060mg% (Jonathan), and 8.91 (Tsugaru)-14.20mg% (Fuji), respectively. Succinic acid was detected only from Jonathan (27.53mg%) and New Jonagold (5.20mg%), while maleic acid was not detected from all cultivars. Ratio of L-malic acid and DL-malic acid contents were 0.98-1.02 in all apple cultivars.

Magnesium diboride(MgB2) wires for applications

  • Patel, Dipak;Kim, Jung Ho
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2016
  • Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped $MgB_2/Nb/Monel$ wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the $MgB_2$ structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be $25,000-25,300Acm^{-2}$ for the wire sintered at $600^{\circ}C$ for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, $B_{irr}$, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds $10^5Acm^{-2}$ at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires.

Catalytic Combustion of Methane over Perovskite-Type Oxides

  • Hong, Seong-Soo;Sun, Chang-Bong;Lee, Gun-Dae;Ju, Chang-Sik;Lee, Min-Gyu
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2000
  • Methane combustion over perovskite-type oxides prepared using the malic acid method was investigated. To enhance the catalytic activity, the perovskite oxides were modified by the substitution of metal into their A or B site. In addition, the reaction conditions, such as the temperature, space velocity, and partial pressure of the methane were varied to understand their effect on the catalytic performance. With the LaCoO3-type catalyst, the partial substitution of Sr or Ba into site A enhanced the catalytic activity in the methane combustion. With the LaBO3(B=Co, Fe, Mn, Cu)-type catalyst, the catalytic activities were exhibited in the order of Co>Fe Mn>Cu. Futhermore, the partial substitution of Co into site B enhanced the catalytic activity, whereas an excess amount of Co decreased the activity. The surface area and catalytic activity of the perovskite catalysts prepared using the malic acid method showed higher values than those prepared using the solid reaction method. The catalytic activity was enhanced with decreased methane concentration and with a decrease in the space velocity.

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A Stud on the Catalytic Removal of Nitric Oxide (질소산화물의 촉매반응에 의한 저감기술에 관한 연구)

  • 홍성수;박종원;정덕영;박대원;조경목;오광중
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 1998
  • We have studied the reduction of NO by propane over perovskite-type oxides prepared by malic acid method. The catalysts were modified to enhance the activity by substitution by substitution of metal into A or B site of perovskite oxides. In addition, the reaction conditions, such as temperature, $O_2$ concentration, space velocity have been studed. In the $LaCoO_3$ type catalyst, the partial substitution of Ba, Sr into A site enhanced the catalytic activity in the reduction of NO. In the $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{1-x}Fe_xO_3(x=0 \sim 1.9)$ catalyst, the partial substitution of Fe into B site enhanced the conversion of NO, but excess amount of Fe decreased the conversion of NO. The surface area and catalytic activity of perovskite catalysts prepared by malic acid method showed higher values than those of solid reaction method. In the $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{1-x}Fe_xO_3$ catalyst, the conversion of NO increased with increasing $O_2$ concentration and contact time. The introduction of water into reactant feed decreased the catalytic activity.

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Carboxylic Acids as Biomarkers of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

  • Abou Elseoud, Salwa M. F.;Fattah, Nashwa S. Abdel;El Din, Hayam M. Ezz;Abdel Al, Hala;Mossalem, Hanan;Elleboudy, Noha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2010
  • Biomphalaria alexandrina snails play an indispensable role in transmission of schistosomiasis. Infection rates in field populations of snails are routinely determined by cercarial shedding neglecting prepatent snail infections, because of lack of a suitable method for diagnosis. The present study aimed at separation and quantification of oxalic, malic, acetic, pyruvic, and fumaric acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to test the potentiality of these acids to be used as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. The assay was done in both hemolymph and digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails. All of the studied acids in both the hemolymph and tissue samples except for the fumaric acid in hemolymph appeared to be good diagnostic biomarkers as they provide not only a good discrimination between the infected snails from the control but also between the studied stages of infection from each other. The most sensitive discriminating acid was malic acid in hemolymph samples as it showed the highest F-ratio. Using the Z-score, malic acid was found to be a good potential therapeutic biomarker in the prepatency stage, oxalic acid and acetic acid in the stage of patency, and malic acid and acetic acid at 2 weeks after patency. Quantification of carboxylic acids, using HPLC strategy, was fast, easy, and accurate in prediction of infected and uninfected snails and possibly to detect the stage of infection. It seems also useful for detection of the most suitable acids to be used as drug targets.

