• Title, Summary, Keyword: lycopene

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Effects of Lycopene as a Feed Additive on the Quality of Chicken Eggs (Lycopene의 첨가 급여가 계란의 품질에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, K.S.;Hong, J.A.;Kim, J.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2008
  • This experiment deals with lycopene-enriched egg production in chicken and their effects on egg quality, especially antioxidant status of eggs upon their long term storage. Forty two laying hens(Hyline, 36 weeks of age) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets containing 0 mg and 2 mg lycopene per kilogram feed for 4 weeks. There was a comparable concentration of lycopene in egg yolk($1.57{\mu}g$/1 g yolk) of chickens supplemented with dietary lycopene. No measurable concentration of lycopene was detected in egg yolk of chickens fed the control diet. Dietary lycopene supplementation increased egg yolk color(P<0.01), egg yolk height(P<0.08), egg yolk diameter(P<0.19), egg shell intensity(P<0.19), egg white height(P<0.33), and Haugh unit (P<0.34). After 4 week of storage of eggs in room temperature, lycopene treated eggs were tested for freshness. The ESI, EYH, EWH, HU, and EYC of lycopene treated eggs were comparably higher than those of control groups, even though there was not statistically significant difference between two groups whereas EYD of the control group was smaller than that of lycopene treated group. In conclusion, dietary lycopene supplementation to chickens might be improved egg quality.

Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Antioxidtion in Broiler and Layer (Lycopene의 사료 내 첨가가 육계와 산란계의 항산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, Won-Don;An, Byeong-Gi;Gang, Chang-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2005
  • Lycopene is the red-coloured carotenoid predominantly found in tomato fruit and one of the major carotenoids in the diets of North American and Europeans. Interest in lycopene is growing rapidly following the recent publication of its effects as a natural antioxidant and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancers. Lycopene, a polyene hydrocarbon carotenoid haying 13 double bond, of which 11 are conjugated double bonds in a linear array exhibits a strong antioxidant property almost twice as strong as that of ${\beta}$-carotene. Lycopene has been shown in recent epidemiological and experimental studies to protect against oxidative damage of DNA which plays an important part in development of various cancer. Lycopene also contribute towards reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases by preventing oxidation of low-density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol. This review summarize our knowledge and the current understanding of lycopene in human health as well as the results of experiments we conducted. We conducted experiments for investigating the effects of antioxidant in broiler and the possibilities of production of high quality eggs containing lycopene by the dietary lycopene supplementation with synthetic lycopene or tomato paste. The results shows that thiobarbituric acid reaction substances(TBARS) values in process of LDL oxidation in blood serum of broiler were significantly decreased by dietary lycopene and tomato paste. The dietary lycopene supplementation resulted in improved egg yolk color and in decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) of egg yolk after 4 wk of storage at room temperature significantly(P<0.05). The dietary tomato paste was more effective in the MDA reduction compared to the lycopene(P<0.05). The contents of lycopene in egg yolk of the lycopene supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of the control group.

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Formation of Oxidative Cleavage Products from Lycopene (Lycopene으로부터 산화개열산물의 생성)

  • Kim, Seon-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1227-1233
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    • 2000
  • Lycopene was subjected to ozonolysis in ice-cold dichloromethane. The ozonolysis products were fractionated with a silica column and the carbonyl fraction was analyzed by ODS-HPLC with a photodiode array detector and by LC-MS. UV-vis spectra and $[M+H]^+$ of the carbonyl compound peaks showed clearly that acycloretinal, apo-14'-lycopenal, apo-12'-lycopenal, apo-10'-lycopenal, apo-8'-lycopenal and apo-6'-lycopenal were formed by ozonolysis of lycopene. Lycopene was solubilized in toluene and aqueous Tween 40, and then oxidized by incubating at $37^{\circ}C$ under atmospheric oxygen. Carbonyl compounds were produced. In comparison with autoxidation and ozonolysis, each compound showed the same retention time and UV-vis spectra are identical to the reference cleavage products prepared by ozonolysis of lycopene. Thus, eccentric cleavage of lycopene was confirmed to occur in vitro under oxidation condition.

