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Inability of Mate and Species Recognition by Male Asian Toads, Bufo gargarizans

  • Cheong, Seok-Wan;Sung, Ha-Cheol;Park, Shi-Ryong
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.93-96
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    • 2008
  • In recent years, we frequently observed missmatched pairs between male Asian toads, Bufo gargarizans, and bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, at the toad breeding ponds, where scramble competition for mating occurred among the male toads. Thus, we performed two-choice experiments to investigate recognition ability of mates and species in male toads. The test males did not discriminate sexes, but the clasped stimulus males immediately produced release calls and stopped it while the clasped stimulus female did not. In addition, the test male toads did not discriminate reproductive state of females and even species. However, male toads chose larger individuals. The present results indicate that the main reason of missmatched amplexus by the male toads is due to 1) the lack of recognition cues of conspecifics, 2) the lack of communication tools like release calls, and 3) the larger size of bullfrogs than male toads themselves.

A STUDY ON THE IRREGULARITIES OF TEETH IN MALOCCLUSION (부정교합(不正咬合)의 치아부정양상(齒牙不正樣相)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Roh, Tae Rae
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.39-65
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    • 1979
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of irregularities of teeth in various malocclusion groups. The subjects consist of 803 out-patients (355 males, and 448 females) in department of Orthodontics of S.N.U. Hospital, Yonsei University, and Kyunghi University Hospital. The results were as follows. 1. The proportions of subjects on the basis of Angle's Classification were 39.2% (42.2% male, and 57.8% fomale) in class I malocclusion, 29.0% (44.6% male, and 55.4% female) in class II. div. 1., 3.5%(46.4% male, and 53.6% female) in class II. div. 2., 28.3%(46.3% male, and 53.7% female) in class III. 2. Considering all the subjects, the percentage of teeth crowding was 67.8% (45.0% male, and 55.0% female). In class I malocclusion, the percentage of Crowding was 70.8%(43.5% male, and 56.5% female) with higher frequency in upper anterior teeth than in lower anterior. 3. The percentage of Maxillary anterior diastema was 25.6% (45.6% male, and 54.4% female) on the whole. In class II. div. 1. malocclusion, the percentage was 28.8% (46.3% male, and 53.7% female) and in class III, the percentage was 19.8% (46.7% male, and 53.3% female). Thus, frequency of maxillary anterior distema, was comparatively higher in class II. div. 1. than in class III. 4. The percentage of high canine was 25.1% (53.2% male, and 46.8% female) on the whole, and was 86.0% male and 76.6% female in right side, 73.0% male and 72.3% female in left side. In calss II. div. 2., the percentage was 53.6% (46.7% male, and 53.3% female ). In class II. div. 1., the percentage was 16.7% (46.2% male, and 53.8%) with higher frequency in class II. div.2. 5. The percentage of deep overbite was 23.0% (43. 2% male, and 56.8% female) on the whole. Ia class 11. div. 2., and in clas sll. div. 1., its were 89.3%(48.0% male and 52.0% female), 54.5% (40.9% male, and 59.1% female) respectively. This result can be considered as one of the characterics of Angle's class 11 malocclusion group. 6. The percentage of spacing was 23.0% (36.8% male, and 63.2% female) on the whole, In class II. div. 1., and in class II. div. 2., its were 26.1% (44.3% male, and 55. 7% female), 7.1% (50.0% male, and 50.0% female) respectively. 7. The percentage of open bite was 14.3% (42.6% male, and 57.4% female) on the whole with higher rate on the anterior part. It rated 17.6%(50. 0% male, and 50.0% female) in class III, but none in class II. div. 2. 8. The percentage of crossbite was 22.5% (55.8% male, and 44.2% female) on the whole, with higher frequency on the anterior part than on the posterior part. In Angle's class III, it rated as much as 55.1% (57.6% male, and 42.4% female). 9. The percentage of edge-to-edge bite was 20.4% (47.6% male, and 52.4% female) with higher frequency on anterior part than on posterior part. 10. The percentage of irregularities of teeth in various malocclusion groups, was 21.5% (24.8% maxillary, and 18.1% mandible) in crowding, 20.8% (23.5% maxillary, and 18.0% mandible) in rotation, 10.7% (10.6% maxillary, and 10.8% mandible) in cross bite, 9.5% (11.8% maxillary, and 7.3% mandible) in spacing, 8.5% (8.5% maxillary, and 8.5% mandible) in edge-to-edge bite, 8.1% (8.3% maxillary, 7.8% mandible) in open bite. Crowding teeth, spacing teeth, and rotating teeh were more prevalent in anterior part than in posterior part. Cross bite teeth and edge-to-edge bite teeth were more prevalent in class III malocclusion than in another.

