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A study on the Physiology of the Lung by 'Un Qi' and the clinical meaning of its Phyological Systems (폐장생리(肺臟生理)의 운기적(運氣的) 인식과 그 생리계통(生理系統)의 임상적 의의에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, Heung-Mook;Kim, Gil-Whon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 1997
  • This paper documents a study of the physiology of the lung. The aim of this paper is to better comprehend the physiological function of lung. To this end, the relationship between the physiological function of the lung and the characteristics of the 'Keum Un Qi Hua'(金運氣化), and the functional changes of the lung and its surrounding physiological systems have been studied in their relationship to the concept of the organism as a whole. The results of this study are as follows; The function of the lung is comprehended as corresponding to the 'Keum Un Qi Hua'. In visceral phenomenon, the lung has specific relations with the large intestine(大腸), nase(鼻), skin and hair(皮毛), sweat gland(汗孔), nasal mucus(涕), spirit(氣魄), grief and melancholy(憂 悲), the lung channel of hand-taiyin(手太陰肺經), the large intestine channel of hand-yangming(手陽明大腸經). This is called ‘the physiological systems of the lung’, and because these mutual relations reflect the functional changes of the lung, it is applied as the elementary knowledge to diagnose and treat the lung. For instance, a deficiency of the 'Qi‘ of the lung brings on an unconsolidated defending energy whose manifestations are sweating spontaneously as well as being susceptible to the common cold due to a diability in fighting against external pathogenic factors. Invasion of the lung by external pathogenic factors blocks the movement of the 'Qi' of the lung, which results in nasal obstraction. watery nasal discharge and a hyposmia. So the physiological functions and pathological changes of the lung can be determined by observing ’the physiological systems of the lung‘ based on the precepts of oriental medicine. As a result, the function of the lung is to be understood based on the characteristics of the 'Keum Un Qi Hua'. Furthermore we can know that the physiological systems of the lung mirrors the functional changes of the lung.

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A Study on Lung's function-Focus on "the office of assisting Heart, the administration come out Lung(相傅之官, 治節出焉)" - (폐(肺)의 기능(機能)에 대한 연구(硏究) - "상부지관(相傅之官), 치절출언(治節出焉)"을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Bang, Jung-Kyun
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.347-352
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    • 2009
  • In the "Somun(素問) Youngranbijeonron(靈蘭秘典論)", that describes the lung as "the office of assisting Heart, the administration come out Lung(相傅之官, 治節出焉)". The means of "the office of assisting Heart" is that Lung assist Heart and execute the Heart's order. The administration come out Lung has two means. The first, Lung administrates and controls the body. The second, Lung controls the Gi and blood(氣血). In the "Somun(素問) Gyeongmaekboulron(經脈別論)", that describes the creation of pectrol Gi(宗氣). The Essence derived from food(穀氣) digested in Stomach comes to Heart, and mixed Lung's Gi of respiration(呼吸之氣), than becomes a pectrol Gi(宗氣). The pectrol Gi(宗氣) controls the Gi and blood(氣血), and we can say that function is the administration come out Lung.

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Inhibition of Phospholipase $A_2$ Diminishes the Acute Alveolar Injury Induced by $Interleukin-1{\alpha}$

  • Lee, Young-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 1997
  • In an attempt to investigate the role of phospholipase $A_2$($PLA_2$) in interleukin-l (IL-l) induced acute lung injury, mepacrine was tried to inhibit $PLA_2$ in IL-l induced ARDS rats. For confirmation of acute lung injury by IL-l, and to know the role of neutrophils in this injury, lung leak index, lung myeloperoxidase(MPO), number of neutrophils and protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wet lung weight were measured. At the same time lung $PLA_2$ was measured to know the effect of IL-l on $PLA_2$ activity. Pulmonary surfactant was also measured for an investigation of type II alveolar cell function. Neutrophil adhesion assay was performed to know the effect of $PLA_2$ inhibition in vitro with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). For precise location of injury by IL-l, morpholgical study was performed by electron microscopy. Five hours after instillation of IL-l (50 ng/rat), lung leak index, protein content, number of neutrophils, lung MPO and wet lung weight were increased significantly. Five hours after IL-l instillation lung $PLA_2$ activity was increased significantly, and increased surfactant release was observed in IL-l induced ARDS rats' BAL. In contrast, in rats given mepacrine and IL-l, there was decrease of acute lung injury i.e. decrease of lung leak index, wet lung weight, protein content, number of neutrophils in BAL and decreased lung MPO activity. Mepacrine decreased surfactant release also. Interestingly, inhibition of $PLA_2$ decreased adhesion of human neutrophils to HUVEC in vitro. Morphologically, IL-l caused diffuse necrosis of endothelial cells, type I and II epithelial cells and increased the infiltration of neutrophils in the interstitium of the lung but after mepacrine treatment these pathological findings were lessened. On the basis of these experimental results it is suggested that $PLA_2$ has a major role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury mediated by neutrophil dependent manner in IL-l induced acute lung injury.

