• Title, Summary, Keyword: male

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Influence of Interferon-${\gamma}$ Deficiency in Immune Tolerance Induced by Male Islet Transplantation

  • Kim, Yong-Hee;Lim, Young-Kyoung;Park, Chung-Gyu
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.358-363
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    • 2011
  • Background: Traditionally, interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$) was regarded as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, however, recent reports suggested role of IFN-${\gamma}$ in immune tolerance. In our previous report, we could induce tolerance to male antigen (HY) just by male islet transplantation in wild type C57BL/6 mice without any immunological intervention. We tried to investigate the influence of IFN-${\gamma}$ deficiency on tolerance induction by male islet transplantation. Methods: To examine the immunogenicity of male tissue in the absence of IFN-${\gamma}$, we transplanted male IFN-${\gamma}$ knock-out (KO) skin to female IFN-${\gamma}$ KO mice. Next, we analyzed male IFN-${\gamma}$ KO islet to streptozotocin-induced diabetic female IFN-${\gamma}$ KO mice. And, we checked the functionality of grafted islet by graft removal and insulin staining. Results: As our previous results in wild type C57BL/6 mice, female IFN-${\gamma}$ KO mice rejected male IFN-${\gamma}$ KO skin within 29 days, and did not reject male IFN-${\gamma}$ KO islet. The maintenance of normal blood glucose level was dependent on the presence of grafted male islet. And the male islet recipient did not reject 2nd challenge of male islet graft also. Conclusion: Deficiency of IFN-${\gamma}$ does not have influence on the result of male skin graft and male islet transplantation. Conclusively, male islet transplantation induced T cell tolerance is not dependent on the presence of IFN-${\gamma}$.

Perceptions and Opinions about Male Breast Cancer and Male Breast Self-Examination: A Qualitative Study

  • Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed;Al-Naggar, Dhekra Hamoud
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.243-246
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    • 2012
  • Objective: While the relatively common nature of female breast cancer has resulted in a high level of general awareness, male breast cancer is still comparatively unknown to the general public and to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination among male university students. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 male university students from the Management and Science University, Malaysia, selected by simple random sampling. The themes of the interview were: knowledge of male breast cancer and male breast self-examination, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards male BSE. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. Results: The majority of participants mentioned that there is a low possibility for males to get breast cancer. They also believed that the cause of breast cancer among men is due to the carcinogens from cigarettes. The majority of participants mentioned that they know about breast self-examination from the mass media and that the presence of a lump in the breast is the main symptom of breast cancer in men. The majority of participants mentioned that they encourage their family members to practice breast self-examination but considered that BSE is not important for men because they have a low probability of getting breast cancer. Conclusions: Misconceptions regarding male breast cancer and breast self-examination among men still exist among male university students. Therefore especial attention should be given to educate men about male breast cancer and male BSE.

Shawn Wong's American Knees: Deconstruction of Male-Centeredness and Its Possibility (숀 옹의 『미국인의 무릎』 : 남성 중심주의 해체와 그 가능성)

  • Kim, Min Hoe
    • English & American cultural studies
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.23-48
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    • 2014
  • Considered as the first generation of the Chinese American male writers, Shawn Wong has often been tagged with the male-centered or cultural nationalistic writer for his first short novel Homebase since the 1970s. He has, however, shifted his own gender and cultural attitudes toward his male character in his second novel American Knees, published in 1995. By focusing on his second novel, this paper examines how Wong critically reconsiders the male-centeredness and cultural nationalism in a way to invalidate them in relationships among male and female characters in the formation of the Chinese American male's identity. Attempting to establish his own national and cultural identity as an American citizenship and the self-awareness of masculinity as a man, Rainsford Chan in Homebase believed that he could achieve his identity and masculinity with the chronological experiences related to his ancestors in American society. He even strictly erased the presence of female in his own identity formation. In doing so, he seemed to anchor his authorship at the discourse of the male-centeredness and cultural nationalist like other contemporary writers such as Frank Chin and Jeffrey Paul Chan who always strongly marked cultural tradition. By creating a non-conventional male character Raymond Ding with compromising and open-eared attitudes toward female characters, however, Wong dramatically changes the idea of representing the relationships between male and female characters in American Knees. In this novel, he suggests that the male character' identity can be properly formed not in the extreme reinforcement of masculinity or the ethnic-based cultural awareness but with the mutual understanding between male and female individuals regardless of ethnic and nationalistic biases. Consequently, Wong attempts to bail out of the male-centered images of the first generation of the Chinese American male writers through Raymond Ding.