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A Study on Body Composition and IADL of the Elderly according to the Sex (성별에 따른 노인의 신체조성과 IADL에 관한 연구)

  • Um, Ki-Mai;Yang, Yoon-Kwon
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.321-331
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of body composition and IADL of between male elder and female elder. (This study consisted of elder male(n=10) and elder female(n=10),) The mean age of elder male and female was 67.20, 67.50 years. The data were analyzed with t-test, using SPSS PC+ program. Body composition was measured using Inbody 2.0(seoul, korea) of segmental multi-frequency impedance analyzer technique. IADL was measured with Philadelphia Geriatric Center IADL. The result of this study were the following: 1. The difference of Body composition 1) The %fat of elder female was significantly(p<0.05) higher than elder male by 11.48%. 2) The fat mass(kg) of elder female was significantly(p<0.05) higher than elder male by 6.28kg. 3) The free fat mass(kg) of elder male was significantly(p<0.05) higher than elder female by 9.03kg. 4) The muscle mass(kg) of elder male was significantly(p<0.05) higher than elder female by 8.63kg. 5) The WHR(%) elder female was no significantly higher than elder male by 0.03%. 6) The TBW(l) of elder male was significantly(p<0.05) higher than elder female by 6.321. The factor of significant difference of between elder male and female was %fat, fat mass(kg), free fat mass(kg), total body water(l). 2. The difference of IADL 1) IADL of elder male was no significantly higher than elder female by 1.20. As a result of this study, optimal body composition group was elder male group. Optimal body composition of elder had improved IADL. In addition to, this result of this study, it can suggested the consideration of the Health promotion program for elder.

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Effects on Threshold Change of Motor Nerve under Controlled Sensory Stimulation (조절된 감각자극이 운동신경의 역치변화에 미치는 효과)

  • Min, Kyung-Ok;Kim, Soon-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.599-608
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    • 1995
  • If a controlled sensory stimulation is given to the specific receptors, a reflex movement and motor engrams is achieved by the principle of neurophysiology. Based on this theoretical background, we choose 80 healthy person(male 40,female 40) and compare chronaxie of before stimulation with after stimulation. Also we measured chronaxie with same method. Stimulation was applied to the muscle belly by tapping. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The mean value of rheobase measured from the proximal part of upper extremity is 3. 56mA for male, 4.04mA for female. 2. The mean value of rheobase measured from the lower extremity is 4.19mA for male, 4. 37mA for female, which is higher than that of upper extremity for both male and female. 3. The mean value of chronaxie from the proximal part of upper extremity is 0.91msec for male, 0.87 msec for female, which means male is higher than female, and the average is 0.82msec. 4. The mean value of chronaxie from the proximal part of lower extremity is 1.04msec for male, 1.14msec for female, which means female is higher than male. 5. The decrease of rheobase after stimulation is prominent at the triceps brachii for male, biceps brachii for female. 6. The decrease of rheobase after stimulation is prominent at the tibialis anterior for both male and female. 7. The decrease of chronaxie after stimulation is prominent for both male and female at the triceps brachii from upper extremity and at the tibialis anterior from lower extremity for both male and female.

