• Title, Summary, Keyword: lymph node metastasis

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The Level of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen and Lymph Node Metastasis in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

  • Lekskul, Navamol;Charakorn, Chuenkamon;Lertkhachonsuk, Arb-Aroon;Rattanasiri, Sasivimol;Ayudhya, Nathpong Israngura Na
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4719-4722
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    • 2015
  • Background: This study aimed to determine the utility and a cut-off level of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) to predict lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer cases. We also investigated the correlation between SCC-Ag level and lymph node status. Materials and Methods: From June 2009 to June 2014, 232 patients with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA, who were treated at Ramathibodi Hospital, were recruited. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the best cut-off point of SCC-Ag level to predict lymph node metastasis. Quantile regression was performed to evaluate the correlation between SCC-Ag levels and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and parametrial involvement as well as tumor size. Results: Pelvic lymph node metastasis and paraaortic lymph node metastasis were diagnosed in 46.6% and 20.1% of the patients, respectively. The median SCC-Ag level was 6 ng/mL (range, 0.5 to 464.6 ng/mL). The areas under ROC curves between SCC-Ag level and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaotic lymph node metastasis, parametrial involvements were low. SCC-Ag level was significantly correlated with paraaortic lymph node status (p=0.045) but not with pelvic lymph node status and parametrial involvement. SCC-Ag level was also related to the tumor diameter (p<0.05). Conclusions: SCC-Ag level is not a good predictor for pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastasis. However, it is still beneficial to assess the tumor burden of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

Risk of Lymph Node Metastases from Early Gastric Cancer in Relation to Depth of Invasion: Experience in a Single Institution

  • Wang, Zheng;Ma, Li;Zhang, Xing-Mao;Zhou, Zhi-Xiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5371-5375
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    • 2014
  • Background: An accurate assessment of potential lymph node metastasis is important for the appropriate treatment of early gastric cancers. Therefore, this study analyzed predictive factors associated with lymph node metastasis and identified differences between mucosal and submucosal gastric cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 518 early gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy were reviewed in this study. Clinicopathological features were analyzed to identify predictive factors for lymph node metastasis. Results: The rate of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer was 15.3% overall, 3.3% for mucosal cancer, and 23.5% for submucosal cancer. Using univariate analysis, risk factors for lymph node metastasis were identified as tumor location, tumor size, depth of tumor invasion, histological type and lymphovascular invasion. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size >2 cm, submucosal invasion, undifferentiated tumors and lymphovascular invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis. When the carcinomas were confined to the mucosal layer, tumor size showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, histological type and lymphovascular invasion were associated with lymph node metastasis in submucosal carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumor size >2 cm, submucosal tumor, undifferentiated tumor and lymphovascular invasion are predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. Risk factors are quite different depending on depth of tumor invasion. Endoscopic treatment might be possible in highly selective cases.

THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXPRESSION OF TGF-${\beta}1$ AND MMP-2 RELATED TO THE REGIONAL LYMPH NODE METASTASIS IN THE ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강 편평 상피 암종에서 TGF-${\beta}1$과 MMP-2의 발현과 경부 임파절 전이 간의 상관 관계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jwa-Young;Rotaru, Horatiu;Kim, Seong-Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 2007
  • Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The members of the TGF-$\beta$ signaling pathway are being considered as predictive biomarkers for progressive tumorigenesis and molecular targets for the prevention and the treatment of cancer and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to find the clinical significance of the expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ and MMP-2 related to the regional lymph node metastasis in OSCC. This study included 76 cases of primary OSCC, of which 42 cases showed regional lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemistry was used for the localization of protein. The relation between the expression of each protein and clinical variables was statistically evaluated. In results, the expression of TGF-${\beta}1$ both main mass with lymph node metastasis and without lymph node metastasis was found not to be statistically significant (p>0.05). The expression of MMP-2 was found to be statistically significant related to regional lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). When compared the expression in the metastatic lymph node, TGF-${\beta}1$ was significantly highly expressed than MMP-2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the expression of MMP-2 was significantly elevated in patients with lymph node metastasis as compared to the patients without lymph node metastasis, which could be useful in predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC.

Muscular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge is associated with cervical lymph node metastasis

  • Min, Seung-Ki;Myoung, Hoon;Lee, Jong-Ho;Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: To assess the association between muscle invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge and cervical lymph node metastasis on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge were evaluated by MRI. The associations between cervical lymph node metastasis and independent factors evaluated by MRI were analyzed. Overall survival was also analyzed in this manner. Representative biopsy specimens were stained with anti-podoplanin and anti-CD34 antibodies. Results: Mylohyoid muscle invasion was associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. A combinational factor of mylohyoid and/or buccinator muscle invasion was also associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. Cervical lymph node metastasis and masticator space invasion had a negative effect on overall survival. No lymphatic vessels were identified near the tumor invasion front within the mandible. In contrast, lymphatic vessels were identified near the front of tumor invasion in the muscles. Conclusion: This study demonstrates an association between muscular invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma of the posterior mandibular alveolar ridge and cervical lymph node metastasis.