ROENTGENOCEPHALOMETRIC STUDY OF CRANIOFAIAL FORM ON KOREAN ADULT OF NORMAL OCCLUSION BY MOYERS' ANALYSIS (Moyers 분석법에 의한 한국인 정상교합 성인의 악안면 두개 골격 형태에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Sin Young;Lee, Ki Soo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 1989
  • This study intended to calculate the cephalometric norms of Korean adult and to compare those with norms of the North American Caucasian by Moyers. Cephalometric headplates of 41 males and 31 females ranged in age from eighteen to twenty-six with normal occlusion and pleasing face were employed for this investigation. The tracings of the standard lateral cephalograms were analyzed by Moyers' method. As a result of this study, the following conclusion can be made. 1. Norms of Korean adult male and female were calculated. 2. There was no significant sexual difference in the basic craniofacial morphology. 3. The size of craniofacial skeleton was larger in male than in female. 4. The Korean male showed lower value of mandibular plane angle to craial base than that of the Caucasian male. 5. There was no significant difference in the anterior total facial height, however, in the posterior facial height the Korean male was larger than the Caucasian male, which manifested that the Korean male held more square-shaped profile. 6. The anteroposterior length of anterior and posterior cranial base, maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dentoalveolar effective length of the Korean male were shorter than those of the Caucasian male, and this suggested that the craniofacial profile depth of the Korean male was shorter than that of the Caucasian male.

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Discourse On the Male Body Represented In Fashion Advertisement (패션 광고에 표상된 남성 몸에 관한 담론)

  • Park, Seon-Ji;Yim, Eun-Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.63 no.6
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the image of the male body represented in fashion advertisement is analyzed based on discourses on the male body. Fashion brand advertisements, which emphasized the images of the male body, were selected from two magazines: GQ, a men's magazine, and VOGUE, a representative women's magazine. The published dates of the selected images were from Feb. 2010 to Oct. 2012, and these images were used for the analysis. The study results of the discourse on the male body appearing in fashion advertisement based on the discussion of changing masculinity suggests the following 4 features: i) macho, powerful and muscular male representing the hegemonic manhood; ii) refined and decorated male representing the wealthy and disengaged figure of a successful businessman; iii) androgynous male represented by the deconstruction of masculinity and femininity embedded in gender; iv) as an aesthetic object, the male with sex role of changed from a subject to an ornament, whose body becomes the object of voyeuristic view. This study tried to grasp the ideal and modern masculinity, and in particular, attempted to offer suggestions in different approaches to the male body image depending on the consumer type in order to enhance the brand image. This new masculinity is thought to be a foundation on which the advertisement and products suitable for the demands of future customers can be produced.

Dentists' perception of the image and work performance of male dental hygienists (치과의사의 남자치과위생사에 대한 이미지 및 업무수행 관련 인식도)

  • Kim, Young-Ki;Um, Mi-Ran;Kim, Kyung-Mi
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to improve awareness of male dental hygiene by investigating the dentists' perception of male dental hygienists' image and work performance in clinical practice. Methods: The participants were 102 dentists who agreed to participate in this study. They completed- a self-administered questionnaire survey available on a website. The questionnaire comprised 26 questions, with each item scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The male dentists perceived that with an increase in the experience of male dental hygienists would be willing to pay more than for female dental hygienists. In the case of male dentists, male dental hygienists perceived that they would feel stressed in a women-centered work environment. Additionally, it was found that dentists who had experience working with Male dental hygienists responded more positively to work performance awareness than had no experience (p<0.05). Conclusions: Active employment of male dental hygienists in clinical practice, could positively change dentists' perception of male dental hygienists.

Social Networks and Lonelinss among the male and female undergraduate students. (남녀 대학생의 사회적 관계망과 고독감)

  • 이성희
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 1999
  • This study analyzes the relationships between social networks and loneliness. Subjects of this study are male and female undergraduate students residing in Soul and Jeonju city Questionaires were and the obtained results were analyzed through SPSS PC+ The results are as follows 1) The size of general social networks doesnt's show difference between male and female students but at the of intimate social networks female students' one is bigger than male students' And female students' contact frequency via telephone is higher than male students' but the direct contact frequency did not show the difference: 2) The bigger the size of social networks is and the higher the contack frequency is the more the mount of social supports female students get. And the bigger the size of social networks is the more the amount of social support male students get. But among male students there are no relationships between the contact frequency and the amount of social supports 3) The size and co tact frequency of social networks is negatively related to loneliness among female and male students 4) The amount of social supports explaines the degree of loneliness at 23% among female students and 18% among male students.