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MiRNA Molecular Profiles in Human Medical Conditions: Connecting Lung Cancer and Lung Development Phenomena

  • Aghanoori, Mohamad-Reza;Mirzaei, Behnaz;Tavallaei, Mahmood
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9557-9565
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    • 2014
  • MiRNAs are endogenous, single stranded ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and mediate negative post-transcriptional gene regulation through binding to 3'untranslated regions (UTR), possibly open reading frames (ORFs) or 5'UTRs of target mRNAs. MiRNAs are involved in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells, so dysregulation may be associated with diseases like cancer, and neurodegenerative, heart and other disorders. Among all cancers, lung cancer, with high incidence and mortality worldwide, is classified into two main groups: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Recent promising studies suggest that gene expression profiles and miRNA signatures could be a useful step in a noninvasive, low-cost and repeatable screening process of lung cancer. Similarly, every stage of lung development during fetal life is associated with specific miRNAs. Since lung development and lung cancer phenomena share the same physiological, biological and molecular processes like cell proliferation, development and shared mRNA or expression regulation pathways, and according to data adopted from various studies, they may have partially shared miRNA signature. Thus, focusing on lung cancer in relation to lung development in miRNA studies might provide clues for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

Reported Lung Adenocarcinoma with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis after Open Lung Biopsy (특발성 폐 섬유화증 환자에서 폐 생검후 발견된 폐 선암 치험 1예)

  • 최창우;허균;이재욱;원용순;고은석;신화균
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.1032-1035
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    • 2004
  • The specific diagnosis in diffuse interstitial lung disease may be obtained through open lung biopsy. Diffuse interstitial lung disease is often associated with lung cancer. We report one case of lung adenocarcinoma with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in whom previous open lung biopsy had been performed. We need general concepts about sites of open lung biopsy in these patients. Therefore, we report this case and document other references.

Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

  • Park, Ji Young;Jang, Seung Hun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.2
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 2016
  • Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%-56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%.

Expression of Tiam1 in Lung Cancer and its Clinical Significance

  • Wang, Hong-Ming;Wang, Jing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.613-615
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to ana1yze T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing factor 1 (Tiam1) expression in 1ung cancer patients. A total of 204 patients with lung cancer tissue lesions were enrolled in the present study, along with 40 cases of normal lung tissue and 40 of normal fetal lung tissue. Tiam1 protein expression level was determined using intensity quantitative analysis, for comparison in lung cancer, metastatic, normal lung, and fetal lung tissue. The positive unit (PU) of Tiam1 was $13.5{\pm}5.42$ in lung cancer,$5.67{\pm}1.56$ in norma1 epithelial cells, and $5.89{\pm}1.45$ in fetal lung epithelial cells. The value in the lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in the normal lung tissue and the fetal lung tissue (P<0.01). The Tiam1 PU values with lymph node metastasis and without 1ymph node metastasis were $15.2{\pm}4.34$ and $12.5{\pm}4.23$, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The Tiam1 PU values in different tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) stages, III-IV period, and I-II phase were $14.7{\pm}4.14$ and $11.0{\pm}5.34$ (P<0.05). A correlation was found between Tiam1 expression and the age of patient, tumor size, tumor type, and tumor differentiation. Tiam1 protein expression in the lung tumor tissue is significantly higher than that in the normal lung tissue and fetal lung tissue. Tiam1 expression may be closely related to lung cancer development and metastasis.

A Dual Lung Scan for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis before and after Treatment (폐결핵치료전후(肺結核治療前後) 방사성동위원소(放射性同位元素)스캔에 의(依)한 폐기능(肺機能)의 비교(比較))

