• Title, Summary, Keyword: lymphovascular invasion

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Comparison of Myometrial Invasion and Tumor Free Distance from Uterine Serosa in Endometrial Cancer

  • Ozbilen, Ozlem;Sakarya, Derya Kilic;Bezircioglu, Incim;Kasap, Burcu;Yetimalar, Hakan;Yigit, Seyran
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.519-522
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    • 2015
  • Background: We aimed to investigate whether the tumor free distance (the distance between the uterine serosa and the tumor at its deepest point) is useful in surgical staging and in predicting prognosis. Materials and Methods: Data from patients who underwent complete surgical staging for endometrial cancer between January 2006 and June 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. All demographic findings, surgical stages, histological type and grade, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion as well as abdominal cytology, cervical, adnexal, and omental involvement, and lymph node metastasis were recorded. The relations between myometrial invasion and tumor free distance from uterine serosa with prognostic factors were investigated. Results: Seventy patients were included in the study. Sixty-four (91.5%) had endometrioid type cancers and forty-four (62.9%) were grade 1. The deepest myometrial invasion was less than 1/2 in 42 patients (60%). In 18 patients (25.8%) lymphovascular invasion was noted. Eight (11.4%) were found to have cervical involvement, five (7.1%) had adnexal involvement and in 4 cases (5.7%) the peritoneal washings included malignant cells. Four patients had pelvic and one para-aortic node metastasis. We recognized that an invasion of more than 1/2 was correlated significantly with lymphovascular space involvement, histological grade, positive abdominal washing cytology, nodal and cervical involvement, but not with adnexal involvement. Tumor-free myometrial thickness was negative and statistically significant correlated with surgical stage, histological grade, lymphovascular space involvement, positive abdominal washing cytology, cervical and adnexal involvement. The importance of tumor-free myometrial thickness in determinating the lymphovascular space invasion was found to be highest in terms of sensitivity and specificity when crossing the ROC curve at 11 millimeters. Conclusions: Depth of myometrial invasion is more valuable for predicting lymph node metastasis than tumor-free myometrial thickness. The tumor-free myometrial thickness provides a better prediction for adnexal involvement.

Clinicopathologic Features Predicting Involvement of Nonsentinel Axillary Lymph Nodes in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

  • Moosavi, Seyed Alireza;Abdirad, Afshin;Omranipour, Ramesh;Hadji, Maryam;Razavi, Amirnader Emami;Najafi, Massoome
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7049-7054
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    • 2014
  • Background: Almost half of the breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes have no additional disease in the remaining axillary lymph nodes. This group of patients do not benefit from complete axillary lymph node dissection. This study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic factors that predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in Iranian breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: The records of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed. Patients with at least one positive sentinel lymph node who underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled in the present study. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics including age, primary tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and number of harvested lymph nodes, were evaluated. Results: The data of 167 patients were analyzed. A total of 92 (55.1%) had non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis of data revealed that age, primary tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio, were associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. After logistic regression analysis, age (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.8), primary tumor size (OR=7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-42.2), lymphovascular invasion (OR=19.4; 95% CI, 1.4-268.6), extracapsular invasion (OR=13.3; 95% CI, 2.3-76), and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio (OR=20.2; 95% CI, 3.4-121.9), were significantly associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: According to this study, age, primary tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the ratio of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes, were found to be independent predictors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis.

Risk of Lymph Node Metastases from Early Gastric Cancer in Relation to Depth of Invasion: Experience in a Single Institution

  • Wang, Zheng;Ma, Li;Zhang, Xing-Mao;Zhou, Zhi-Xiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5371-5375
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    • 2014
  • Background: An accurate assessment of potential lymph node metastasis is important for the appropriate treatment of early gastric cancers. Therefore, this study analyzed predictive factors associated with lymph node metastasis and identified differences between mucosal and submucosal gastric cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 518 early gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy were reviewed in this study. Clinicopathological features were analyzed to identify predictive factors for lymph node metastasis. Results: The rate of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer was 15.3% overall, 3.3% for mucosal cancer, and 23.5% for submucosal cancer. Using univariate analysis, risk factors for lymph node metastasis were identified as tumor location, tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, histological type and lymphovascular invasion. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size >2 cm, submucosal invasion, undifferentiated tumors and lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. When the carcinomas were confined to the mucosal layer, tumor size showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, histological type and lymphovascular invasion were associated with lymph node metastasis in submucosal carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumor size >2 cm, submucosal tumor, undifferentiated tumor and lymphovascular invasion are predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. Risk factors are quite different depending on depth of tumor invasion. Endoscopic treatment might be possible in highly selective cases.