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The Influence of Gender on Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

  • Moon, Seong-Min
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.329-336
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    • 2011
  • The female has previously been shown to be an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate gender differences of the perioperative outcomes in elderly patients underwent CABG. Data for seventy elderly patients (>70 years) that underwent CABG (between January 2005 and July 2011) were divided into two groups: male patients (n=33, male group) and female patients group (n=37, female group). Heights, body weights, body surface area and coronary artery obstruction rate (right coronary artery territory) in the female group were lower than those of the male group ($P$ <0.05). History of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure and percutaneous coronary artery intervention in the female group was higher than that of the male group ($P$ <0.05). Total cholesterol and brain natriuretic peptide levels in the female group were higher than those of the male group ($P$ <0.05). Platelet count in the female group was higher than the male group at preoperative (Pre-OP) period ($P$ <0.05). Erythrocyte count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the female group were lower than those of the male group at Pre-OP period ($P$ <0.05). But, erythrocyte count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the female group were higher than those of the Male group at postoperative (Post-OP) period ($P$ <0.05). Left ventricular ejection fraction in the female group was higher than the male group at Post-OP period ($P$ <0.05). Hospital stay length in the female group was higher than the male group ($P$ <0.05). Post-OP bleeding volume and incidence of ventricular premature contraction in the female group were lower than those of the male group ($P$ <0.05). These results suggest that despite female gender have a greater risk factors and require a longer hospitalization than male, there was no significant difference incidence of mortality and complication.

Reproductive Function of the Body and Tail Undulations of Hynobius leechii (Amphibia: Hynobiidae): A Quantitative Approach

  • Kim, Ja-Kyeong;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Ra, Nam-Yong;Lee, Heon-Ju;Eom, Jun-Ho;Park, Dae-Sik
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2009
  • To clarify the reproductive function of vibration signals in Hynobius, which has externally fertilized eggs, we quantitatively analyzed the body and tail undulations of male Korean salamanders (Hynobius leechii) in sixteen mating events. One large and one small male, and one female were used in each mating event. We analyzed behaviors recorded over a total of 3 hrs for each mating event; 2 hrs before and 1 hr after female's oviposition. Males touched females using their snouts or body trunk throughout the entire mating periods, but females touched males increasingly more after approximately 1 hr before oviposition. Males conducted body undulations more than 50 times per 10 minutes at a mean frequency of 0.64 Hz. Large males conducted more body undulations than small males, particularly on the tree twig where females attached their egg sacs. Males responded to other males' body undulation throughout the mating period by orienting their head towards, approaching, and touching the undulating male. Females only responded for about 10-20 min before ovipositing, and most responses were directed to the large male's body undulation. Males conducted tail undulations 3.0 times per 10 min at a mean frequency of 1.7 Hz and most tail undulations occurred after one male bit the other male. These results suggest that body undulations function in both male-female and male-male interactions, while tail undulations mainly functions in male-male competition. Also, male H. leechii appear to actively attract females, while females respond to the males only at times close to oviposition.

1226-0983 A Study on Prevalence of Obesity, Eating Habits and Life Styles of 5th Grade Students in Inchon (인천시내 초등학교 5학년생의 비만실태와 식습관 및 생활습관에 관한 연구)

  • 유정순;최윤진;김인숙;장경자;천종희
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, eating habits and life styles of children. This survey was carried out anthropometry and questionnaires in 180 male and 141 female students of fifth-grade at Dongmak elementary school. The results are summarized as follows : 1)18.2% of the male and 19.3% of female students were obese. Underweight group was 10.5% of the male and 15.0% of the female students. 2) Average height of male and female students were 142.0㎝, 144.0㎝ and weight of those were 35.8㎏ and 37.1㎏ respectively. The height and skinfold thickness of the triceps in female students were significantly higher than those of male students and body fat content in female students was significantly lower than that of male students. There was no difference in BMI, RW and RI between male and female students. The average BMI, RW, RI were 17.7, 25.4, 124.0, respectively. 3) The student's height was positively related to parent's height and moth's weight. There were significantly positive correlation between mother's and subject's weight. BMI, RW and RI were positively related to parent's BMI. 4) 78.3% of male and 51.8% of female students had prejudice for special food, and 45.5% of male and 34.5% of female students had an overeating habit. Male students had significanthy higher rate than female in both cases. Average eating time per meal was 18.9 minutes for male and 21.0 minutes for female students. Experience for taking nutrient supplement in male student was more than that in female. Obese group had prejudice for special food, overeating habit and rapid eating rate more than any other groups. The prevalence of obesity among the children is gradually increasing. Therefore, in order to prevent progress into adulthood obesity, nutrition education including the right perception for obesity and eating behavior modification was needed.

