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Effects of Different Types of Dietary Fat on Muscle Atrophy According to Muscle Fiber Types and PPAR${\delta}$ Expression in Hindlimb-Immobilized Rats (지방의 종류가 다른 식이의 섭취가 하지고정 흰 쥐의 근 섬유별 근 위축과 PPAR${\delta}$ 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ho-Uk;Park, Mi-Na;Lee, Yeon-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.355-365
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    • 2011
  • This study investigated how dietary fat affects muscle atrophy and lipid metabolism in various muscles during hindlimb immobilization in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague?Dawley rats had their left hindlimb immobilized and were divided into four groups by dietary fat content and composition. The contralateral hindlimb (control) was compared with the immobilized limb in all dietary groups. Rats (n = 6/group) were fed a 4% corn oil diet (CO), 2.6% corn oil + 1.4% fish oil diet (FO), 30% corn oil diet (HCO), or a 30% beef tallow diet (HBT)after their hind limbs were immobilized for 10 days. Data were collected for the gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles. Muscle atrophy was induced significantly after 10 days of hindlimb immobilization, resulting in significantly decreased muscle mass and total muscle protein content. The protein levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ${\delta}$ (PPAR${\delta}$) in the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus increased following hindlimb immobilization irrespective of dietary fat intake. Interestingly, the PPAR${\delta}$ mRNA level in the plantaris decreased significantly in all groups and that in the FO group was lower than that in the other groups. The soleus PPAR${\delta}$ mRNA level decreased significantly following hindlimb immobilization in the FO group only. Muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (mCPT1) mRNA level was not affected by hindlimb immobilization. However, the mCPT1 mRNA level in the FO group was significantly lower in the plantaris but higher in the soleus than that in the other groups. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA level in the plantaris decreased significantly, whereas that in the soleus increased significantly following hindlimb immobilization. The plantaris, but not soleus, PDK4 mRNA level was significantly higher in the FO group than that in the CO group. The increased PPAR${\delta}$ protein level following hindlimb immobilization may have suppressed triglyceride accumulation in muscles and different types of dietary fat may have differentially affected muscle atrophy according to muscle type. Our results suggest that ${\omega}$-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may suppress muscle atrophy and lipid accumulation by positively affecting the expression level and activity of PPAR${\delta}$ and PPAR${\delta}$-related enzymes, which are supposed to play an important role in muscle lipid metabolism.

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Assessment of Food·Nutrient Intakes among Adult Visitors of a Public Health Center in Korea (일부 보건소 내원자의 대사증후군 발현과 식품 및 영양소 섭취 실태)

  • Jeong, Won-Hoon;Jin, Bok-Hee;Hwang, Eun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and assess nutrient intake levels for the purpose of improving MS risk factors. The participants in this study were 512 adults consisting of 271 men and 241 women aged 30 and over, who visited a public health center for a medical check up. The diagnosis of MS subjects was adapted from the NCEP-ATPIII guidelines and the WHO Asia-Pacific Area criteria for obesity. The MS group was defined as subjects displaying three or more risk factors, and the non MS group was defined as those displaying two or less risk factors. A dietary survey was conducted using the 24-hour recall method. The number of subjects displaying MS syndrome factors was 158 (30.9%), broken down into, 89 men and 69 women. Regarding risk factors in the MS group, the prevalence of waist circumference was 40.5%, hypertension 34.2%, hyperglycemia 31.0%, low HDL-cholesterol 24.7%, and hypertriglycemia 19.6%. BMI, sistolic blood pressure, blood glocose, blood triglyceride, and blood HCL-cholesterol of the MS group were significantly higher compared to the non MS group. Male subjects in the MS group reported high intakes of cereals, sugar, fruits, meat and poultry, oil and fats, and beverages and total food intake was significantly higher compared to the non MS group. Women in the MS group reported high intakes of meat and poultry, milk and dairy products, beverages, and seasonings, and total food intake was higher compared to the non MS group. Dietary diversity score (DDS) was 3.82~4.04, which was not significant among the groups. In men, dietary variety score (DVS) was 16.3 in the MS group and 19.4 in the non MS group, whereas in women, the DVS was 15.2 in the non MS group and 17.0 in the MS group. In GMVDF pattern, 11111 pattern was 30.7%, followed by 01111 for men and 11101 for women. Calorie, fat, and cholesterol intakes in men as well as, calorie, fat, and folate intakes in women in the MS group were higher compared to the non MS group. Intakes of protein, P, Fe, Na, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, vitamin E, and Zn were higher than the KDRIs. On the other hand, intakes of Ca, K, fiber, vitamin $B_2$, and vitamin C were below the KDRIs. Intakes of lipids, animal food, Na, and cholesterol in the MS group were higher compared to the non MS group, whereas intake of dietary fiber was lower. Our results indicate that continuous, systematic nutritional education program must implemented to reduce the risk factors associated with MS.

