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A rare duodichogamous flowering system in monoecious Toona sinensis (Meliaceae)

  • Lee, Hakbong;Kang, Hyesoon;Park, Wan-Geun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.50-59
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    • 2018
  • Background: Duodichogamy is the rarest form of dichogamy in angiosperms, which is characterized by flowering in the sequence of male${\rightarrow}$female${\rightarrow}$male. Disentangling factors promoting duodichogamy require the discovery of more duodichogamous species in angiosperms. However, extremely limited information on duodichogamous species makes it difficult to make general conclusions. Given the inflorescence morphology and flowering characteristics, the Meliaceae family is highly likely to contain duodichogamous species. Methods: We selected 48 individuals from 20 populations in Korea and investigated their flower morphology, arrangement of flowers by sexual condition within inflorescences, and flowering phases and duration of male and female flowers of Toona sinensis (Meliaceae) for 5 years (2011-2015) to determine if the species shows duodichogamous flowering. Results: Toona sinensis belonging to Meliaceae possessed functionally unisexual flowers with rudimentary parts of the opposite sex. The floral organs in male were larger than those in female, except for ovary length and width. In dichasium, male flowers were observed on primary or lateral branches, whereas female flowers were borne only on lateral branches. Overall, individuals from six different populations flowered in the male${\rightarrow}$female${\rightarrow}$male sequence, thereby male is blooming far longer than female flowers at the level of individual trees (male vs. female = 17-20 days vs. 2-4 days). Conclusions: This is the first study to report a duodichogamously flowering species, T. sinensis, within Meliaceae. Several flowering characteristics observed from T. sinensis may be important clues used to discover additional duodichogamous Meliaceae species. Short flowering period and relatively small number of female flowers, which is analogous to reduced ovule numbers observed in other duodichogamous species, may intensify male-male competition in T. sinensis. This study contributed to narrowing down potential candidates of duodichogamy based on their geographic distributions and flowering time.

Study on Body Circumference Ratio according to Sasang Constitution Using Body Composition (체성분 분석을 통한 사상체질의 신체 둘레 비율에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Ju-No;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.338-344
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to find the charateristics of Sasang Constitution, Soeumin, Soyangin and Taeumin from the result of body Circumference ratio. In this study, 324 data of body circumference were measured by body composition analysis. We analyzed the body circumference ratio by Sasang Constitution, Soeumin, Soyangin and Taeumin. Taeumin's body circumference were significantly higher than those of Soeumin and Soyangin. Soyangin's body circumference was significantly higher than that of Soeumin. Male Taeumin's muscle circumference were significantly higher than those of male Soyangin and male Soeumin. Female Taeumin's fat thickness were significantly higher than those of female Soyangin and female Soeumin. Male Soeumin's ratio of hip circumference and neck circumference to abdomen circumference were significantly higher than those of male Taeumin and male Soyangin. Male Taeumin's ratio of hip circumference to abdomen circumference were significantly lower than those of male Soeumin and male Soyangin. Female Taeumin's ratio of hip circumference and chest circumference to abdomen circumference were significantly lower than those of female Taeumin and female Soyangin. In body circumference ratio, Soyangin had no difference among Sasang Constitution. In body circumference ratio, male Soeumin had big lower area ratio and big upper area ratio to lower-middle area. Male Taeumin had big lower-middle area ratio to lower area. Female Taeumin had big lower-middle area ratio to lower area and upper-middle area.

A Clinical Properties on Nutrients Intake, anthropometric Measurement and Serum Contents of Diabetic Subjects by Body Fat Distribution in Ansung District (경기도 안성지역 당뇨환자의 체지방분포 형태에 따른 영양소 섭취 실태와 체위 및 혈앵성상의 임상적 특징)