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Overexpression and Characterization of Lycopene Cyclase (CrtY) from Marine Bacterium Paracoccus haeundaensis

  • Jeong, Tae Hyug;Ji, Keunho;Kim, Young Tae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2013
  • Lycopene cyclase converts lycopene to ${\beta}$-carotene by catalyzing the formation of two beta-rings at each end of the linear carotene structure. This reaction takes place as a two-step reaction in which both sides of of the lycopene molecule are cyclized into ${\beta}$-carotene rings via the monocyclic ${\gamma}$-carotene as an intermediate. The crtY gene coding for lycopene cyclase from Paracoccus haeundaensis consists of 1,158 base pairs encoding 386 amino acids residues. An expression plasmid containing the crtY gene (pET44a-CrtY) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli, and produced a recombinant protein of approximately 43 kDa, corresponding to the molecular mass of lycopene cyclase. The expressed protein was purified to homogeneity by His-tag affinity chromatography and showed enzymatic activity corresponding to lycopene cyclase. We also determined the lycopene substrate specificity and NADPH cofactor requirements of the purified protein. The $K_m$ values for lycopene and NADPH were 3.5 ${\mu}M$ and 2 mM, respectively. The results obtained from this study will provide a wider base of knowledge on the enzyme characterization of lycopene cyclase at the molecular level.

Oxidation and Isomerization of Lycopene under Thermal Treatment and Light Irradiation in Food Processing

  • John Shi;Ying Wu;Mike Bryan;Maguer, Le Marc
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 2002
  • Lycopene as a natural antioxidant may provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene concentrate extracted from tomatoes can be used as functional food. Lycopene would undergo degradation via isomerization and oxidation under different processing conditions, which impact its bioactivity and reduce the fuuctionality for health benefits. Heat and light induce lycopene oxidation and isomerization of all-trans form to cis form. The effects of thermal treatment and light irradiation on the stability of lycopene were determined. Results have shown that lycopene stability depends on the extent of oxidation and isomerization. Cir-isomers are less stable than trans-isomers. The level of cis-isomers increased as treatment time increased but only for a short period during the beginning of the treatment. The major effect of thermal treatment and light irradiation was a significant decrease in the total lycopene content. A true assessment of health benefits of lycopene concentrate depends on the lycopene content and the composition of all trans-isomers and cia-isomers.

Damage to the Cytoplasmic Membrane and Cell Death Caused by Lycopene in Candida albicans

  • Sung, Woo-Sang;Lee, In-Seon;Lee, Dong-Gun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1797-1804
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    • 2007
  • Lycopene, an acyclic carotenoid found in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and a number off fruits, has shown various biological properties, but its antifungal effects remain poorly understood. The current study investigated the antifungal activity of lycopene and its mode of action. Lycopene showed potent antifungal effects toward pathogenic fungi, tested in an energy-independent manner, with low hemolytic effects against human erythrocytes. To confirm the antifungal effects of lycopene, its effects on the dimorphism of Candida albicans induced by fetal bovine serum (FBS), which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a host invasion, were investigated. The results showed that lycopene exerted potent antifungal activity on the serum-induced mycelia of C. albicans. To understand the antifungal mode of action of lycopene, the action of lycopene against fungal cell membranes was examined by FACScan analysis and glucose and trehalose-release test. The results indicated that lycopene caused significant membrane damage and inhibited the normal budding process, resulting from the destruction of membrane integrity. The present study indicates that lycopene has considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

Formation of Acycloretinoic Acid by Autoxidation of Lycopene (Lycopene의 자동산화에 의한 Acycloretinoic acid의 생성)

  • Kim, Seon-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1437-1441
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    • 2000
  • Acycloretinoic acid was prepared from acycloretinal by oxidation with Tollens reagent. Acycloretinoic acid was separated with Silica-HPLC and analyzed by ODS-HPLC with a photodiode array detector and by GC-MS. Lycopene was solubilized in toluene and aqueous Tween 40, and then oxidized by incubating at $37^{\circ}C$ under atmospheric oxygen. Acidic compound was produced by autoxidation of lycopene. Retention time, UV-Vis spectra and mass spectra of the acidic compound were identical to the standard acycloretinoic acid. Thus, acycloretinoic acid was confirmed to occur in vitro under oxidation condition of lycopene.