The Use of Analgesics in the Last 24 hours of Life of Patients with Advanced Cancer : A Comparison of Medical Physicians and Surgeons (말기 암 환자의 마지막 24시간 동안 진통제 사용의 분석 : 내과의사와 외과의사의 비교)

  • Choi, Youn-Seon;Kim, Jong-Min;Lee, Young-Mee;Lim, Jong-Kuk;Lee, Tai-Ho;Hong, Myung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 1998
  • Background : It is almost important therapy modality to control pain for the terminal cancer patients for the last 24 hours because those terminally illed patient deserved to have pain free and peaceful time before death. Physician who is deal with terminal cancer patients for their last 24 hours does not need to worry about drug addiction or other untoward side reactions of pain medications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if terminally illed cancer patient was given pain medication properly and sufficiently and if there was any different behavior to control pain of terminal cancer patients between medical physicians and surgeons in terms of type, amount and administration route and frequency. Methods : A retrospective chart audit of analgesic type, amount and administration route was performed on the medical recorders of 160 hospitalized terminal cancer patients who had died in the Korea University Medical Center Anam Hospital during the period of July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Patients were classified into 103 patients were cared for by medical physicians and 57 patients were cared for by surgeons. After then, we analysed the difference of pain control pattern between them. Different types and amount of analgesics were converted to a common standard, an oral morphine equivalents(OME) relative to 1mg of oral morphine. Results : 1) The total number of patients was 160, male 102 cases(63.8%), and the female was 58 cases(36.2%) respectively. 2) The mean age was 56.4(${\pm}14.62$) years old and mean admission period was 27.8 days(${\pm}34.85$). 3) The frequent cancer site was stomach 42 cases(26.315), lung and liver 29 cases(18.1%) each, pancreas 10 cases(6.2%) in order 4) 125 out of 160 subjects (78.13%) complained pain, and 66 out of 103(64.08%) and 31 out of 57(54.39%) were treated with analgesics to relieve pain. 50 out of 97(51.55%) were able to continue on oral medication. 5) 86 cases(53.75%) were well oriented 24 hours prior to death. 6) The frequent analgesics for regular basis were long acting form of oral morphine 34 cases(Medical phsicians 24, Surgeons 10), intravenous morphine 26 cases(Medical physicians 20, Surgeons 6) in order, and the most common p.r.n.(pro re nata) analgesics used was intravenous morphine. 7) The mean amount of analgesics on regular basis was 115.41 OME by medical physicians and 52.7 OME by surseons(P<0.05). The mean amount of p.r.n. analgesics was significantly larger in patients are for by surgeons(66.64 OME) than medical physicians 23.49 OME(P<0.01). 8) The mean frequency of administrated number of p.r.n. analgesics was 0.62 times/day on medical part and 1.88 times/day on surgical part (P<0.001). Conclusion : Of the 97 patients with advanced cancer, 51.55% were able to take oral medications in the last day of life. The parenteral analgesics were more frequently used in the patients cared for by surgeons than medical physicians. Over the half of terminal cancer patients were well oriented in the last day of life. Doctor's knowledge and attitude towards pain is very important to mange the pain, effectively.

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Diving patterns and diving related disease of diving fishermen in Korea (수산물채취 잠수부의 작업특성과 잠수관련질환의 양상)