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A Study on the Food Habits and Dietary Intakes of University Students in Busan Area (부산지역 대학생들의 식습관 및 식이섭취 실태에 대한 조사연구)

  • Kang, Hee-Jung;Kang, Hee-Jung;Cho, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.70-82
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the food habits and dietary intakes of University students in Busan areas. The survey was carried out by self-questionnaires with 130 male and 156 female students. The results obtained were as fellows. 1. 95.3% of male and 76.4% of female students answered they are moderate or healthy. The rates of alcohol drinking in male and female students were 94.5% and 81.0% and the rates of smoking were 73.2% and 2.0% respectively 34.6% of male and 56.9% of female students didn't regular exercise. 2. 21.3% of male and 10.5% of female students were satisfied with their current body image and 74.3% of female students wanted thinner figure. Male students attempted to weight control by exercise and females did by exercise and fasting. 3. The average BMI of students were 22.60 in males and 19.53 in females respectively and 78.0%, of female students were underweight. 4. Breakfast was skipped in 79.5%, of male and 83.7% of female students and it appeared male students eat faster than female students. 5 Male students preferred beverage and noodles and females preferred bread, biscuit, snack and beverage as snack food and female students had a higher tendency to enjoy snack time. The frequency of eating out was higher in female students and the standard of food choice was preference > price > convenience > nutritional value. The favorite dishes were meats > poultry > fruits > fishes, cereals, noodles in male and fruits > meats > cereals > poultry > noodles > fishes in female students. 6. The average energy intake were 1715.70kca1 in male and 1588.71kcal in female students respectively and the intakes of Ca, vitamin A and B2 were lower than RDA in male and female students.

Comparison of Gait Patterns of Elementary School Male Student in Higher Grades Pursuant to Character Styles (초등학교 고학년 남학생의 성격 유형에 따른 보행형태 비교)

  • Lee, Min Ji;Lee, Ki Chung;Kwak, Chang Soo
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to compare gait patterns of elementary school male students in higher grades according to their character styles. Method: 4 extroverted character male subjects (height: $141.35{\pm}7.75cm$, weight: $43.65{\pm}5.80kg$) and 4 introverted character male subjects (height: $145.38{\pm}8.94cm$, weight: $42.15{\pm}10.71kg$) participated in this study. Results: As for walk styles of elementary school male students in higher grades according to their character patterns, there was not significant differences in gait cycle, stride width, stride length and walking speed. According to examination of average ratio of maximum vertical ground reaction force according to their characters divided by weight, elementary school male students in higher grades with extroverted character showed 114.69% of weight and students with introverted character showed 122.82% of weight, which exhibited that students with introverted character had larger ratio as much as 8.13% than students with extroverted character. The statistical significance level was 0.000 showing significant difference. Conclusion: Our results indicated that male students in higher grades with introverted character press ground hard and walk with strong steps. On the other hand, male students with extroverted character walk with light steps.

A Study on the Perception of Male and Female Elders in their 60s on their body shape (60대 남녀노인의 신체에 대한 인식 연구)

  • 이영주
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.27 no.9_10
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    • pp.1072-1080
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    • 2003
  • This study presents comparisons between 286 male and female in their 60s in terms of the perception of their body shape. The results were as follows: 1. In the perception of male and female elders in their sixties on their body shape, a larger number of female elders considered that they were fat, short and heavy than male elder did. With regard to satisfaction with the body, male elders appeared to be more satisfied with their bodies than female elders, and both male and female elders were dissatisfied most with their abdomen girth. 2. The satisfaction of male and female elders in their sixties with their body shape appeared to be influenced more by their perception than their measured sizes. They were more satisfied with their body shape when they perceived that they had small girths, they were tall and they had long legs. In addition, female elders were more satisfied with their body shape when they perceived that their thigh girth and ankle girth were large. 3. As for perception on normal body types and fat body types and satisfaction, male elders' satisfaction with their body shape appeared to be less influenced by their body types than female elders'.