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Lycopene-Induced Hydroxyl Radical Causes Oxidative DNA Damage in Escherichia coli

  • Lee, Wonyoung;Lee, Dong Gun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.1232-1237
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    • 2014
  • Lycopene, which is a well-known red carotenoid pigment, has been drawing scientific interest because of its potential biological functions. The current study reports that lycopene acts as a bactericidal agent by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Lycopene treatment elevated the level of ROS-in particular, hydroxyl radicals ($^*OH$)-which can damage DNA in E. coli. Lycopene-induced DNA damage in bacteria was confirmed and we also observed cell filamentation caused by cell division arrest, an indirect marker of the DNA damage repair system, in lycopene-treated E. coli. Increased RecA expression was observed, indicating activation of the DNA repair system (SOS response). To summarize, lycopene exerts its antibacterial effects by inducing $^*OH$-mediated DNA damage that cannot be ameliorated by the SOS response. Lycopene may be a clinically useful adjuvant for current antimicrobial therapies.

Novel Function of Lycopene in Vascular Endothelial Cell (Lycopene의 새로운 혈관내피세포 생리활성)

  • Cho, Jin-Gu;Kim, Sung-Hyen;Seo, Jeong-Hwa;Ahn, Sun-Young;Jeong, Eun-Sil;Park, Heon-Yong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1093-1099
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    • 2010
  • Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of Lycopene, an anti-cancer and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, we executed a series of experiments with vascular endothelial cells to disclose the cardiovascular functions of lycopene. From our in vitro experiments, lycopene was determined to act as a stimulant to induce endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In addition, lycopene was shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adhesion of THP-1 leukocytes to endothelial cells, as well as activating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK. Both ERK and p38 MAPK were involved in lycopene-induced cell proliferation, while JNK was involved in lycopene-dependent cell migration. Taken together, lycopene activates MAPK family members which regulate cell proliferation and migration. Lycopene differentially blocks LPS-dependent adhesion for THP-1 to endothelial cells, indicating that lycopene is likely to regulate a variety of vascular functions.

Lycopene supplementation suppresses oxidative stress induced by a high fat diet in gerbils

  • Choi, Soo-Kyong;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2013
  • The effect of lycopene supplementation on the antioxidant system was investigated by analyzing lipid peroxide levels, glutathione contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities in Mongolian gerbils fed a high fat diet. Gerbils were fed on each experimental diet for 6 weeks; normal diet (NC), normal diet with 0.05% lycopene (NL), high fat diet (HF), and a high fat diet with 0.05% lycopene (HFL). Dietary supplementation of lycopene increased hepatic lycopene level in gerbils fed a normal or high fat diet (P < 0.05). Liver and erythrocyte concentrations of lipid peroxide increased in gerbils fed a high fat diet, whereas lycopene supplementation decreased liver and erythrocyte concentrations of lipid peroxide (P < 0.05). Hepatic total glutathione content was higher in the NL group than that in the NC group (P < 0.05). Total antioxidant status in plasma increased following lycopene supplementation compared with that of the non-lycopene supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Hepatic catalase activity increased following dietary lycopene supplementation (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity in liver remained unchanged with lycopene supplementation, but erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity increased in NL group compared with NC group (P < 0.05). Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased in the NL group compared to NC group (P < 0.05). Liver and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly in the NL group compared to that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Liver glutathione reductase activity was higher in the NL group than that in the NC group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that lycopene supplementation may be efficient for preventing chronic diseases induced by oxidative stress related to high fat diet.