  • Rhee, Chong-Heon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 1967
  • In 20 normal cases and 39 pulmonary tuberculosis cases, regional pulmonary arterial blood flow measurements and lung perfusion scans by $^{131}I$-Macroaggregated albumin, lung inhalation scans by colloidal $^{198}Au$ and spirometries by respirometer were done at the Radiological Research Institute. The measured lung function tests were compared and the results were as the following: 1. The normal distribution of pulmonary blood flow was found to be $54.5{\pm}2.82%$ to the right lung and $45.5{\pm}2.39%$ to the left lung. The difference between the right and left pulmonary arterial blood flow was significant statistically (p<0.01). In the minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be $52.5{\pm}5.3%$ to the right lung and $47.5{\pm}1.0%$ to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was in the right lung, and $56.2{\pm}4.4%$ to the right lung and $43.8{\pm}3.1%$ to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was in the left lung. The difference of pulmonary arterial blood flow between the right and left lung was statistically not significant compared with the normal distribution. In the moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the average distripution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be $26.9{\pm}13.9%$ to the right lung and $73.1{\pm}13.9%$ to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was more severe in the right lung, and $79.6{\pm}12.8%$ to the right lung and $20.4{\pm}13.0%$ to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was more severe in the left lung. These were found to be highly significant statistically compared with the normal distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow (p<0.01). When both lungs were evenly involved, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be $49.5{\pm}8.01%$ to the right lung and $50.5{\pm}8.01%$ to the left lung. In the far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be $18.5{\pm}11.6%$ to the right lung and $81.5{\pm}9.9%$ to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was more severe in the right lung, and $78.2{\pm}8.9%$ to the right lung and $21.8{\pm}10.5%$ to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was more severe in the left lung. These were found to be highly significant statistically compared with the normal distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow (p<0.01). When both lungs were evenly involved the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be $56.0{\pm}3.6%$ to the right lung and $44.0{\pm}3.2%$ to the left lung. 2. Lung perfusion scan by $^{131}I$-MAA in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was as follows: a) In the pretreated minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, the decreased area of pulmonary arterial blood flow was corresponding to the chest roentgenogram, but the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow was more extensive than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram in the apparently healed minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. b) In the pretreated moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the diseased area was corresponding to the chest roentgenogram, but the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow was more extensive in the treated moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis as in the treated minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. c) Pulmonary arterial blood flow in the patients with far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after chemotherapy were almost similar to the chest roentgenogram. Especially the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the cavity was usually greater than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram. 3. Lung inhalation scan by colloidal $^{198}Au$ in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was as follows: a) In the minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, lung inhalation scan showed almost similar decrease of radioactivity corresponding to the chest roentgenogram. b) In the moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis the decrease of radioactivity in the diseased area was partly corresponding to the chest roentgenogram in one hand and on the other hand the radioactivity was found to be normally distributed in stead of tuberculous lesion in the chest roentgenogram. c) In the far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, lung inhalation scan showed almost similar decrease of radioactivity corresponding to the chest roentgenogram as in the minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. 4. From all these results, it was found that the characteristic finding in pulmonary tuberculosis was a decrease in pulmonary arterial blood flow to the diseased area and in general decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the diseased area was more extensive than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram, especially in the treated group. Lung inhalation scan showed almost similar distribution of radioactivity corresponding to the chest roentgenogram in minimal and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, but there was a variability in the moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. The measured values obtained from spirometry were parallel to the tuberculous lesion in chest roentgenogram.

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Bilateral Sequential Lung Transplantation for a case with Respiratory Failure due to Lymphagioleiomyomatosis (림프관평활근종증에 의한 호흡부전 환자에서의 순차적양측 폐이식 치험)

  • 성숙환;김주현;김영태;서정욱;유철규;김영환;한성구;심영수;오용석
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2000
  • Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a chronic destruct8ive disease of the lung affecting women of childbearing ages which eventually leads to respiratory failure. Lung transplantation is the only conclusive therapeutic measure because this disease responds poorly to other therapies, To date only a few reports in the literature describes the clinical experience of the bilateral sequential lung transplantation of this rare condition. We performed a bilateral sequential lung transplantation on a 32-year-old woman suffering from lymphangioleiomyo-matosisw. The heart-lung block was harvested from a 51-year-old donor. We transplanted the left lung first through the clam-shell incision. As the hemodynamics deteriorated suddenly during the dissection of the right lung the right lung was transplanted under the cardio-pulmonary bypass. Although the patient's lung function was initially satisfactory the patient died of sepsis and subsequent cardiogenic shock at the postoperative 18th day. Autopsy findings showed infection of Candida albicans on the pericardium and the left lung which had been initiated possibly from the left bronchial anastomosis site,. Through detailed review of the clinical course we concluded that lung transplantation could have been performed safely on this disease provided that early diagnosis and proper management or the oppor-tunistic infection have been carried out.

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Open Lung Biopsy for Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease (미만성 폐질환에 대한 폐생검의 의의)

  • 김해균
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.24 no.9
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    • pp.903-906
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    • 1991
  • Retrospective review of 26 patients undergoing open lung biopsy at the Yonsei University during 10 years period was conducted to evaluate open lung biopsy for DILD. From January 1980 to August 1990, open lung biopsy was performed in 26 patients through a limited thoracotomy incision[a limited anterior or a posterolateral thoracotomy]. Open lung biopsy was indicated for diffuse interstitial pulmonary diseases undiagnosed by indirect clinical and radiological diagnostic methods. The types of incision were limited anterior[11] and limited posterolateral[15]. Preoperative evaluation of the lung disease included sputum culture[26], sputum cytology [19], bronchoscopy[9] and TBLB[7]. In 23 patients the histologic appearances after open lung biopsy were sufficiently specific histologic pictures to confirm diagnosis. The results of the biopsies changed usual therapeutic plan in 17 patients among them. The complications were resp. insufficiency[3], pulmonary ed6ma[3], sepsis[2], and others[3] in 6 patients. Diagnosis from the open lung biopsy was included respiratory pneumonia[7], fibrosis[7], infection[5], malignancy[2], others[5]. 4 patients died of respiratory insufficiency. The causes of the other three death were not due to direct result of the biopsy itself. Open lung biopsy in the patient with a diffuse infiltrative lung disease is an one of the accurate diagnostic method and frequently leads to change of the therapeutic plans. So we conclude that open lung biopsy remains our diagnostic method of choice in diffuse infiltrative lung disease undetermined etiology.

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