Development of HPLC-UV method for detection and quantification of seven organic acids in animal feed (사료 중 유기산 7종 동시분석법 개발 및 유통 사료의 모니터링)

  • Kim, Jin kug;Lee, Mi Jin;Lee, Ye Ji;Kim, Hye Jin;Jeong, Min Hee;Kim, Ho Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2016
  • 본 연구에서는 사료 첨가제로 이용되고 있는 유기산 7종(formic acid, malic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, propionic acid)의 동시분석법 개발을 위한 연구를 실시하였다. 7종의 화합물은 표준물질의 Retention time과 UV spectra를 통해 구별하였고, 분석법 검증은 직선성, 민감성, 선택성, 정확성, 정밀성을 통하여 검증하였다. 그 결과로 LOD와 LOQ의 범위가 각각 43~26,755 μg/kg, 12-8,026 μg/kg으로 설정하였고, 평균 회수율이 79.3~95.2%로 우수하게 보였으며, intra-day, inter-day에 대한 전반적인 상대 표준 편차(%RSD)는 3.2% 미만으로 나타났다. 이와 같이 검증된 자료를 통해 유기산의 동시분석에 대한 직선성, 민감성, 선택성, 정확성 및 정밀성을 확인하였고, 높은 수준을 나타냄을 알 수 있었다. 이를 바탕으로 유기산이 검출되는 단미사료 46 가지를 분석에 적용하여 진행하였고, 정량과 동시분석 검출을 위한 방법은 RP-HPLC/UV 검출기를 이용하여 성공적으로 개발되었다. 따라서 본 연구결과를 바탕으로 하여 사료 중의 유기산의 분석이 신속하고 정확해졌을 뿐 아니라, 다른 종류의 사료 또한 이를 적용하여 효율적으로 이용할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

The application of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in the wine industry of South Africa

  • Van Zyl, Anina;Manley, Marena;Wolf, Erhard E.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1257-1257
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    • 2001
  • Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used as a rapid method to measure the $^{o}Brix$ content and to discriminate between different must samples in terms of their fee amino nitrogen (FAN) values. FT-NIR spectroscopy was also used as a rapid method to discriminate between Chardonnay wine samples in terms of the status of the male-lactic fermentation (MLF). This was done by monitoring the conversion of malic to lactic acid and thereby determining whether MLF has started, is underway or has been completed followed by classification of the samples. Furthermore, FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied as a rapid method to discriminate between table wine samples in terms of the ethyl carbamate (EC) content. EC in wine can pose a health threat and need to be monitored by determining the EC content in relation to the regulatory limits set by the authorities. For each of the above mentioned parameters, $QUANT+^{TM}$ methods were built and calibrations derived and it was found that a very strong correlation existed in the sample set for the FT-NIR spectroscopic predictions of $^{o}Brix$ (r = 0.99, SECV = 0.306), but the correlations for the FAN (r = 0.61, SECV = 272.1), malic acid (r = 0.58, SECV = 1.06), lactic acid (r = 0.51, SECV = 1.14) and EC predictions (r = 0.47, SECV = 3.67) were not as good. Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) diagnostics and validation was applied as a sophisticated discrimination method. The must samples could be classified in terms of their FAN values when SIMCA was applied, obtaining results with recognition rates exceeding 80%. When SIMCA diagnostics and validation were applied to determine the progress of conversion of malic to lactic acid and the EC content, again results with recognition rates exceeding 80% were obtained. The evaluation of the applicability of FT-NIR spectroscopy measurement of FAN, $^{o}Brix$ values, malic acid, lactic acid and EC content in must and wine shows considerable promise. FT-NIR spectroscopy has the potential to reduce the analytical times considerably in a range of measurements commonly used during the wine making process. Where conventional FT-NIR calibrations are not effective, SIMCA methods can be used as a discriminative method for rapid classification of samples. SIMCA can replace expensive, time-consuming, quantitative analytical methods, if not completely, at least to some extent, because in many processes it is only needed to know whether a specific cut off point has been reach or not or whether a sample belongs to a certain class or not.