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Family System and Male Adolescents' Loneliness (가족체계와 남자 청소년의 외로움)

  • An, Soon-Ok;Kim, Yeong-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.165-182
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of family system on male adolescents' loneliness. From the research results significantly different factors of family system, consisting of family differentiation, family flexibility, boundary between parents and male adolescents, conflict resolved in parents, and male adolescents' cohesion with mother and father, explained each aspect of male adolescents' loneliness including lack of intimacy, social relationship network, and belonging according to their school types. The boundary between parents and male adolescents was a critical factor explaining the lack of intimacy of male adolescents in a juvenile detention center, and family flexibility was a congruous factor having an impact on the lack of belonging of male adolescents both in the juvenile detention center and public schools.

A Study on Difference of Clothing Image Evaluation by Gender (성에 따른 의복이미지 평가의 차이에 관한 연구)

  • 유경숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this research is to investigate the difference on c1othing image evaluation in the ratings between men and women. For this study, pilot test was conducted to 50 clothing majored university students to explore the stimulus of 'cute', 'casual', 'sexy', 'elegant', 'intelligent', 'formal', 'romantic', 'individual', 'refined' for the 9 each image styles from the 32 spring wears in fashion magazine $\ulcorner$FARBE$\lrcorner$(March. 2000). On the basis of the preliminary survey, the question items explored the 15 pairs of polar adjectives as seven-point Likert Scale. The main survey was preceded 94 female and 111 man of university students from March 13 to 24 in 2000, twice for 7-days interval. There were significant differences between the two sexes for each style image ratings. It was found that the female was recorded mote ordinary, stable. refined. superior, plain, like than the male for intelligent style. Meanwhile, the intelligent style was evaluated well on in years by female, but male young. The female tended that elegance style was more stable, warm and less young than the male. The cute style was evaluated more light, tender, feminine, young by the female than the male, find the female looked warm while the male cool. The formal style was more stable, unrefined. solid, unfamiliar dislike, old by the female than the male. The casual style was revealed plain and warm by the female while splendor and cool by the male, the female more active, tender, familiar than the male and individual, attractive and poor quality than the female. The sexy style was evaluated more active, good appearance, young than the female, tender than the male and the female dislike a bit while the male like. The female evaluated the refined style for more stable. refined. superior good appearance and nature than the male. The romantic style was evacuated more like, refined, superior, good appearance nature and familiar by the male, but the female a bit unfamiliar. The individual style was revealed that the female evaluated cool and a bit dislike while the male warm and like, and the male more refined, feminine, young than female.

Study on Anthropometric Characteristics, Nutrient Intake Behaviors, and Healthy Dietary Habits of Male College Students according to Their Majors (전공 여부에 따른 남대생의 신체발달, 영양상태 및 건강생활습관에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Kyung-Ok;Choi, Kyung-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.163-176
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to obtain principal data on nutrition education according to college major after analyzing the nutrition status of 302 male university subjects. The 302 male subjects consisted of male students majoring in literature and science (109), food and nutrition (94), and physical education (99). Exactly 47.9% (highest among the groups) of male students majoring in food and nutrition ate regular meals, 39.4% ate breakfast. Precisely 29.4% of subjects majoring in literature and science never ate out. Exactly 23.2% of subjects majoring in physical education over ate frequently, and 31.3% enjoyed eating out. Intakes of protein, fat, vitamin A, $B_1$, $B_2$, $B_6$, C, E, folic acid, Ca, Fe, sodium, and cholesterol among male students majoring in food and nutrition appeared to be significantly higher compared to those of other groups (p<0.05). Intakes of energy, Zn, dietary fiber, and cholesterol among male students majoring in physical education were higher, whereas intakes of all nutrients except for dietary fiber by subjects majoring in literature and science were lower than the other two groups. Exactly 20.2% of male students were interested in health. We found that 52.4% of subjects considered exercise as an important factor for maintaining health. Smoking rate was the highest (43.6%) among male students majoring in nutrition, and the drinking rate was highest (56.0%) among male students majoring in literature and science. We found that smoking was continued as a habit (61.5%) while drinking was essential for social relationships (73.9%). From this study, it was found that male students have problems associated with eating regular meals, skipping breakfast, overeating, and intake of unbalanced foods. Also, male students who majored in food and nutrition demonstrated problems in applying their knowledge to proper dietary habits. In conclusion, a systemic educational program needs to be introduced to promote healthful dietary habits in male students.