  • 노숙령;고희숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.892-900
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate the clinical characteristics of 78 diabetics by body fat distribution pattern. It was based on the survey of nutritional status, anthropometric measurements and serum components of the patients. The results were as follows: the average ages of male and female subjects were 57.1, and that of female subjects was 58.9, respectively. The average diabetic durations of male and female subjects were 4.8 and 5.9 years, respectively. In male, the ratio of upper body obese subject was 62.5% and the lower body obese subjects was 37.5%, while those of female were 69.4% and 30.6%, respectively. In nutrient intake state, there was no significant difference between male and female subjects, but calory intake of upper body obese subjects was difference between male and female subjects, but calory intake of upper body obese subjects was tend to be higher in both male and female subjects. among the three major nutrients/calory ratio, protein/calory ratio was significantly lower in the male upper body obese subjects than in the male lower body obese subjects. Since weight, circumference of arm and waist, waist hip ratio(WHR) of both male and female subjects, body muscle mass(BMM) of male subjects and body mass index (BMI) of female subjects were significantly higher in upper body obese group, upper body obese subjects represented ore fat than lower body obese subjects. In male subjects, hemoglobin(Hb), A/G of upper body obese subjects were lower than the standard value, but there was no significant difference in the serum components between two subjects. In female subjects, Hb and A/G of lower body obese subjects were lower than those of the normal subjects, but Hb and Ht of upper body obese subjects were significantly higher than those of the lower body obese subjects.

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The Study of Nutrient Intakes, Blood Lipids and Bone Density According to Obesity Degree Among University Students in Jeonbuk (전북지역 대학생의 비만도 분류에 따른 영양소 섭취, 혈중지질 및 골밀도에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Hye-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.743-757
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient intakes, blood lipids and bone density of male(n=69) and female(n=71) according to the obesity index by %Fat. The average energy intakes of obesity group was higher than normal group in male & female(p<0.001). The protein and fat intakes among three energy nutrients for male were higher than normal group(p<0.05~0.01), and carbohydrate intake of obesity group in female was higher than the other groups. TG, TC/HDL, blood glucose, blood pressure in male were higher than female(p<0.01~0.001), but HDL in male was lower than female. TC/HDL and diastolic blood pressure of obesity group were higher than normal group in male(p<0.05), but had not significant in female. Blood glucose in male was higher than female(p<0.001). T-score of forearm(=-1.26) and calcaneus(=0.42) for female were lower than male(=-0.63, 0.83), and T-score of calcaneus for obesity group(=1.03) in female was higher than normal group(=0.10). The T-score of forearm for obesity group in female was higher than the other group, but was not significant. These results suggest that ratio among three energy nutrients was kept balance for obesity group, especially, fat must be reduced in male than female, carbohydrate will be reduced in female than male to prevent obesity. Nutritional education for treatment obesity to prevent hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis is important for male too. T-score of forearm was lower than calcaneus in female, so exercise with arm than leg would be required to accumulate calcium in bone and to increase muscle to prevent osteoporosis.

An Exploratory Study of Masculinity in Nursing (간호에서의 남성성에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Kim, Mi Young
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was to explore the meaning of masculinity in nursing by investigating how the male qualities are expressed in the culture of nursing wherein men represent a minority group. Methods: Connell's hegemonic masculinity theory (1987, 1995) and qualitative thematic analysis were used to conduct this study in which eight male nurses participated. Braun and Clarke's six stages of thematic analysis (2006) were used for data analysis. Results: The results indicated that masculinity in nursing meant 'soft masculinity' meeting the expectations of the discipline while keeping the male qualities intact. Male nurses were found to suppress their masculinity at earlier stages of their career and to make themselves more accommodating to the profession. However, males re-asserted their masculinity once they became more comfortable with their nursing work. Conclusion: In the field of nursing, masculinity was found to be subjected to stages of attenuating and consolidating which take place in succession. Consolidation of the male qualities was motivated rather unexpectedly by female colleagues. The results confirmed that the issue of gender in nursing is an important factor in recruiting and understanding male nurses in the future.

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Call Types of Dybowski′s Brown Frog and Their Variations from Two Recording Areas

  • Park, Shi-Ryong;Cheong,;Yang, Suh-Yung
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.309-313
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    • 2000
  • Since specific types and physical characteristics of anuran calls can represent reproductive qualities of a calling male, anuran calls have been studied in context of mate choice. We in here report call types of Rana dybowskii and their variations from two different recording sites. Calls of R. dybowskii are classified to three types based on their physical characteristics and behavioral observations; 'A-call'functions to advertise locations of a calling male and to attract potential mates. A territorial male emits 'B-call'only during male-male interaction. 'C -call'is released when a male frog was clasped by another male. The A-call from two recording sites, Miwon and Wonju, shows high variations in their call characteristics.