Clinicopathologic Features Predicting Involvement of Nonsentinel Axillary Lymph Nodes in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

  • Moosavi, Seyed Alireza;Abdirad, Afshin;Omranipour, Ramesh;Hadji, Maryam;Razavi, Amirnader Emami;Najafi, Massoome
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7049-7054
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    • 2014
  • Background: Almost half of the breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes have no additional disease in the remaining axillary lymph nodes. This group of patients do not benefit from complete axillary lymph node dissection. This study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic factors that predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in Iranian breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: The records of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed. Patients with at least one positive sentinel lymph node who underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled in the present study. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics including age, primary tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and number of harvested lymph nodes, were evaluated. Results: The data of 167 patients were analyzed. A total of 92 (55.1%) had non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis of data revealed that age, primary tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio, were associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. After logistic regression analysis, age (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.8), primary tumor size (OR=7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-42.2), lymphovascular invasion (OR=19.4; 95% CI, 1.4-268.6), extracapsular invasion (OR=13.3; 95% CI, 2.3-76), and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio (OR=20.2; 95% CI, 3.4-121.9), were significantly associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: According to this study, age, primary tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the ratio of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes, were found to be independent predictors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis.

Combination of FDG PET/CT and Contrast-Enhanced MSCT in Detecting Lymph Node Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer

  • Tan, Ru;Yao, Shu-Zhan;Huang, Zhao-Qin;Li, Jun;Li, Xin;Tan, Hai-Hua;Liu, Qing-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7719-7724
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    • 2014
  • Background: Lymph node metastasis is believed to be a dependent negative prognostic factor of esophageal cancer. To explore detection methods with high sensitivity and accuracy for metastases to regional and distant lymph nodes in the clinic is of great significance. This study focused on clinical application of FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced multiple-slice helical computed tomography (MSCT) in lymph node staging of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen cases were examined with enhanced 64-slice-MSCT scan, and FDG PET/CT imaging was conducted for neck, chest and upper abdomen within one week. The primary lesion, location and numbers of metastatic lymph nodes were observed. Surgery was performed within one week after FDG PET/CT detection. All resected lesions were confirmed histopathologically as the gold standard. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on FDG PET/CT and MSCT was conducted. Results: There were 946 lymph node groups resected during surgery from 115 patients, and 221 were confirmed to have metastasis pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of FDG PET/CT in detecting lymph node metastasis were 74.7%, 97.2% and 92.0%, while with MSCT they were 64.7%, 96.4%, and 89.0%, respectively. A significance difference was observed in sensitivity (p=0.030), but not the others (p>0.05). The accuracy of FDG PET/CT in detecting regional lymph node with or without metastasis were 91.9%, as compared to 89.4% for MSCT, while FDG PET/CT and MSCT values for detecting distant lymph node with or without metastasis were 94.4% and 94.7%. No significant difference was observed for either regional or distant lymph node metastasis. Additionally, for detecting para-esophageal lymph nodes metastasis, the sensitivity of FDG PET/CT was 72%, compared with 54.7% for MSCT (p=0.029). Conclusions: FDG PET/CT is more sensitive than MSCT in detecting lymph node metastasis, especially for para-esophageal lymph nodes in esophageal cancer cases, although no significant difference was observed between FDG PET/CT and MSCT in detecting both regional and distant lymph node metastasis. However, enhanced MSCT was found to be of great value in distinguishing false negative metastatic lymph nodes from FDG PET/CT. The combination of FDG PET/CT with MSCT should improve the accuracy in lymph node metastasis staging of esophageal cancer.

Perigastric Lymph Node Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Patient with Early Gastric Cancer: The First Case Report

  • Jeong, Gui-Ae;Kim, Hyung-Chul;Kim, Hee-Kyung;Cho, Gyu-Seok
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 2014
  • Distant metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), particularly from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, is rare. We present a case of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC in a patient with early gastric cancer and breast cancer. During post-surgical follow-up for breast cancer, a 56-year-old woman was diagnosed incidentally with early gastric cancer and synchronous left thyroid cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and left thyroidectomy were performed. On the basis of the pathologic findings of the surgical specimens, the patient was diagnosed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with perigastric lymph node metastasis and early gastric cancer with mucosal invasion. Finally, on the basis of immunohistochemical staining with galectin-3, the diagnosis of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC was made. When a patient has multiple primary malignancies with lymph node metastasis, careful pathologic examination of the surgical specimen is necessary; immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in determining the primary origin of lymph node metastasis.