  • SaKong, Joon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.139-156
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    • 1998
  • Diving related disease including decompression sickness is an important occupational health problem and diving fishermen remain a fairly hazardous occupation in Korea. To prevent diving related disease, we investigate diving patterns, incidence of diving related diseases, and contributing factors of 433 diving fishermen of three coast interviewing and mailing questionnaire in 1996. Mean age of divers was 39.7 years, ranged from 24 to 58 years, 92.8% of these were male, and 58.4% of divers were high school graduates. Mean duration of work as a diver was 12.9 years, ranged from 2 to 40 years. It was found that 70.4% of divers were using hookah system, 22.2% of helmet, and only 2.5% SCUBA. About half of them have learned diving skills from other divers. The peak season of diving was from April to June and mean working days were 20.3 days per month during the peak season. On the average, the divers dived 5-6 times, ranged from 1 to 10 times a day with 51.1 minutes of diving time, ranged from 20 to 120 minutes, at 30 m or 40 m in depth, and 35.5 minute of interval on surface. Most divers ascended slowly making decompression stop, yet the decompression profile used was not based on any scientific knowledge except for their own experiences. It appeared that each diving system had slightly different diving patterns. There were 282(65.0%) divers that suffered from DCS in 1995 and 31.2% of divers were given recompression therapy at a medical facility since they worked as diving fishermen. Skin and musculoskeletal complaints were common symptoms of DCS and 39% of divers experienced a voiding difficulty. In univariate analysis, females have an increased frequency of DCS(93% vs 66% for males). Old age, long duration of work, helmet diving, diving time, diving depth, repetitive diving, and blow up were all contributing factors to DCS. It was found that most diving patterns exceed no decompression limit and did not use the standard decompression table. This suggests that most of divers are at high risk of developing diving related disease with prolonged dives and lengthy repetitive diving in deep depth. Considering the diving patterns and economic aspect of professional diving, the incidence of DCS among diving fishermen in Korea will not decrease in the near future. These findings suggest that periodical health surveillance for divers, and education of health and safety are important for reducing the risk of diving related disease in the population of diving fishermen.

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A Study on Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Renal Indices of Inhabitant in an Abandoned Mine Area (폐광지성(廢鑛地城) 주민(住民)의 요중(尿中) 카드뮴 농도(濃度)와 현기능평가(賢機能評價))

  • Park, Jung-Duck;Park, Chan-Byung;Choi, Byung-Sun;Kang, Eun-Yong;Hong, Yeon-Pyo;Chang, Im-Won;Chun, Byung-Yeol;Yeh, Min-Hae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.424-439
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    • 1998
  • Urinary cadmium is used as a sensitive indicator for internal Cd dose, and increased excretion of $N-acetyl-\beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG)$, $\beta_2-microglobulin(MG)$ and total protein are useful indices for renal dysfunction by chronic exposure to Cd. The target group was 184 inhabitant(82 men and 102 women) in an abandoned mine area known as exposure to low level Cd. The control group was took 160 individuals(64 men and 96 women) in Cd not-exposed area. Urinary Cd concentration was significantly higher in the target group than the control. The geometric mean of urinary Cd for male was $2.56{\mu}g/\ell,\;2.80{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $2.50{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the target group and $1.19{\mu}g/\ell,\;1.36{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $1.17{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the control. For female $2.69{\mu}g/\ell,\;3.94{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $2.63{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the target group and $1.27{\mu}g/\ell,\;1.97{\mu}g/g$ creatinine and $1.25{\mu}g/S.G.$ in the control, respectively. In addition, urinary Cd of the target group had affected by the period of residence and dietary habit for the rice and the vegetables from the target area. These findings suggest the chronic exposure to Cd of the target population. Mean excretion of urinary NAG, $\beta_2-MG$ and total protein were not significant between two groups. In the target group, urinary NAG activity and total protein were significantly correlated with urinary Cd, but $\beta_2-MG$ was not related. Urinary excretion of NAG, $\beta_2-MG$ and total protein were significantly increased in $10\leqq$ than in <2 of urinary Cd level. In $2\sim10$ group of urinary Cd level, the excretion of NAG significantly increased while not showed for $\beta_2-MG$. In present study, urinary excretion of NAG was relatively sensitive than $\beta_2-MG$ in chronic exposure population to low level Cd.