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Quality Characteristics of Kiwi Wine and Optimum Malolactic Fermentation Conditions (참다래 와인의 최적 malolactic fermentation 조건과 품질 특성)

  • Kang, Sang-Dong;Ko, Yu-Jin;Kim, Eun-Jung;Son, Yong-Hwi;Kim, Jin-Yong;Seol, Hui-Gyeong;Kim, Ig-Jo;Cho, Hyoun-Kook;Ryu, Chung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.509-514
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    • 2011
  • Maloactic fermentation (MLF) occurs after completion of alcoholic fermentation and is mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Oenococcus oeni. Kiwi wine more than commercial grape wine has the problem of high acidity. Therefore, we investigated the optimal MLF conditions for regulating strong acidity and improving the quality properties of wine fermented with Kiwi fruit cultivated in Korea. For alcohol fermentation, industrial wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 12650 strains and LAB, known as MLF strains, were used to alleviate wine acidity. First, the various experimental conditions of Kiwi fruit, initial pH (2.5, 3.5, 4.5), fermenting temperature (20, 25, $30^{\circ}C$), and sugar contents (24 $^{\circ}Brix$), were adjusted, and after the fermentation period, we measured the acidity, pH, and the change in organic acid content by the AOAC method and HPLC analysis. The alcohol content of fermented Kiwi wine was 12.75%. Further, total acidity and pH of Kiwi wine were 0.78% and 3.5, respectively. Total sugar and total polyphenol contents of Kiwi wine were 38.72 mg/ml and 60.18 mg/ml, respectively. With regard to organic acid content, the control contained 0.63 mg/ml of oxalic acid, 2.99 mg/ml of malic acid, and 0.71 mg/ml of lactic acid, whereas MLF wine contained 0.69 mg/ml of oxalic acid, 0.06 mg/ml of malic acid, and 3.12 mg/ml of lactic acid. Kiwi wine had lower malic acid values and total acidity than control after MLF processing. In MLF, the optimum initial pH value and fermentation temperature were 3.5 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. Therefore, these studies suggest that establishment of optimal MLF conditions could improve the properties of Kiwi wine manufactured in Korea.

Effect of Bamboo (Pseudosasa japonica Makino)Leaves on the Physicochemical Properties of Dongchimi (대나무(이대)잎이 동치미의 발효 중 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김미정;장명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.459-468
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bamboo(Idae) leaves on the taste and preservation of Dongchimi. Dongchimi was prepared by the method described in the literatures and fermented at 10$^{\circ}C$ for 75 days. The amounts of bamboo leaves used to cover the Donchimi was 1, 3, 5 and 7% of radish weight. Total vitamin C content increased gradually in the initial stage of the fermentation periods, and then it decreased gradually. Regardless of the amount of bamboo leves, the reducing sugar content increased gradually from the initial stage of fermentation increased rapidly after 8 days of fermentation. As the amount of bamboo leaves increased, the reducing sugar content was retained longer, which reflected the retardation of Dongchimi fermentation. The free amino acid contents in all of the Dongchimi samples were in order of arginine > glutaric acid > aspartic acid > alanine at the initial period of fermentation, but the order changed to arginine > alanine > glutamic acid > valine as fermentation proceeded over 23 days. Among the five non-volatile organic acids identified, the levels of malic acid and citric acid were decreased during fermentation, while those of lactic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid were increased. There was a significant increase in lactic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and citric acid contents during fermentation. The content of water soluble pectin(WSP) was higher than other pectins at the initial stages, but the content of WSP decreased as fermentation proceeded.

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