Mode of regional and mediastinal lymph node metastasis of bronchogenic carcinoma in accordance with the location, size and histology of primary tumor of the lung (폐암의 조직학적 분류, 위치 및 크기와 주위 림프절 전이의 양상에 관한 연구)

  • 김길동
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 1990
  • A total of 178 patients with primary lung cancer who had undergone complete resection of the tumor in combination with complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy were reviewed at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Yonsei Medical Center from January 1980 through July 1989. Materials; 1. There were 45 men and 33 women ranging of age from 25 to 78 years with a mean age of 55.4 years. 2. Histological types were squamous carcinoma in 115 cases [64.6%] adenocarcinoma in 42 cases [23.6 %], bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in 9 cases [5.1%], large cell carcinoma in 8 cases [4.5 %] and small cell carcinoma in 4 cases [2.2%] Results were summarized as follows: 1. The size of primary tumor was not directly proportional to the frequency of mediastinal lymph node metastasis. [P =0.0567] 2. The histologic types of the primary tumor did not related to the incidence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis. [P >0.19] 3. The chance of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in the case with lung cancer located in right middle lobe[31.8%, N=22] and left lower lobe [31.4%, N=32] were the highest and the lowest was the one located in right lower lobe, while over all incidence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in this series was 25.4 % [N=55]. 4. The rate of mediastinal lymph node metastasis without evidence of regional and hilar lymph node metastasis was 13%. [N=23] The chance of mediastinal lymph node involvement without N1 lymph node metastasis was 16.3 % [N=17] in both upper lobes and 8.2 % [N=6] in both lower lobes. It was statistically significant that the tumors in the upper lobes had greater chance of the mediastinal lymph node metastasis without N1 than the tumors in the lower lobes. 5. In this series majority of the patients with lung cancer the mediastinal lymph node metastasis from the tumor in each pulmonary lobes usually occurs via ipsilateral tracheobronchial and paratracheal lymphatic pathway. Especially the lung cancer located in lower lobes can metastasize to subcarinal, paraesophageal and inferior pulmonary ligamental lymph node through the lymphatic pathway of inferior pulmonary ligament. It can be speculated that in some cases of this series otherwise mediastinal lymph node metastasis can also occur with direct invasion to the parietal pleura and to the mediastinal lymph node via direct subpleural lymphatic pathway .

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Factors Influencing Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Invasive Breast Cancer

  • Li, Ling;Chen, Li-Zhang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.251-254
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To explore the relationship between auxiliary lymph node metastasis and clinical features, and to identify the factors that affect metastasis occurrence. Methods: A total of 164 cases of primary breast cancer were selected to investigate features such as age, concomitant chronic disease and pathologic diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and CerbB-2. Logistic regression was employed to analyze the factors that affect the incidence of lymph node metastases. Results: The incidence of lymph node metastases was 46.3% among elderly patients with breast cancer. Based on logistic regression, chronic disease, scale of tumor, age, and ER expression affected the occurrence of lymph node metastases; the ORs were 3.05, 2.18, 0.34, and 3.83, respectively. Between different pathologic diagnoses and the risk factors, the OR scores were 12.7 and 8.02, respectively, for aggressive ductal carcinoma and aggressive lobular carcinoma auxiliary lymph node metastases. Conclusion: The incidence of lymph node metastases is affected by chronic disease, scale of tumor, age, ER expression and pathologic diagnosis.

Accuracy of Sentinel Node in Detecting Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Endometrial Carcinoma

  • Farghali, Mohamed M;Allam, Ihab S;Abdelazim, Ibrahim A;El-Kady, Osama S;Rashed, Ahmed R;Gareer, Waheed Y;Sweed, Mohammed S
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6691-6696
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    • 2015
  • Background: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer and its treatment is still controversial, especially in its early stages. There are conflicting data about the efficacy of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophrectomy treatment. Lymphadenectomy carries a risk of severe complications, especially in women with co-morbidities. Selective lymphadenectomy has been widely employed for staging evaluation of endometrial carcinoma because it is simple and seems to provide reliable data regarding nodal metastasis. This study was designed to evaluate accuracy of sentinel node sampling in detecting lymph node metastasis in primary endometrial carcinoma during staging laparotomy. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three women with endometrial carcinoma at high-risk for nodal metastasis were studied. During laparotomy, methylene blue dye was injected into sub-serosal myometrium, then retroperitoneal spaces were opened and blue lymph nodes within pelvic and para-aortic regions were removed as separate specimens for histopathological examination (sentinel lymph nodes = SLNs). Hysterectomy and selective lymphadenectomy then performed for all women included in this study. Results: Deposition of methylene dye into at least one lymph node was observed in 73.1% (68/93) of studied cases. 18.3% (17/93) of studied women had positive lymph node metastasis and 94.1% (16/17) of them had positive metastasis in SLNs. In this study, SNLs had 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity in prediction of lymph node metastasis. Mean number of lymph nodes removed from each case decreased when SLNs biopsy were taken. Conclusions: SLNs are the key lymph nodes in endometrial tumor metastasis and their involvement could be an indicator for whether or not complete systematic lymphadenectomy is needed during staging laparotomy.