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The Lung Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, TNF-$\alpha$ and Interleukin 6, in Early Periods of Endotoxemia (내독소혈증 유발 급성폐손상에서 폐장내 Proinflammatory Cytokines 발현에 관한 고찰)

  • Moon, Seung-Hyug;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik;Lee, Shin-Je
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.553-564
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    • 1998
  • Background: The immediate hoot response to LPS is the production of proinflammatory cytokines that act as intercellular mediators in inflammatory reactions, including acute lung injury. These "early response" cytokines transmit signals from recognition cells to target or effector cells. This host response is further amplified by the expression of leukocyte chemoattractants, growth factors, and adhesion molecules, resulting in an array of proinflammatory events. This experiment was performed to define the lung origin of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-$\alpha$, IL 6 in early periods of endotoxin induced acute lung injury (ALI). Method: The healthy male Sprague-Dawley, weighted 150 - 250g, were divided into saline control (NC) and endotoxemia-induced ALI (ETX-), and leukopenic endotoxemia-induced ALI (CPA-ETX-Group) which was induced by cyclophosphamide, 70 mg/kg i.p. injection. Acute lung injury was evoked by LPS, 5 mg/kg, intravenously administered. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at 0, 3, 6 h after LPS-treated to estimate the influx of phagocytes and concentration of total protein, and cytokines as TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 by a bioassy using MIT method. We also examined the localization of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 protein in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue by immunohistochemical stain (IH). Results: The total cell, macrophage and PMN count in BALF were elavated in ETX group compared to NC(p<0.05). In CPA-ETX group, total cell and macrophage count in BALF were not changed compared to NC. but PMN count was markedly reduced and it took part in less than 0.1 % of total BAL cells (p<0.01). The protein concentration in BALF were significantly increased in ETX and CPA-ETX group Compared to NC (p<0.05), but there was significant difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group only at 6 h (p<0.05). This observation suggested that even if PMNs are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, their role cannot be viewed as essential The concentration of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 in BALF was significantly increased in the ETX- and CPA-ETX group compared to NC. There was no difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group. In IH, anti-TNF-$\alpha$- and anti-IL 6 antibody was strongly localized at interstitial monocytes and alveolar macrophages in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue. From above point of view, activated alveolar macrophage/monocyte considered as a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in endotoxemia-challenged lung injury. Conclusion: The prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in early periods of endotoxemia-induced lung injury will be the activated resident macrophages like an alveolar macrophage and interstitial monocytes. The pulmonary macrophage/monocyte will impact the initiation and continuance of lung injury without PMNs's certain inflammatory role, particularly in endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

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Clinical Study on Thoracic Actinomycosis (흉부 방선균종의 임상적 고찰)

  • Hong, Sang-Bum;Kim, Woo-Sung;Lee, Jae-Hwan;Bang, Sung-Jo;Shim, Tae-Son;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang-Do;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lee, In-Chul;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.1058-1066
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    • 1998
  • Background: Actinomycotic infection is uncommon and primary actinomycosis of the lung and chest wall has been less frequently reported. This disease may present as chronic debilitating illness with radiologic manifestation simulating lung tumor, pulmonary infiltrating lesion, or chronic suppuration. Diagnosis of choice was not definded yet and role of bronchoscopy on diagnosis was not described yet. Methods: From 1989 to 1998, we experienced 17 cases of thoracic actinomycosis. We have reviewed the case notes of 17 patients with thoracic actinomycosis. The mean age at presentation was $53{\pm}13$ years, 11 were male. Results: Cough, hemoptysis, sputum production, chest pain and weight loss were the commonest symptoms. The mean delay between presentation and diagnosis was $6.6{\pm}7.8$ months. There were six patients who presented with a clinical picture of a suppurative lesion and eleven patients were suspected of having primary lung tumor initially. In no cases was made an accurate diagnosis at the time of hospital admission. Associated diseases were emphysema (1 case), bronchiectasis (2 cases) and tuberculosis (2 cases). Bronchoscopic findings were mucosal swelling and stenosis(n=4), mucosal swelling, stenosis and necrotic covering (n=2), mass (n=3), mass and necrotic covering (n=1) and normal(n=6). Radiologic findings were mass lesion(n=8), pneumonitis(n=3), atelectasis(n=3), pleural effusion(n=2), and normal(n=3). Final diagnosis was based on percutaneous needle aspiration and biopsy (n=3), bronchoscopic biopsy specimens (n=9), mediastinoscopic biopsy (n=1) and histologic examination of resected tissue in the remaining patients(n=4) who received surgical excision. Among 17 patients, 13 were treated medically and the other 4 received surgical intervention followed by antibiotic treatment. Regarding the surgically treated patients, suspected malignancy is the most common indication for operation. However. both medically and surgically treated patients achieved good clinical results. Conclusion: Thoracic actinomycosis is rare. but should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of a chrinic, localized pulmonary lesion. Thoracic actinomycosis may co-exist with pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer. If the lesion is located in the central of the lung. the bronchoscopy is recommanded for the diagnosis.