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BIOMETRICAL STUDIES ON THE WIDTH OF MOUTH IN SINGAPORIAN SUFJECTS (신가파의 구경에 관한 생체계측학적 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Kyung
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 1977
  • For biometric study on the widlth of mouth in singaporian the author measured the transversal width of mouth, Longitudinal width of mouth and Interdental space in 652 cases of the total cases 317 were male (chinese 235. malay50, Indian 32) and 335 Female (Chinese 260, malay 53. Indian 22) and Ages ranged from 5 to 25 yeass old. The fallowing result was obtained. 1) In Adult, transversal width of mouth was 54. 20±0.22mm in male, 53.00±0.10mm in female and 40.03±0.26mm in male, 39.39±0.30mm in female of children. 2) In Abult, Longitudinal width of mouth was 52.00±0.12mm in male, 48.40±0.15mm in female and 44.50±0.13mm in male 44.20±0.30mm in female of children. 3) In Adult, Interdental Space (anterior teeth) was 44.20±0.15mm in male. 44.00±0.20mm in Fmale and 38.40±0.15mm in male, 37.17±0.21mm in Female of Children.

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A Study on the Food habits and Food Preference of College Students in Ik-San Area (대학생의 식습관과 식품선호도에 관한 조사 연구 -전북 익산 지역을 중심으로-)

  • 신미경
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.89-106
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate food habits and food preference of 108 male and 123 female college students through questionnaires. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. Average height of male and female students were 171.8cm, 160.2cm and the average body weight of those were 64.4kg, 51.4kg, respectively. 2. Average PIBW of male and female students were 99.8, 95.3 and average BMI were 21.8, 20.1, respectively. 3. 25 percent of male and 17.1% of female subjects skipped breakfast almost everyday. 4. BMI of those who likes sweet taste was higher than other groups. 5. korean food was favored by college students and the preference of korean food was higher in male than female. 6. In staple foods, cooked rice was preferred most by the subjects, male liked cooked rice more than female. in side-dishes, Pork and beef dish were preferred most in male and Kimchi stew was preferred most in female. in snacks, fruits and bread were preferred most by the subjects.

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Information Sources of Reference Used by Male College Students for Casual Wear Purchase Decisions

  • Shin, Su-Yun
    • The International Journal of Costume Culture
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to identify the information sources of reference used by male college students. Theoretical framework is based upon social comparison theory, reference group theory, and Kotler's model of personal and non-personal sources of reference. The subjects were 287 male college students. The questionnaire were distributed to the school area and the commercial area such as Shinchon, Myung-Dong, and Apkujung-Dong in Seoul. Means, standard deviation, frequency, T-test, one-way ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple range test were applied for the analyses of data. The result of hyporthesis 1 showed that male college student utilize personal and non-personal sources of reference indiscriminately. The result of hypothesis 2 showed that male college students consult the socially high-proximal group such as a girl friend(a lover) and mother most actively. The result of hypothesis 3 found that male college students use position media most actively, especially in-store displays, followed by print media and broadcast media.

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Harmony Perception according to Contrast Coloration of Shirt and Necktie by Male and Female (셔츠와 넥타이의 컨트라스트 배색에 대한 남녀의 조화감 지각)

  • Lim, Ji-Young;Kang, Kyung-Ja
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.838-851
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the harmony evaluation and the effects used clues on harmony perception in terms of 128 contrast coloration of male shirt and necktie by male and female students. The results are as follows. Among 128 contrast coloration stimuli, female students evaluated 42 set, male students 50 set, so proved that male's range of harmony more extensive than that of female. It is significant difference between female and male on shirt-necktie coloration; vivid red shirt-vivid green tie, dull red shirt-dark blue tie, light red shirt-dull blue tie, dark red shirt-light blue tie, light green shirt-vivid violet tie, light green shirt-light red tie, light green shirt-dull red tie. Especially, in contrast coloration, it was evaluated as harmonized coloration by both male and female as tie was dark tone on the whole.

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