Effect of Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphovascular Invasion on the Survival Pattern of Breast Cancer Patients

  • Sahoo, Pradyumna Kumar;Jana, Debarshi;Mandal, Palash Kumar;Basak, Samindranath
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6287-6293
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    • 2014
  • Background: Invasion of breast cancer cells into blood and lymphatic vessels is one of the most important steps for metastasis. In this study the prognostic relevance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in breast cancer patients was evaluated in terms of survival. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study concerned 518 breast cancer patients who were treated at Department of Surgical Oncology, Saroj Gupta Cancer Centre and Research Institute, Kolkata-700063, West Bengal, India, a reputed cancer centre and research institute of eastern India between January 2006 and December 2007. Results: The median overall survival and disease free survival of the patients were 60 months and 54 months respectively. As per Log-rank test, poor overall as well as disease free survival pattern was observed for LVI positive patients as compared with LVI negative patients (p<0.01). Also poor overall as well as disease free survival pattern was observed for perineural invasion (PNI) positive patients as compared to PNI negative patients (p<0.01). Conclusions: From this study it is evident that LVI and PNI are strongly associated with outcome in terms of disease free as well as overall survival in breast cancer patients. Thus LVI and PNI constitute potential targets for treatment of breast cancer patients. We advocate incorporating their status into breast cancer staging systems.

Outcome after Simultaneous Resection of Gastric Primary Tumour and Synchronous Liver Metastases: Survival Analysis of a Single-center Experience in China

  • Liu, Qian;Bi, Jian-Jun;Tian, Yan-Tao;Feng, Qiang;Zheng, Zhao-Xu;Wang, Zheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1665-1669
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    • 2015
  • Background: The optimal surgical strategy for the treatment of synchronous resectable gastric cancer liver metastases remains controversial. The aims of this study were to analyze the outcome and overall survival of patients presenting with gastric cancer and liver metastases treated by simultaneous resection. Materials and Methods: Between January 1990 and June 2009, 35 patients diagnosed with synchronous hepatic metastases from gastric carcinoma received simultaneous resection of both primary gastric cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases. The clinicopathologic features and the surgical results of the 35 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate after surgery was 14.3%. Five patients survived for more than 5 years after surgery. No mortality has occurred within 30 days after resection, although two patients (5.7%) developed complications during the peri-operative course. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with the presence of lymphovascular invasion of the primary tumor, bilateral liver metastasis and multiple liver metastases suffered poor survival. Lymphovascular invasion by the primary lesion and multiple liver metastases were significant prognostic factors that influenced survival in the multivariate analysis (p=0.02, p=0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The presence of lymphovascular invasion of the primary tumor and multiple liver metastases are significant prognostic determinants of survival. Gastric cancer patients without lymphovascular invasion and with a solitary synchronous liver metastasis may be good candidates for hepatic resection. Simultaneous resection of both primary gastric cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases may effectively prolong survival in strictly selected patients.

Is Surgical Staging Necessary for Patients with Low-risk Endometrial Cancer? A Retrospective Clinical Analysis

  • Kokcu, Arif;Kurtoglu, Emel;Celik, Handan;Kefeli, Mehmet;Tosun, Migraci;Onal, Mesut
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5331-5335
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the tumor-free and overall survival rates between patients with low-risk endometrial cancer who underwent surgical staging and those who did not undergo surgical staging. Materials and Methods: Data, including demographic characteristics, grade of the tumor, myometrial invasion, cervical involvement, peritoneal washing, lymph node involvement, lymphovascular space invasion, postoperative complication, adjuvant treatment, cancer recurrence, and tumor-free and overall survival rates, for patients with low-risk endometrioid endometrial cancer who were treated surgically with and without pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection (LND) were analyzed retrospectively. The patients diagnosed with endometrioid endometrial cancer including the following criteria were considered low-risk: 1) a grade 1 (G1) or grade 2 (G2) endometrioid histology; 2) myometrial invasion of <50% upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 3) no stromal glandular or stromal invasion upon MRI; and 4) no evidence of intra-abdominal metastasis. Then the patients at low-risk were divided into two groups; group 1 (n=117): patients treated surgically with pelvic and paraaortic LND and group 2 (n=170): patients treated surgically without pelvic and paraaortic LND. Results: There was no statistical significance when the groups were compared in terms of lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, positive cytology, and recurrence, whereas the administration of an adjuvant therapy was higher in group 2 (p<0.005). The number of patients with positive pelvic nodes and the number of metastatic pelvic nodes were significantly higher in the group with positive LVI than in the group without LVI (p<0.005). No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups in terms of tumor-free survival (p=0.981) and overall survival (p=0.166). Conclusions: Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and stage-adapted postoperative adjuvant therapy without pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomy may be safe and efficient treatments for low-risk endometrial cancer.