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Pulmonary Mycoses in Immunocompromised Hosts (면역기능저하 환자에서 폐진균증에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Suh, Gee-Young;Park, Sang-Joon;Kang, Kyeong-Woo;Koh, Young-Min;Kim, Tae-Sung;Chung, Man-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Joong;Han, Jong-Ho;Choi, Dong-Chull;Song, Jae-Hoon;Kwon, O-Jung;Rhee, Chong-H.
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1199-1213
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    • 1998
  • Background : The number of immunocompromised hosts has been increasing steadily and a new pulmonary infiltrate in these patients is a potentially lethal condition which needs rapid diagnosis and treatment. In this study we sought to examine the clinical manifestations, radiologic findings, and therapeutic outcomes of pulmonary mycoses presenting as a new pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised hosts. Method : All cases presenting as a new pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised hosts and confirmed to be pulmonary mycoses by pathologic examination or by positive culture from a sterile site between October of 1996 and April of 1998 were included in the study and their chart and radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. Results : In all, 14 cases of pulmonary mycoses from 13 patients(male : female ratio = 8 : 5, median age 47 yr) were found. Twelve cases were diagnosed as aspergillosis while two were diagnosed as mucormycosis. Major risk factors for fungal infections were chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy(10 cases) and organ transplant recipients(4 cases). Three cases were receiving empirical amphotericin B at the time of appearance of new lung infiltrates. Cases in the hematologic malignancy group had more prominent symptoms : fever(9/10), cough(6/10), sputum(5/10), dyspnea(4/10), chest pain(5/10). Patients in the organ transplant group had minimal symptoms(p<0.05). On simple chest films, all of the cases presented as single or multiple nodules(6/14) or consolidations(8/14). High resolution computed tomograph showed peri-lesional ground glass opacities(14/14), pleural effusions(5/14), and cavitary changes(7/14). Definitive diagnostic methods were as follows : 10 cases underwent minithoracotomy, 2 underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, 1 underwent percutaneous needle aspiration and 1 case was diagnosed by culture of abscess fluid. All cases received treatment with amphotericin B with 1 case each being treated with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole due to renal toxicity. Lung lesion improved in 12 of 14 patient but 4 patients died before completing therapy. Conclusion : When a new lung infiltrate develops presenting either as a nodule or consolidation in a neutropenic patient with hematologic malignancy or in a transplant recipient, you should always consider pulmonary mycoses as one of the differential diagnosis. By performing aggressive work up and early treatment, we may improve prognosis of these patients.

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Operative Treatment of Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries(CCTGA) (교정형 대혈관 전위증의 수술적 치료)

  • 이정렬;조광리;김용진;노준량;서결필
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.621-627
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    • 1999
  • Background: Sixty five cases with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) indicated for biventricular repair were operated on between 1984 and september 1998. Comparison between the results of the conventional(classic) connection(LV-PA) and the anatomic repair was done. Material and Method: Retrospective review was carried out based on the medical records of the patients. Operative procedures, complications and the long-term results accoding to the combining anomalies were analysed. Result: Mean age was 5.5$\pm$4.8 years(range, 2 months to 18years). Thirty nine were male and 26 were female. Situs solitus {S,L,L} was in 53 and situs inversus{I,D,D} in 12. There was no left ventricular outflow tract obstruction(LVOTO) in 13(20%) cases. The LVOTO was resulted from pulmonary stenosis(PS) in 26(40%)patients and from pulmonary atresia(PA) in 26(40%) patients. Twenty-five(38.5%) patients had tricuspid valve regurgitation(TR) greater than the mild degree that was present preoperatively. Twenty two patients previously underwent 24 systemic- pulmonary shunts previously. In the 13 patients without LVOTO, 7 simple closure of VSD or ASD, 3 tricuspid valve replacements(TVR), and 3 anatomic corrections(3 double switch operations: 1 Senning+ Rastelli, 1 Senning+REV-type, and 1 Senning+Arterial switch opera tion) were performed. As to the 26 patients with CCTGA+VSD or ASD+LVOTO(PS), 24 classic repairs and 2 double switch operations(1 Senning+Rastelli, 1 Mustard+REV-type) were done. In the 26 cases with CCTGA+VSD+LVOTO(PA), 19 classic repairs(18 Rastelli, 1 REV-type), and 7 double switch operations(7 Senning+Rastelli) were done. The degree of tricuspid regurgitation increased during the follow-up periods from 1.3$\pm$1.4 to 2.2$\pm$1.0 in the classic repair group(p<0.05), but not in the double switch group. Two patients had complete AV block preoperatively, and additional 7(10.8%) had newly developed complete AV block after the operation. Other complications were recurrent LVOTO(10), thromboembolism(4), persistent chest tube drainage over 2 weeks(4), chylothorax(3), bleeding(3), acute renal failure(2), and mediastinitis(2). Mean follow-up was 54$\pm$49 months(0-177 months). Thirteen patients died after the operation(operative mortality rate: 20.0%(13/65)), and there were 3 additional deaths during the follow up period(overall mortality: 24.6%(16/65)). The operative mortality in patients underwent anatomic repair was 33.3%(4/12). The actuarial survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 75.0$\pm$5.6%, 75.0$\pm$5.6%, and 69.2$\pm$7.6%. Common causes of death were low cardiac output syndrome(8) and heart failure from TR(5). Conclusion: Although our study could not demonstrate the superiority of each classic or anatomic repair, we found that the anatomic repair has a merit of preventing the deterioration of tricuspid valve regurgitations. Meticulous selection of the patients and longer follow-up terms are mandatory to establish the selective advantages of both strategies.