Hormone Use is Associated with Lymphovascular Invasion in Breast Cancer

  • Loof-Johanson, Margaretha;Brudin, Lars;Sundquist, Marie;Rudebeck, Carl Edvard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1507-1512
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    • 2016
  • Background: Risk of developing breast cancer increases with short breastfeeding and the use of hormones. The prognosis of breast cancer is better if the tumours are hormone receptor positive. Since breast feeding affects estrogen and progesterone receptors, we wanted to investigate how such reproductive factors as breastfeeding and the use of hormones interact with known prognostic markers and specific tumour characteristics in women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 women treated for breast cancer from a larger cohort completed a questionnaire on breastfeeding, number and age at births and use of hormones. A logistic regression analysis was made to search for connections between known prognostic markers on the one hand (type of cancer, grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, lymphovascular invasion and DNA-ploidy) and reproductive data, breastfeeding, and hormone use on the other. Results and Conclusions: Hormone use, but not breastfeeding, was significantly associated, also on multivariate analysis, with the prognostic variable lymphovascular invasion, connected to a worse prognosis. No other hormone use or breast feeding correlations with prognostic variables were found.

Preoperative Serum CEA and CA19-9 in Gastric Cancer - a Single Tertiary Hospital Study of 1,075 Cases

  • Zhou, Yang-Chun;Zhao, Hai-Jian;Shen, Li-Zong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2685-2691
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    • 2015
  • To evaluate the clinical impact of preoperative serum CEA and CA19-9 on resectable gastric cancer (GC), a total of 1,075 consecutive cases with gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained retrospectively from January 2012 and December 2013 in a single tertiary hospital, and the relationships between serum CEA, CA19-9 and clinicopathologic features were investigated. Positive preoperative serum rates of CEA and CA19-9 were 22.4% and 12.3% respectively, levels significantly correlating with each other and depth of invasion, lymph node involvement, pTNM and stage. The CEA level also presented a remarkable association with lymphovascular invasion. Both CEA and CA19-9 positivity significantly and positively correlated with depth of invasion, nodal involvement, pTNM stage, lymphovascular invasion, tumor size and tumor location. Stratified analyses according to gender or tumor location showed preoperative CEA or CA19-9 had different associations with clinicopathologic features in different gender subgroups or location subgroups. Preoperative serum CA19-9 positivity may be more meaningful for tumor size rather than CEA. In conclusion, preoperative serum CEA and CA19-9 correlate with disease progression of GC, and may have applications in aiding more accurate estimation of tumor stage, decision of treatment choice and prognosis evaluation.

Lymphovascular invasion as a negative prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancer after surgery

  • Ahn, Ki Jung;Park, Jisun;Choi, Yunseon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.332-339
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effects of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients who underwent surgical resection. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 non-metastatic TNBC patients who underwent surgical resection were retrospectively investigated from 2007 to 2016 in Inje University Busan Paik Hospital. Pathological tests revealed that 12 patients (19.0%) had LVI. Approximately 61.9% (n = 39) of the patients' samples stained positive for p53. Additional chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) were performed in 53 (84.1%) and 47 (74.6%) patients, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 39.5 months (range, 5.9 to 123.0 months). The pathological T stage (p = 0.008), N stage (p = 0.014), and p53 positivity (p = 0.044) were associated with LVI. Overall, the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were 85.4% and 90.2%, respectively. Ten patients (15.9%) experienced relapse. LVI (n = 12) was associated with relapses (p = 0.016). p53 positivity was correlated with poor DFS (p = 0.048). Furthermore, LVI was related to poor DFS (p = 0.011) and OS (p = 0.001) and considered as an independent prognostic factor for DFS (p = 0.039). The 3-year DFS of patients with LVI (n = 12) was only 58.3%. Adjuvant RT minimized the negative prognostic effect of LVI on DFS (p = 0.068 [with RT] vs. p = 0.011 [without RT]). Conclusion: LVI was related to the detrimental effects of disease progression and survival of TNBC patients. Thus, a more effective treatment strategy is needed for TNBC patients with LVI.

Survival Analysis of Patients with Breast Cancer using Weibull Parametric Model

  • Baghestani, Ahmad Reza;Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi;Majd, Hamid Alavi;Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil;Nafissi, Nahid;Gohari, Kimiya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8567-8571
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    • 2016
  • Background: The Cox model is known as one of the most frequently-used methods for analyzing survival data. However, in some situations parametric methods may provide better estimates. In this study, a Weibull parametric model was employed to assess possible prognostic factors that may affect the survival of patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We studied 438 patients with breast cancer who visited and were treated at the Cancer Research Center in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences during 1992 to 2012; the patients were followed up until October 2014. Patients or family members were contacted via telephone calls to confirm whether they were still alive. Clinical, pathological, and biological variables as potential prognostic factors were entered in univariate and multivariate analyses. The log-rank test and the Weibull parametric model with a forward approach, respectively, were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. All analyses were performed using STATA version 11. A P-value lower than 0.05 was defined as significant. Results: On univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, level of education, type of surgery, lymph node status, tumor size, stage, histologic grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and lymphovascular invasion had a statistically significant effect on survival time. On multivariate analysis, lymph node status, stage, histologic grade, and lymphovascular invasion were statistically significant. The one-year overall survival rate was 98%. Conclusions: Based on these data and using Weibull parametric model with a forward approach, we found out that patients with lymphovascular invasion were at 2.13 times greater risk of death due to breast cancer.