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Seasonal Variation in Lipids and Fatty Acid Composition of Neutral and Phospholipids of Hibernant Fishes(I) - Variation of Muscle Lipid Compositions of Loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) - (동면 어류의 지방질과 중성 및 인지질 조성의 시기적 변화(I) - 미꾸라지 근육 지질 조성의 변화-)

  • 홍재식;최선남;박일웅
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.14-24
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    • 1997
  • The seasonal variation in lipids, and fatty acid composition of neutral lipid(NL) and phospholipid(PL) contained in the muscles of hibernant fish(loach) were investigated. In the investigation, four groups of wild loaches ere used, those caught May, 1993(before spawning period), August, 1993(after spawning period), November, 1993(just before hibernation) and March, 1994(just after hibernation). The NL was the most abundant in muscle lipid, followed by PL and glycolipid(GL), and also the composition and variation patterns were almost similar between female and male throughout all the periods. NL content began to increase gradually after March and came to the maximum in August(under 90%) ; hereafter got to decrease gradually again and came to the minimum in March of the next year(under 60%). While the variation-pattern of GL and PL was in inverse proportion with that of NL and their content came to the maximum in March of the next year. The NL and PL fractions were mainly consisted of triglyceride and phosphatidyl choline respectively, and both of the contents showed the highest value in August, the lowest in March of the next year. The major fatty acids in NL fraction were 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3($\omega$3). In particular, the ratio of 16:1 was much higher than that in PL, while those of highly unsaturated fatty acids(HUFAs) such as 20:4($\omega$6), 20:5($\omega$3) and 22:6($\omega$3) were much lower. The ratio of 16:0 in NL was almost constant through the year, however those of 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3($\omega$3) showed a tendency to increase after March and were about 2~4% higher in May, compared with that in March, while those of HUFAs were about 2~4% lower. In particular, the ratio of 16:1 in NL continuously decreased after May and markedly decreased in March of the next year, but those of 18:1, 18:2 were almost constant until November. In August, saturates and monoenes were higher levels due to the slight increase of 18:0, 14:1 and 17:1 than in the other periods, while those of HUFAs decreased and the unsaturation(TUFA/TSFA) of NL showed the lowest value in August. On the contrary, saturates and monoenes gradually decreased after November and the most of them including 18:0, 16:1, 18:1 and 18:2 rapidly decreased in March of the next year, while 20:1, 20:4(~6), and 20:5(~3), and 22:6(~3) were in inverse proportion. PL consisted mainly of 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4(~6), and 20:5(~3). Saturates and monoenes-composition showed almost no difference in March and May, while polyene acids ratio showed similar changes with that of NL. In August, the ratio of saturates(16:0, 18:0) were high but that of HUFAs were low, and after November 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3($\omega$3) began to decrease, while most of HUFAs increased in their composition-ratio until the marking increase of their unsaturation and the big changes of 18:2, 18:3($\omega$3), 20:4($\omega$6), 22:6($\omega$3) in March of the next year.

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